Giant Robot (magazine)
Giant Robot was a bi-monthly magazine of Asian and Asian American popular culture founded in Southern California in 1994. It was created as a small, punk-minded magazine that featured Asian pop culture and Asian American alternative culture, including such varied subject matter as history, music, books, technology and skateboarding; the publication grew from its original format—a small, photocopied zine and stapled by hand—to its current full-color format. Giant Robot was one of the earliest American publications to feature prominent Asian film stars such as Chow Yun-fat and Jet Li, as well as Asian musicians from indie and punk rock bands; the coverage expanded into art, Asian American issues and much more. In the late 1990s, Giant Robot expanded their endeavor to an online retail store selling artist goods, designer vinyl dolls, mini-figures, plush dolls, art, T-shirts, many creative goods; the success of the commercial website enabled the establishment of a brick-and-mortar retail store in 2001.
A third store, called GR2, was opened in Los Angeles, features work by young contemporary artists. Giant Robot further expanded to a fourth store in New York City, a fifth in Silverlake, as well as a restaurant called gr/eats in Los Angeles; the GR2, San Francisco, New York locations feature monthly art exhibitions from up and coming and established artists. In 2007, Giant Robot published its 50th issue and celebrated with an art exhibition at the Japanese American National Museum titled, "Giant Robot Biennale: 50 Issues." A follow-up exhibition entitled "Giant Robot Biennale 2: 15 Years" was held at the museum in 2009. Nakamura and Wong are featured on the DVD release of the collection of animated short films The Animatrix, discussing anime in the Making of the Animatrix documentary; as of 2009, the Silverlake store has closed. The New York store closed in 2010 and the San Francisco store closed in 2011. Giant Robot has an association with Lost Weekend Video in the Mission District of San Francisco where they opened a pop-up shop.
In 2010, Giant Robot presented Zen Garage at the Japanese American National Museum featuring the Scion xb Famicom Car designed by Eric Nakamura, will present Giant Robot Biennale 3 in 2012. The last issue of the magazine, #68, was released in February 2011 featuring the work of Luke Chueh on the cover. In 2011, Giant Robot launched their new website and updates content including articles and products daily. On September 22, 2012, Eric Nakamura curated Giant Robot Biennale 3 at the Japanese American National Museum; the opening night brought in over 1500 people. The exhibition features the works of Rob Sato, Deth P. Sun, Ako Castuera, Eishi Takaoka, Saelee Oh, Sean Chao, Albert Reyes, Zach Gage. Using figures designed by Uglydoll creator David Horvath, Nakamura curated Project Remix, a custom vinyl show with over 80 artists from seven countries—including the rare combination of both established customizers and fine artists. Special additions to the exhibition include an original piece from Japanese painter Masakatsu Sashie as well as arcade machines running Jeni Yang and Beau Blyth’s new indie video game, Catburger.
