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Uganda

Uganda the Republic of Uganda is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by violent conflicts, including an 8-year-long far right military dictatorship led by Idi Amin.

Additionally, a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties. The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken, including Acholi, Runyankole, Rukiga and Lusoga. The current president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential age limit. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika.

Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annexe Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.

In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.

Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.

The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that

Walterclough Hall

Walterclough Hall, sometimes known as Water Clough Hall or Upper Walterclough, lies in the Walterclough Valley southeast of Halifax and northeast of the village of Southowram in the West Riding of Yorkshire, alongside the Red Beck. The Hall was built by the Hemingway family, first recorded there in 1379 and in residence until 1654. In that year Walterclough Hall was bought by William Walker; the initials of his second son, Abraham Walker, of his wife Anne née Langley, were inscribed on the building. They were subject to the restrictions and harassments of the day, their second son, Richard Walker, inherited the Hall from his father, when he drowned in a canal, his son John Walker inherited the Hall from him. John Walker was the squire of Walterclough Hall in the mid-18th century and a woollen factor of great prestige and wealth. While he and his wife, Ruth née Nodder, had four children—Richard, John and Mary —they adopted his nephew, Jack Sharp, provided a home for four aunts and two uncles. John Walker’s youngest son, took no part in the business, so when his eldest son Richard died and John senior retired and left the district, Jack Sharp was left in possession of the business and the Hall, which he consumed with calculated avarice.

In 1771, when John senior died, his surviving son John junior gave his cousin notice to quit the Hall. When he arrived from York with his new wife, he found the estate had been excessively mortgaged and most of the contents of the Hall had been removed. Only two rooms remained furnished, what was left behind had been trashed. In 1778, Jack Sharp built Law House from the proceeds of his villainy on nearby Law Hill. Miss Patchett established a Ladies Academy at Law House, Emily Brontë taught there for six months in 1837-38, her experiences at Law House and the now legendary story is believed to be the source for her only novel, Wuthering Heights. In April 1867, the estate of the other Walker family of Crows Nest was sold by auction; this included most of the land at Hipperholme and Bailiff Bridge, as well as Crow’s Nest Mansion and Cliffe Hill Mansion. What happened to Walterclough Hall at this time is not yet known. However, by 1870, Walterclough Hall had become a young ladies boarding academy. Elizabeth Ann Gregory ran the academy with her sister and their sickly live-in brother, Charles.

She employed four staff members. In 1871, there were two governesses, a cook, a housemaid, and, in 1881, a governess, a cook, a kitchen maid, a housemaid, she may have employed four children, paying them with an education, free board, lodging. For the 1871 census, 18 young ladies were in residence, aged 11 to 19, all from more distant parts. Simpson, Catherine Brown, Annie S. Aspinwall, Eleanor S. Graves, Mary I. Marsden, Marian Lomas, Sarah I. Speak, Clara Slack, Alberta Hellowell, Margaret Dempster, Gertrude Glendinning, Annie Bancroft, Elizabeth Wrigley, Amy Percival, Mary D. Hamilton. There were four young children, Francis Churchyard, Mary A. Stocks, William Town, Arthur Town. For the 1881 census, 14 young ladies were in residence, aged 14 to 17, but aged 15 and 16, over half from the surrounding region: Julia Bancroft, Anne M Kirby, Fanney Longworth, Kate White, Mary A. Whitiker, Faney M. Scarby, Kate M. Smeeton, Ada Thomas, Lucy Lumb, Mary Blenkhorn, Florence Hirst, Annie Whitaker, Mary A. Bleasdale, Susan Bentley.

There were four young local children: Rhoda Hoyle, Ethel Greenwood, Charles P. Greenwood, Joe Walsh. However, the changing demographics of the academy suggest the school’s reputation was in decline along with its finances. Whatever happened, the school closed after a few years, the staff were discharged. In 1888, Walterclough Pit, the largest and last coal pit in the area, was opened nearby, in 1889, Charles Gregory died; these contributed to the academy’s ultimate demise. Nonetheless, by 1891, Emma Gregory was living alone at the Hall retired. By 1901, the two sisters were again living together nearby in Halifax. Emma died in 1909, Elizabeth in 1920. By 1913, when Arthur Comfort sketched Walterclough Hall, it was entirely unoccupied and in an advanced state of dilapidation with many broken windows and the interior in disarray. During the Second World War, Walterclough Hall's windows were shattered by a bomb dropped nearby by a German bomber. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, the only part of Walterclough Hall which remained standing was the façade onto the yard and the rooms behind it, together with the attached single-storey kitchen.

These remnants were demolished in the late 1970s. An oil painting of the kitchen's interior was on display in the Smith Art Gallery in Brighouse during the 1970s; this painting showed one of the kitchen's unusual features, a carved stone column which supported one of the roof joists. The kitchen ceiling was open to the slates. Water was supplied to a stone trough in the kitchen floor from a spring, which caused the death of one of the children living at the hall. Today, the site of the former Walterclough Hall is part of Walterclough Hall Farm of Walterclough Lane, Halifax. Hemingway One-Name Study The Genealogy of the Walker Family of Halifax, Yorkshire 35.- Walterclough Hall, Southowram in Ancient Halls in and about Halifax by Arthur Comfort, Halifax Courier Ltd, Halifax 1912-13. Hemingways of Walterclough in Transactions of The Halifax Antiquarian Society by John Lister, Halifax 1908

Benjamin Bosse

Benjamin Bosse was the mayor of Evansville, from 1914 until his death in 1922. During his term as mayor Bosse oversaw that the horse-drawn fire carriages were replaced, the Evansville Police Department moved into a separate Police Station, the paving of most downtown streets were paved with brick, the city built several new public markets; the city's Public Recreation Department was formed, resulting in the construction of Evansville’s first public playgrounds, tennis courts and swimming pools. He was a supporter of Frank Fausch, who founded Evansville's National Football League team, the Evansville Crimson Giants; when he was elected mayor in 1913 Bosse. One of the most notable quotes attributed to Bosse is, "When everyone Boosts, everyone wins." Bosse Field, Evansville's minor league baseball stadium, was named for Benjamin Bosse in honor of his "great encouragement and support" to the development of an athletic program in the local schools. Benjamin Bosse High School is named after Bosse, who bought the school's land and financed the building of the school.

Bosse died in 1922, the same year construction began on the school. Benjamin Bosse High School Bosse Field Evansville Crimson Giants The Political Graveyard Bosse Field facts Maltby, Marc S.. "The Early Struggles Of Professional Football: Evansville, Indiana". Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 14: 1–8. Archived from the original on 2010-10-07