Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death. He was the last king of the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, his defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays; when his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard's orders.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry's forces defeated Richard's army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain. Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII. Richard's corpse was buried without pomp, his original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church; the University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, the twelfth of 13 children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, his childhood coincided with the beginning of what has traditionally been labelled the'Wars of the Roses', a period of political instability and periodic open civil war in England during the second half of the fifteenth century, between the Yorkists, who supported Richard's father, opposed the regime of Henry VI and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, the Lancastrians, who were loyal to the crown. When his father and the Nevilles were forced to flee to Ludlow in 1459, Richard and his older brother, George were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, the Archbishop of Canterbury; when his father and elder brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, Richard and George were sent by their mother to the Low Countries. They returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
They participated in the coronation of Richard's eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. Edward appointed him the sole Commissioner of Array for the Western Counties in 1464, when he was 11. By the age of 17, he had an independent command. Richard spent several years during his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin the Earl of Warwick known as the Kingmaker because of his role in the Wars of the Roses. Warwick supervised Richard's training as a knight: in the autumn of 1465 Edward IV granted Warwick £1000 for the expenses of his younger brother's tutelage. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, when he was 12 or from 1465 until his coming of age in 1468, when he turned 16. While at Warwick's estate, it is that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter in his life, Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville.
It is possible that at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters and Anne: young aristocrats were sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners, as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match. During Warwick's lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the king's permission. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. Richard and Edward were forced to flee to Burgundy in October 1470 after Warwick defected to the side of the former Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, the brothers could expect a welcome there. Edward was restored to the throne in the spring 1471, following the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, both of which the eighteen-year-old Richard played a crucial role.
During his adolescence
Elizabethan architecture refers to buildings of aesthetic ambition constructed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland from 1558–1603. The era sits between the long era of dominant architectural patronage of ecclesiastical buildings by the Catholic Church which ended abruptly at the Dissolution of the Monasteries from c.1536, the advent of a court culture of pan-European artistic ambition under James I. Stylistically, Elizabethan architecture is notably pluralistic, it came at the end of insular traditions in design and construction called the Perpendicular style in church building, the fenestration, vaulting techniques and open truss designs of which affected the detail of larger domestic buildings. However, English design had become open to the influence of early printed architectural texts imported to England by ecclesiasts as early as the 1480s. Into the sixteenth century, illustrated continental pattern-books introduced a wide range of architectural examplars, fuelled by the archaeology of classical Rome which inspired myriad printed designs of increasing elaboration and abstraction.
As church building turned to the construction of great houses for courtiers and merchants, these novelties accompanied a nostalgia for native history as well as huge divisions in religious identity, plus the influence of continental mercantile and civic buildings. Insular traditions of construction and materials never disappeared; these varied influences on patrons who could favour conservatism or great originality confound attempts to neatly classify Elizabethan architecture. This era of cultural upheaval and fusions corresponds to what is termed Mannerism and Late Cinquecento in Italy, French Renaissance architecture in France, the Plateresque style in Spain. In contrast to her father Henry VIII, Elizabeth commissioned no new royal palaces, few new churches were built, but there was a great boom in building domestic houses for the well-off due to the redistribution of ecclesiastical lands after the Dissolution; the most characteristic type, for the well-off, is the showy prodigy house, using styles and decoration derived from Northern Mannerism, but with elements retaining signifiers of medieval castles, such as the busy roofline.
The reign of Elizabeth saw growing prosperity, contemporaries remarked on the pace of secular building among the well-off. The somewhat tentative influence of Renaissance architecture is seen in the great houses of courtiers, but lower down the social scale large numbers of sizeable and comfortable houses were built in developing vernacular styles by farmers and townspeople. Civic and institutional buildings were becoming common. Renaissance architecture had achieved some influence in England during the reign of, in the palaces of, Henry VIII, who imported a number of Italian artists. Unlike Henry, Elizabeth built no new palaces, instead encouraging her courtiers to build extravagantly and house her on her summer progresses; the style they adopted was more influenced by the Northern Mannerism of the Low countries than Italy, among other features it used versions of the Dutch gable, Flemish strapwork in geometric designs. Both of these features can be again at Montacute House. Flemish craftsmen succeeded the Italians.