On April 19, 2014, Eric Nakamura and Carin Adams curated SuperAwesome: Art and Giant Robot at Oakland Museum of California. Artists Included: Ako Castuera, Sean Chao, David Choe, Luke Chueh, Hamburger Eyes, Andrew Hem, James Jean, Masakatsu Sashie, Shizu Saldamando, Rob Sato, Amy Sol, Deth P Sun, Adrian Tomine; the exhibition ran until June 27, 2014. On April 18, 2015, Eric Nakamura curated Samurai! at Worcester Art Museum in Worcester, Massachusetts. The exhibition features contemporary art. Artists include: Murals by Andrew Hem, Mari Inukai, Audrey Kawasaki. On view: Miya Ando, Esao Andrews, Shawn Cheng, Josh Cochran, Moira Hahn, Jed Henry, James Jean, kozyndan, Mu Pan, Ferris Plock, Stan Sakai, Masakatsu Sashie, Rob Sato, Yuko Shimizu, Katsuya Terada, Kent Williams; the exhibition will run until September 6, 2015. Eric Nakamura interview on Notebook on Cities and Culture Eric Nakamura interview with Left Field Project YouTube video Vans interviews Eric Nakamura YouTube video The Hundreds interviews Eric Nakamura YouTube video Ken Tanaka interviews Eric Nakamura TCI Podcast review of Giant Robot Interview of Eric Nakamura and Martin Wong Walker museum Walker.org Interview of Eric Nakamura and Martin Wong UCLA International Institute Eric Nakamura interview Nylon magazine Eric Nakamura interview G4TV.com Eric Nakamura interview Rafu Shimpo Eric Nakamura and Martin Wong interview NPR Eric Nakamura and Martin Wong interview OC Register Eric Nakamura interview Palisadian-Post Eric Nakamura interview Neon Forest Gallery Eric Nakamura interview Discover Nikkei Eric Nakamura interview Fox is Black' LA Weekly – Giant Robot Biennale 3 Japanese American National Museum – Giant Robot Biennale 3 Giant Robot official website Giant Robot Store official website
The IT Crowd
The IT Crowd is a British sitcom broadcast by Channel 4, written by Graham Linehan, produced by Ash Atalla and starring Chris O'Dowd, Richard Ayoade, Katherine Parkinson, Matt Berry. Set in the offices of the fictional Reynholm Industries, the programme revolves around the three staff members of its IT department: coding genius Maurice Moss, work-shy Roy Trenneman, Jen Barber, the department head/relationship manager who knows nothing about IT; the programme focuses on the bosses of Reynholm Industries: Denholm Reynholm and his son Douglas. Goth IT technician Richmond Avenal, who resides in the dark server room features in a number of episodes; the comedy premiered on Channel 4 on 3 February 2006, ran for four series of six episodes each. Although a fifth series was commissioned, it was not produced; the programme was concluded with a special, one-off episode, that aired on 27 September 2013. The programme has become a cult television series; the IT Crowd is set in the offices of Reynholm Industries, a fictional British corporation in central London, located at 123 Carenden Road.
It focuses on the shenanigans of three members of the IT support team located in a dingy and unkempt basement – a great contrast to the shining modern architecture and stunning London views enjoyed by the rest of the organisation. The obscurity surrounding what the company does is a running gag throughout the series, all, known is that the company bought and sold ITV, has a chemicals laboratory. However, it is hinted that Reynholm Industries is a communications company, as Denholm Reynholm claims that the company, through buying mobile phone carriers and television stations, had created the largest communications empire in the UK. Douglas Reynholm states his father Denholm, whom he succeeds after Denholm commits suicide, once described the IT department as being run by "a dynamic go-getter, a genius, a man from Ireland."Roy and Moss, the two technicians, are inept geeks or, in Denholm Reynholm's words, "standard nerds". Despite the company's dependence on their services, they are despised and considered losers by the rest of the staff.
Roy's exasperation causes his laziness: his support techniques include ignoring the phone, hoping it will stop ringing, using reel-to-reel tape recordings of stock IT suggestions like, "Have you tried turning it off and on again?" and "Is it plugged in?". He wears a different T-shirt in each episode. Moss's wide and intricate knowledge of all things technical is reflected in his accurate yet indecipherable suggestions, while he cannot deal with practical problems like extinguishing fires and removing spiders. Moss has trouble speaking to others in a rational manner citing bizarre facts about himself or technology, is arrogant around others when it comes to computers. Jen, the newest member of the team, is hopelessly non-technical, despite claiming on her CV that she has "a lot of experience with computers"; as Denholm, the company boss, is technologically illiterate, he is convinced by Jen's interview bluffing and appoints her head of the IT department. After meeting Roy and Moss, Jen redefines her role as "relationship manager", yet her attempts at bridging the gap between the technicians and the business have the opposite effect, landing Jen in situations just as ludicrous as those of her teammates.