However most continental influence came from books, there were a number of English "master masons" who were in effect architects, in great demand, so that their work is widely spread around the country. Important examples of Elizabethan architecture include: Audley End Blickling Hall Charterhouse Condover Hall Danny House Hatfield House Longleat House Wollaton Hall Rainthorpe HallIn England, the Renaissance first manifested itself in the distinct form of the prodigy house, large and tall houses such as Longleat House, built by courtiers who hoped to attract the queen for a ruinously expensive stay, so advance their careers; these buildings have an elaborate and fanciful roofline, hinting at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture. It was at this time that the long gallery became popular in English houses; this was mainly used for walking in, a growing range of parlours and withdrawing rooms supplemented the main living room for the family, the great chamber. The great hall was now used by the servants, as an impressive point of entry to the house.
Robert Adams William Arnold Simon Basil Robert Lyminge Robert Smythson John Thorpe or Thorp Tudorbethan and Jacobethan, revivals derived from Elizabethan architecture Notes Airs, The Buildings of Britain, A Guide and Gazetteer and Jacobean, 1982, Barrie & Jenkins, ISBN 0091478316 Girouard, Life in the English Country House: A Social and Architectural History 1978, Penguin etc. Jenkins, England's Thousand Best Houses, 2003, Allen Lane, ISBN 0713995963 Summerson, Architecture in Britain, 1530 to 1830, 1993 edition, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300058861, ISBN 9780300058864 Shaw, Henry. Details of Elizabethan architecture. London: William Pickering – plates of architectural details
Richard Weston (treasurer)
Sir Richard Weston, KB, of Sutton Place in Surrey, was a courtier and diplomat who served as Governor of Guernsey, Treasurer of Calais and Under-Treasurer of the Exchequer during the reign of King Henry VIII. He was born about 1465/6, the eldest son of Edmund Weston of Boston in Lincolnshire by his wife Catherine Cammel and heiress of Robert Cammel of Fiddleford in Dorset, he quartered the canting arms of Cammel of Shapwick, Dorset: Argent, three camels sable. His brother was Sir William Weston, the last Prior of the Order of St John in England, deemed Premier Baron of England. After his accession on 22 May 1509, Henry VIII appointed Weston to several offices, including that of governor of Guernsey. In 1511, Weston served under Thomas, Lord Darcy, in the English contingent sent to assist King Ferdinand of Spain in his campaign against the Moors. Upon his return, Weston received considerable honour, he was knighted by Henry VIII in 1514 and from 1516 was in personal attendance on the king as Knight of the Body.
On 3 January 1518, he was dubbed Knight of the Bath. In 1519, he was one of the four "sad and ancient knights" who were "put into the king's privy chamber". In 1520, he followed Henry to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. In 1521, he sat on the jury which condemned Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham; the manor of Sutton was granted to him on the day of the Duke of Buckingham's execution. In 1523, Weston served under 1st Duke of Suffolk, in France, he served as knight of the shire for Berkshire in 1529. His main residences were Cranbourne Lodge, where he was the keeper, Ufton Court, both in Berkshire, Sutton Place, the last two being granted to him by the king. In 1533, Henry VIII paid a state visit to Sutton. Thomas Cromwell was a guest there later. In 1539, Weston was appointed to meet Anne of Cleves on her arrival in England, he must have been over seventy years of age. In 1542, he surrendered his post of sub-treasurer of England "ob senectutem debilitatam et continuam infirmitatem" and died on 7 August.