Chris O'Dowd as Roy Trenneman – an IT technician from Ireland, Roy is shown to go to great lengths to distract workmates so he can do nothing. However, when an incident does arise, he is either injured or embarrassed. Richard Ayoade as Maurice Moss – a intelligent IT technician with a lack of social skills. Katherine Parkinson as Jen Barber – a new hire at Reynholm Industries who, after claiming she has had "a lot of experience with computers", is made head of the IT department. Roy and Moss resent having Jen as their boss but soon find she is useful to them in interacting with other people, she therefore describes herself as their "relationship manager". Matt Berry as Douglas Reynholm – the womanising son of Denholm, who inherits Reynholm Industries in series 2 after his father, the CEO, commits suicide. Chris Morris as Denholm Reynholm – the egocentric founder and executive of Reynholm Industries, who has little understanding of IT. Noel Fielding as Richmond Avenal – an eccentric and reclusive but kind IT technician and goth, banished to the department's server room.
Creator Graham Linehan wrote the series. The programme was filmed in front of a live studio audience, which at the time was considered by some as risky, with the format thought to have been surpassed by more fly-on-the-wall type presentations; this was a deliberate choice by Linehan, who sought to challenge the current vogue for hailing the "death of the sitcom," stating "I trust my instincts, so I'm going to do it my way and hope people come to me." The first series was recorded in front of a live audience at Teddington Studios and moved to Pinewood Studios for series 2 onward, with some additional location footage. Cinematic-style footage was recorded before live tapings; the title sequence of the programme was produced by Shynola. The programme is broadcast internationally. In Australia the programme has been broadcast on ABC1 and UKTV. In Bulgaria, GTV began airing the programme in July 2008, while Comedy Central Germany started airing the first series in September 20
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Emma Rose Roberts is an American actress and singer. After making her film debut as Kristina Jung in the crime film Blow, Roberts gained recognition for her lead role as Addie Singer on the Nickelodeon television series Unfabulous, she released her debut studio album Unfabulous and More in 2005. Roberts appeared in numerous films, including Aquamarine, Nancy Drew, Wild Child, Hotel for Dogs, Valentine's Day, It's Kind of a Funny Story, The Art of Getting By. Looking for more mature roles, Roberts obtained starring roles in the films Lymelife, 22.214.171.124. Scream 4, Adult World, We're the Millers, Palo Alto, The Blackcoat's Daughter, Nerve, she appeared in four seasons of the FX anthology horror series American Horror Story, starred in the lead role of Chanel Oberlin on the Fox comedy horror series Scream Queens. Roberts was born in New York, to Kelly Cunningham and actor Eric Roberts, her parents separated. Through her father's marriage, she is the stepdaughter of Eliza Roberts and step-granddaughter of David Rayfiel and Lila Garrett.
Through her mother's marriage, she is the stepdaughter of musician Kelly Nickels. She has Grace, her paternal grandmother was acting coach Betty Lou Bredemus, her aunts are actresses Julia Roberts and Lisa Roberts Gillan. During her childhood, Roberts spent time on the sets of her aunt Julia's films; these experiences sparked a desire to follow her father and aunts into the film industry. Her mother wanted her to have a normal childhood, she is of English, Irish, Welsh and Swedish descent through her father. Roberts made her acting debut at age nine in Ted Demme's 2001 drama film Blow, it was the first film for which she auditioned. In the film, she portrayed the daughter of Johnny Depp's character; that year, she had a role in Leif Tilden's 10-minute short bigLove, was an uncredited extra in some scenes featuring her aunt Julia Roberts in America's Sweethearts. Roberts went on to appear in smaller roles in two family films: in 2002's Grand Champion, as the sister of the main character Buddy. Grand Champion had a brief theatrical release in August 2004, while Spymate was not released until February 2006, when it was given a theatrical run in Canada, followed by its DVD release in April 2006.
In 2004, she began starring as the lead character Addie Singer in the Nickelodeon series Unfabulous, which debuted in September of that year. The sitcom earned Roberts several Teen Choice Award and Young Artist Award nominations; the series focused on a seventh grader and her two best friends. It aired for three seasons; the show spawned TV movies, including The Perfect Moment. In 2004, Roberts guest starred in an episode of the Nickelodeon series Drake & Josh titled "Honor Council". After her run on Unfabulous, Nickelodeon had considered giving Roberts a kick start into a music career. In 2006, Roberts returned to the big screen, starring alongside Sara Paxton and singer JoJo in Aquamarine, she won a 2007 Young Artist Award for Best Supporting Young Actress in a Feature Film for her role in the film. The film Aquamarine took fifth place at the box office in its opening weekend making $8 million. In early 2006, Roberts finished shooting her title role in Nancy Drew; the film was released to theaters on June 15, 2007, grossed over $7 million in its opening weekend, though the film was not well received by critics.
Roberts was set to reunite with Nancy Drew director Andrew Fleming on both Rodeo Gal and a Nancy Drew sequel in 2007, but these films were never made. In 2008, Roberts starred as the lead in the film Wild Child, about a rebellious teen from Malibu, California sent to a boarding school in England. Roberts described her character as "pretty much your typical spoiled-brat Malibu socialite who gets shipped off to a British boarding school." Roberts appeared in two films: Lymelife, premiered at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival, The Flight Before Christmas, where she had her voiceover debut when she voiced the English version of the character Wilma. In 2009, Roberts starred alongside Jake T. Austin in Hotel for Dogs, based on the novel by Lois Duncan; the film premiered in January 2009, took fifth place in its opening weekend with over $17 million. The film has to-date grossed over $114 million, received mixed reviews from critics, she appeared that year in The Winning Season, portraying Abbie Miller.
In 2010, Roberts co-starred as Grace in the film Valentine's Day in which her aunt, Julia Roberts appeared, although they were never together on-screen. She appeared that year in Twelve, Memoirs of a Teenage Amnesiac, 126.96.36.199. It's Kind of Virginia; the following year, she starred alongside Freddie Highmore in the romantic comedy The Art of Getting By. She played the role of Jill Roberts in the Wes Craven film Scream 4. Roberts next appeared in the 2012 film Celeste and Jesse Forever, parodying pop stars such as Kesha with her performance as Riley Banks, an incurious blonde singer. Roberts said in an interview that her role as Banks tempted her to write an album of songs using her character as an alter ego. On February 7, 2013, The Hollywood Reporter confirmed that Roberts had been cast to star in a pilot for Fox called Delirium, based on the Lauren Oliver novels, she portrayed Lena Haloway, the protagonist, but Fox decided not to pick
Beanie Babies are a line of stuffed toys created by American businessman H. Ty Warner, who founded Ty Inc. in 1986. Notably, the toys are stuffed with plastic pellets rather than conventional soft stuffing, giving Beanie Babies a flexible feel; the "babies" part of the name does not refer to an infant. In an interview, Warner said, "The whole idea was it looked real because it moved."Although created in 1993, during the last half of the 1990s, Beanie Babies emerged as a major fad and collectable. They have been cited as being the world's first Internet sensation in 1995, they were collected not only as toys, but as a financial investment, due to the high resale value of particular ones. Nine original Beanie Babies were launched in 1993: Legs the Frog, Squealer the Pig, Spot the Dog, Flash the Orca, Splash the Whale, Chocolate the Moose, Patti the Platypus, Brownie the Bear, Pinchers the Lobster, they were not in factory production until 1994. Sales were slow at first to the point that by 1995 many retailers refused to buy the products in the bundles Ty offered them while others outright refused to buy them in any form.
Their popularity soon grew however, first starting locally in Chicago before growing into a national craze in the USA. In 1996, Ty Inc. released a new product called Teenie Beanies, a miniature offshoot of the original Beanie Babies line. They were sold alongside McDonald's Happy Meals to celebrate that product's 17th anniversary. Ty, Inc. stopped producing the product in December 1999. Production restarted in 2000 with a Beanie Baby named "The Beginning." In early 2008, Ty released a new version of Beanie Babies called Beanie Babies 2.0. The purchase of a Beanie Baby 2.0 provided its owner with a code to access an online Beanie Babies interactive website. The website has since been shut down. By 2017, Beanie Baby incarnations of characters from My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic were available. Beanie Babies are deliberately under stuffed; this led to a criticism that the toys looked "cheap". Ty Warner has said that this understuffing method made the toys look "real". Another important design element is the tag.