He was buried in his family chapel in Guildford. His eldest son, predeceased him, so Francis's son, Henry Watson, succeeded at age six to his grandfather's estates. Frederic Harrison wrote: There is hardly a single state ceremony or event during the eighth Henry's reign in which he is not recorded to have part. A bare list of the offices he held would fill some pages, he is a soldier, ambassador, treasurer, privy councillor, judge of the Court of Wards. He married Anne Sandys, a daughter of Oliver Sandys of Shere, one of the Gentlewomen of Queen Catherine of Aragon, by whom he had a son and two daughters as follows: Sir Francis Weston, only son and heir apparent, arrested as one of the alleged lovers of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, his father is said to have offered all the family had to gain his son a pardon, but Sir Francis was executed in 1536. Margaret Weston. Baker, T. F. T.. "Sir Richard, of Sutton Place, Surr.". In Bindoff, S. T; the History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558.
Boydell and Brewer. Harrison, Frederic. "III". Annals of an Old Manor House. London: Macmillan and co. pp. 37–81. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Clarke, Ernest. "Weston, Richard". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 60. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 363–364. Endnotes: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and Gardiner, passim. 133, 134. Royal Berkshire History: Sir Richard Weston
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse, including Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad, for his translation of Homer, he is the second-most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, he suffered from respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. His poor health alienated him from society, though he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, he never married. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals earned him instant fame; this was followed by An Essay on Criticism in May 1711, well received. Pope's most famous poem is The Rape of the Lock, first published in 1712. A mock-epic, it satirises a high-society quarrel between Arabella Fermor and Lord Petre, who had snipped a lock of hair from her head without her permission; the poem brought into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency.
He made many enemies throughout his career, with his fierce satire and criticisms of prominent figures, at one point deemed it necessary to carry pistols while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope wrote little, toyed with the idea of a patriotic epic called Brutus, but only the opening lines survive, he revised and expanded his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces", but his real target is Whig politician Horace Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms". Alexander Pope was born in 1688 to Alexander Pope Senior, a linen merchant of Plough Court, Lombard Street and his wife Edith, who were both Catholics. Edith's sister Christiana was the wife of the famous miniature painter Samuel Cooper.
Pope's education was affected by the enacted Test Acts, which upheld the status of the established Church of England and banned Catholics from teaching, attending a university, voting, or holding public office on penalty of perpetual imprisonment. Pope was taught to read by his aunt, went to Twyford School in about 1698/99, he went on to two Roman Catholic schools in London. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas. In 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest; this was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Papists from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster. Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. Pope's formal education ended at this time, from on he educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.
He studied many languages and read works by English, Italian and Greek poets. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, William Walsh. At Binfield, he began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had made many acquaintances in the London literary world, he introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet, who helped Pope revise his first major work, The Pastorals. He met the Blount sisters and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems including Pott's disease, which deformed his body and stunted his growth, leaving him with a severe hunchback, his tuberculosis infection caused other health problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, abdominal pain. He grew to a height of only 1.37 m. Pope was removed from society because he was Catholic.
Although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, including Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. His lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover. In May, 1709, Pope's Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonson's Poetical Miscellanies; this earned Pope instant fame, was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, well received. Around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club; the aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus. He made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim. During Pope's friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addison's play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator. Around this time he began the work of translating the Iliad, a painstaking process – publication began in 1715 and did not end until 1720.
In 1714, the political situation worsened with the death of Queen Anne and the disputed succession between the Hanoverians and the Jacobites, l
Ufton Nervet is a village and civil parish in West Berkshire, England centred 6 miles west south-west of the large town of Reading. Ufton Nervet has an elected civil parish council. Ufton Nervet is a strip parish about 4.5 miles long and up to 1 mile wide, running north-northwest – south-southeast between the Kennet valley and the crest of low hills in its south. It is bounded to the north by the A4 road, to the south by a minor road linking Burghfield and Tadley, to the west and east by a mixture of field boundaries and minor roads, it includes a section of the River Kennet, the Kennet Navigation and the railway between Reading and Taunton. Ufton Nervet village is a clustered one close to the parish's eastern boundary, less than a mile from Burghfield Common and Sulhamstead. Two minor roads link the village with the A4, crossing the canal and the railway line in the valley bottom. Both lanes cross the canal by swing bridges; the smaller crosses the railway by a level crossing. The larger crosses the railway by a bridge.
Other lanes link the village with Sulhamstead Abbots and Mortimer. Its direct link with Padworth to the west is a footpath past Ufton Court. Excavation of a site at Ufton Green found a number of scattered Mesolithic stone artefacts, they are interpreted as evidence of stone-working to make weapons. The toponym "Ufton" is derived from the Old English Uffa-tūn = "Uffa's farmstead". Three manors have existed in this area: Ufton Nervet and Ufton Pole; the Domesday Book records the first two. The original Ufton Nervet called Ufton Richard, was about 0.7 miles northwest of the current village, at the current site of Ufton Green. It had its own parish church of St John the Baptist, the ruined west wall of which survives and is a scheduled monument; the place was named after Richard Neyrvut corrupted to Nervet, who held the manor in the 13th century. Ufton Robert manor house was just west of the current village, its moat and a set of three medieval fishponds survive and are a scheduled monument. An artificial stream, controlled by a set of sluices, fed ponds.
Excavations in the 19th century found a gateway and other foundations. The Perkyns family held the manor from about 1411; when they bought the manor of Ufton Pole in 1560 they merged the two manors and moved the main residence to Ufton Pole. This is now a large Elizabethan manor house about 0.6 miles southwest of the village. The house was built in about 1568, altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, restored in 1838 and is now a Grade I listed building. In 1434–35 the parishes of Ufton Nervet and Ufton Robert were merged and Ufton Robert's parish church of St Peter was made the church of the merged parish. Although the original parish of Ufton Nervet had ceased to exist, this became the name of the current village and parish. After the merger, Ufton Robert's parish church of St John the Baptist fell into decay, but its west wall survived by being adopted as the dividing wall between two cottages. In 1886 the cottages were demolished, re-exposing the west wall which now stands isolated in a pasture.
The Church of England parish church of Saint Peter was built in 1862 on the site of an earlier church. It is a Gothic Revival rendition of 14th-century Decorated Gothic; the walls are predominantly rag-stone with ashlar dressings. It has a chancel, north chapel, nave of three bays, west tower with tall octagonal shingled spire, south porch; the present St Peter's contains church monuments salvaged from the old church. They include one to Richard Perkins with Corinthian columns, one to Francis and Anna Perkyns with recumbent effigies and a brass to William and Constantia Smith. St Peter's has stained glass windows from two London makers: Charles Clutterbuck and Lavers and Barraud. In front of the porch is a mature yew tree; the church is redundant as its ecclesiastical parish church is today that of Sulhamstead Abbots and Bannister with Ufton Nervet, in the upper part of Sulhamstead. The River Kennet flows through the north of the parish. Between 1718 and 1723 it was made navigable by digging a series of cuts controlled by locks.
One 3-mile cut starts about 1 mile downstream from Aldermaston and ends at Ufton Bridge, where it was controlled by Ufton Lock. The lock gates have now been removed but the lock chamber survives. Between 1794 and 1810 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built from Newbury to Bath; the Kennet Navigation is now managed as part of the canal. The Berks line of the Berks and Hants Railways from Reading to Hungerford was built through the north of the parish and opened in 1847; the nearest station remains Aldermaston, 3.5 miles by road. The Ufton Nervet crash took place in the parish on 6 November 2004. Seven people were killed and 70 injured when the main service from London Paddington to Plymouth which passes through here was derailed by colliding with a stationary car on the level crossing. Road deaths at the crossing have followed in 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014. Page, W. H.. H. eds.. A History of the County of Berkshire. Victoria County History. 3. Assisted by John Hautenville Cope. London: The St Katherine Press.
Pp. 437–444. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Berkshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 246
Berkshire is one of the home counties in England. It was recognised by the Queen as the Royal County of Berkshire in 1957 because of the presence of Windsor Castle, letters patent were issued in 1974. Berkshire is a county of historic origin, a ceremonial county and a non-metropolitan county without a county council; the county town is Reading. The River Thames formed the historic northern boundary, from Buscot in the west to Old Windsor in the east; the historic county therefore includes territory, now administered by the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire in Oxfordshire, but excludes Caversham and five less populous settlements in the east of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. All the changes mentioned, apart from the change to Caversham, took place in 1974; the towns of Abingdon, Faringdon and Wantage were transferred to Oxfordshire, the six places joining came from Buckinghamshire. Berkshire County Council was the main local government of most areas from 1889 to 1998 and was based in Reading, the county town which had its own County Borough administration.
Since 1998, Berkshire has been governed by the six unitary authorities of Bracknell Forest, Slough, West Berkshire and Maidenhead and Wokingham. The ceremonial county borders Oxfordshire, Greater London, Surrey and Hampshire. No part of the county is more than 8.5 miles from the M4 motorway. According to Asser's biography of King Alfred, written in 893 AD, its old name Bearrocscir takes its name from a wood of box trees, called Bearroc; this wood no longer extant, was west of Frilsham, near Abingdon. Berkshire has been the scene of some notable battles through its history. Alfred the Great's campaign against the Danes included the Battles of Englefield and Reading. Newbury was the site of two English Civil War battles: the First Battle of Newbury in 1643 and the Second Battle of Newbury in 1644; the nearby Donnington Castle was reduced to a ruin in the aftermath of the second battle. Another Battle of Reading took place on 9 December 1688, it was the only substantial military action in England during the Glorious Revolution and ended in a decisive victory for forces loyal to William of Orange.
Reading became the new county town in 1867. Under the Local Government Act 1888, Berkshire County Council took over functions of the Berkshire Quarter Sessions, covering the administrative county of Berkshire, which excluded the county borough of Reading. Boundary alterations in the early part of the 20th century were minor, with Caversham from Oxfordshire becoming part of the Reading county borough, cessions in the Oxford area. On 1 April 1974, Berkshire's boundaries changed under the Local Government Act 1972. Berkshire took over administration of Slough and Eton and part of the former Eton Rural District from Buckinghamshire; the northern part of the county became part of Oxfordshire, with Faringdon and Abingdon and their hinterland becoming the Vale of White Horse district, Didcot and Wallingford added to South Oxfordshire district. 94 Signal Squadron still keep the Uffington White Horse in their insignia though the White Horse is now in Oxfordshire. The original Local Government White Paper would have transferred Henley-on-Thames from Oxfordshire to Berkshire: this proposal did not make it into the Bill as introduced.
On 1 April 1998 Berkshire County Council was abolished under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, the districts became unitary authorities. Unlike similar reforms elsewhere at the same time, the non-metropolitan county was not abolished. Signs saying "Welcome to the Royal County of Berkshire" exist on borders of West Berkshire, on the east side of Virginia Water, on the M4 motorway, on the south side of Sonning Bridge, on the A404 southbound by Marlow, northbound on the A33 past Stratfield Saye. A flag for the historic county of Berkshire was registered with the Flag Institute in 2017. All of the county is drained by the Thames. Berkshire divides into two topological sections: west of Reading. North-east Berkshire has the low calciferous m-shaped bends of the Thames south of, a broader, gravelly former watery plain or belt from Earley to Windsor and beyond, are parcels and belts of uneroded higher sands, flints and acid soil and in north of the Bagshot Formation, north of Surrey and Hampshire.
Swinley Forest known as Bracknell Forest, Windsor Great Park and Stratfield Saye Woods have many pine, silver birch and other acid-soil trees. East of the grassy and wooded bends a large minority of East Berkshire's land mirrors the clay belt being of low elevation and on the left bank of the Thames: Slough, Eton Wick, Wraysbury and Datchet. In the heart of the county Reading's northern suburb Caversham is on that bank but rises steeply into the Chiltern Hills. Two main tributaries skirt past Reading, the Loddon and its sub-tributary the Blackwater draining parts of two counties south and the Kennet draining part of upland Wiltshire in the west. Heading west the reduced, but large, part of county becomes further from the Thames which flows from the north-north-west before the Goring Gap. To the south, the land crests along the bo