Since the beginning, Beanie Babies have included two tags for identification: a heart-shaped "swing tag" at the top, a fabric "tush tag" at the bottom. Both tags have been redesigned over time. Between 1994 and 1996, the swing tags had "To" and "From" blanks in them for use as gifts. Starting in early 1996, the tags include four-line poems related to the Beanie Baby, a date of birth for the toy; the poem and birthday concept was created by Lina Trivedi, credited as authoring the poems on the first 136 Beanie Babies that were introduced to the marketplace. It was not uncommon for Beanie Babies to be accidentally shipped out with incorrect or misspelled tags, which sometimes increased the toy's value. On occasion, the poems, birth dates and the names have been changed on certain Beanie Babies. Beanie Babies began to emerge as popular collectibles in late 1995, became a hot toy; the company's strategy of deliberate scarcity, producing each new design in limited quantity, restricting individual store shipments to limited numbers of each design and retiring designs, created a huge secondary market for the toys and increased their popularity and value as a collectible.
Ty systematically retired various designs, many people assumed that all "retired" designs would rise in value the way that early retirees had. The craze lasted through 1999 and declined after the Ty company announced that they would no longer be making Beanie Babies and made a bear called "The End"; some time after the original announcement that the company would stop production, Ty asked the public to vote on whether the product should continue. At its height of popularity people would flip Beanies at as much as ten-fold on eBay. Indeed, at the height, Beanies made up 10% of eBay's sales; some collectors insured their purchases for a price in the thousands. Following are key factors that contributed to the collectible nature of Beanie Babies: Unique Creative Elements - each product contained a unique birthday and poem, printed on the tag of every Beanie Baby Supply/Demand - Scarce availability fell short of the product demand Availability - Beanie Babies were only sold in individually-owned small gift and specialty shops New Releases / Retirements - Several times a year, Beanie Babies would retire and the production of those characters would cease to make room for new designsWarner was keenly aware that the Beanie Babies bubble could burst and started requiring retailers who sold Beanies to stock other product lines by his company if they wished to continue selling Beanies.
None of these lines did as well as Beanie Babies, although they kept the company alive after the fad ended and some became successful in their own right. Ty, Inc. was the first business to produce a business to consumer website designed to engage their market. This is a major contributing factor to the early and growing popularity of Beanie Babies. By the time the first iteration of the Ty Web site was published in late 1995, only 1.4% of Americans were using the Internet. In tandem with the launch of the Ty Website, all Beanie Baby hangtags had the Ty Website URL and a call to action printed underneath the poems and birthdays that commanded audiences to visit the company website with text that read: Visit our web page!!! As a result
Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. It was founded by Sime Silverman in New York in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles. Variety.com features breaking entertainment news, box office results, cover stories, photo galleries and more, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as editor. In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror.
The original cover design, similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment; the front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne known as Skigie, claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. In 1922, Sime acquired The New York Clipper, reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years merging some of its features into Variety. In 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor, it replaced Variety Bulletin, issued in Hollywood on Fridays.
Daily Variety was published every day other than Sunday but on Monday to Friday. Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld and Thomas M. Pryor, succeeded by his son Pete; the Daily and the Weekly were run as independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U. S. and International coverage. Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931. Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications. Following his death from tuberculosis in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc. until 1956. After that date Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million, he remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman.
Syd became chairman of both publications. In 1953, Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations and births; the column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front; the old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime and Syd. For twenty years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times.
In April 2009, Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. In March 2013, Variety owner Jay Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; the decision was made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety A