SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ujarrás

Ujarrás is a village and historical site in the Orosí Valley of Cartago Province in central Costa Rica, southeast of the provincial capital of Cartago. It lies near the northeastern bank of the man-made Lake Cachí, created by the damming of the Reventazon River; the dam lies adjacent to the village. The village is connected on the other side of the lake. HOE Ujarrás is located in a deep valley northeast of the town of Orosí, on the banks of the Cachí Reservoir; the valley of Orosi, crisscrossed by many rivers and streams, has coffee and flower plantations. The other landmarks near the town, apart from one of the oldest churches in Costa Rica, are the Cachí Dam, the Tapantí National Park and Lankester botanical gardens. Ujarrás contains the ruins of one of the oldest churches in Costa Rica, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Concepción, built in the 1580s during early colonial times. Local legend has it that a painting of the Virgin was found in a box by native Huetar Indian fishermen who brought it to the village, a church was thus built on this site by the locals to commemorate the Virgin.

Another version of this tradition is that an Indian fisherman found a box containing the image of the Virgin Mary and the Spanish Colonial church named Nuestra Senora de la Limpia Concepcion was thus built around that image as it could not be moved elsewhere. A hermitage made of straw was built and indigenous people called the image Virgin Mary as "The Queen of the Valleys", it was built between 1575 and 1580. Over the years the image attained fame due to many miracles that it is said to have performed for the villagers, it is said that when the English pirate Henry Morgan attacked the village in 1666, the Virgin Mary came to their rescue to repulse the attack. In 1833, the village was subject to a devastating flood which led to the government passing a decree to move the village to a safer place; the town was located in one of the poorest regions of the Spanish empire, which lacked economic resources to sustain its population. The climate of the place was adverse and diseases played havoc with the local population.

Furthermore, the buildings constructed with fragile local material could not withstand earthquakes. Considering the magnitude of the health problem and floods faced by the people in 1833, the Constitutional Assembly of the Commonwealth of Costa Rica decreed that the people move and establish a new township. People abandoned Ujarrás between the latter years of the 18th century and the early years of the 19th and established the township of Paraíso near the Llanos de Santa Lucía, they expected that the new township would be more suitable in terms of the health and comfort of its residents. However, moving to a new location did not improve the health conditions or the demography or educational standards of the town's people, it has been conjectured. Recent studies by the priest and historian Manuel Benavides, have suggested that the move was due to political reasons; the ruined church stands as witness to the history of the town. The indigenous population of Ujarrás mestizos, became extinct in the early 18th century.

The famous priest Florencio del Castillo, President of the Courts of Cádiz was born here. Thanks to his efforts, Ujarrás villa was erected in 1813; every year an annual mass is held on the Sunday closest to April 14 to celebrate the feast of La Virgen de Ujarrás. The church in Ujarrás has since been restored; the church was built with limestone in a construction method known as calicanto. The facades, the altar and other parts of the church are now restored; the Virgin of the Holy Conception of Ujarras, Saint Patron of the Colony, was installed in the church. However, this image was shifted to the new township to the Sanctuary of Paradise; the image is well preserved. A religious procession of this statue of the Saint Patron is held every year at Paraíso on 16 April and it is a pilgrimage to most Costa Ricans to recount their history and to express their reverence to the Virgin Mary; the Costa Rican government recognizes the church today as a National Monument. The heritage site, submitted for inclusion in the World Heritage List in 1980 is now not part of the current Tentative List of Heritage Sites maintained by UNESCO.

However, a review of the site mentions that "While it definitively does not have an OUV for itself, combined with other colonial monuments and/or Orosi valley, it compares to other sites in the list."Ujarrás, is a brand name in Costa Rica of jellies and other products, established in 1962

Allan Anderson (theologian)

Allan Anderson is a British theologian and the Professor of Mission and Pentecostal Studies at the University of Birmingham. He is cited as one of the foremost scholars on Global Pentecostalism. Anderson was born in London to Salvation Army officers Keith and Gwen Anderson, a Zimbabwean father and an English mother, his father was the son of a fourth generation London Missionary Society minister in Southern Africa, of Scottish and Cape Dutch descent, his mother was born in Sheffield, the daughter of Salvation Army officers from South Yorkshire. Anderson was raised in Zimbabwe, his secondary education was at Gilbert Rennie School in Lusaka, Prince Edward School in Harare and Milton High School, Bulawayo, he studied part-time at the University of South Africa from 1976, obtaining a BTh in 1983, Hons BTh in Missiology in 1985, MTh in 1990, graduated DTh in September 1992. His master's thesis was entitled "Pneumatology from an African Perspective", his doctoral dissertation was "African Pentecostalism in South Africa: A Missiological Evaluation."

Anderson was founder and principal of Tshwane Theological College near Pretoria and part-time researcher at the University of South Africa before joining Selly Oak Colleges, Birmingham, as Director of the Centre for New Religious Movements in 1995. He became an honorary lecturer and from 1999, a lecturer at the University of Birmingham. In 2005, Anderson was awarded a Chair in Mission and Pentecostal Studies at the University of Birmingham. Anderson was a full-time pentecostal minister a baptist and charismatic church minister in South Africa, when he took up a part-time research position at the University of South Africa. Anderson's main interests are in the areas of the history and theology of Pentecostalism, with particular interest in Africa and Asia, he is the editor of the peer-reviewed journal published at PentecoStudies. He is a founder-member of the European Research Network on Global Pentecostalism which conducts research in four European universities, he serves on the international editorial board of four additional academic journals.

His principle works include: Anderson, Allan, An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity. ______________, To the Ends of the Earth: Pentecostalism and the Transformation of World Christianity. ______________, with David Westerlund, Den världsvida pentekostalismen. ______________, ed. with M. Bergunder, A. Droogers & C. van der Laan, Studying Global Pentecostalism: Theories and Methods. ______________, Spreading Fires: The Missionary Nature of Early Pentecostalism. ______________, El Pentecostalismo: El cristianismo carismatico mundial. ______________, ed. with Edmond Tang and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Asian Christianity. ______________, African Reformation: African Initiated Christianity in the 20th Century. ______________, Zion and Pentecost: The Spirituality and Experience of Pentecostals and Zionists/Apostolics in South Africa. ______________, ed. with Walter J. Hollenweger, Pentecostals After a Century. Anderson has written numerous articles for peer-reviewed journals

Yazoo land scandal

The Yazoo land scandal, Yazoo fraud, Yazoo land fraud, or Yazoo land controversy was a massive real-estate fraud perpetrated, in the mid-1790s, by Georgia governor George Mathews and the Georgia General Assembly. Georgia politicians sold large tracts of territory in the Yazoo lands, in what are now portions of the present-day states Alabama and Mississippi, to political insiders at low prices in 1794. Although the law enabling the sales was overturned by reformers the following year, its ability to do so was challenged in the courts reaching the US Supreme Court. In the landmark decision in Fletcher v. Peck, the Court ruled that the contracts were binding and the state could not retroactively invalidate the earlier land sales, it was one of the first times the Supreme Court had overturned a state law, it justified many claims for those lands. Some of the land sold by the state in 1794 had been shortly thereafter resold to innocent third parties complicating the litigation. In 1802, because of the ongoing controversy, Georgia ceded all of its claims to lands west of its modern border to the U.

S. government. In exchange the government assumed the legal liabilities. Claims involving the land purchases were not resolved until legislation was passed in 1814 established a claims-resolution fund; the Yazoo land fraud is conflated with the Pine Barrens speculation, another land scandal that took place in east Georgia at about the same time. In this case, the state's high-ranking officials were making multiple gifts of land grants for the same parcels, resulting in the issuance of grants totaling much more land than was available in the state of Georgia; the origins of the Yazoo land scandal lay in the desire of the U. S. state of Georgia to firm up its territorial claims after the American Revolutionary War, to satisfy a great demand for land to develop. The territory claimed by Georgia ran as far west as the Mississippi River, included most of the present states of Alabama and Mississippi; some of this territory was claimed and occupied by Native Americans, southern portions of the territory were claimed by Spain as part of Spanish Florida.

Lands along the Mississippi River near present-day Natchez, Mississippi had been settled during the British administration of West Florida, had a strong Loyalist presence. Some Georgia authorities and speculators thought; the first attempt of Georgia to organize settlement in this area was a 1784 proposal to establish Houstoun County in the Muscle Shoals area. This attempt never got off the ground because its major proponents became involved instead in an effort to establish the State of Franklin in present-day eastern Tennessee. In 1785 Governor George Mathews signed the Bourbon County Act, which organized Bourbon County, Georgia in the area east of the Mississippi and south of the Yazoo River; this area included the Natchez area and was in the area claimed by Spain. The state appointed civil and judicial officers for the new county, but under pressure from the federal government, Georgia dissolved Bourbon County in 1788; the federal government opposed Bourbon County because of the unresolved Spanish claim, because claims to the area by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Native American tribes had not been extinguished.

In about 1789, a secret society called. This group secured influence in the Georgia legislature to further its aims. In 1789 three companies, The South Carolina Yazoo Company, The Virginia Yazoo Company, the Tennessee Company were formed by Combined Society interests to buy land from the Georgia legislature. Governor Edward Telfair signed a deal to sell 20,000,000 acres of land to the Yazoo companies for $207,000, or about 1 cent per acre; these lands were located north of the mouth of the Yazoo River and extended eastward from the Mississippi. The deal fell through in 1792 when the companies sought to pay with depreciated old currency, which the state refused to accept; the existence of the Combined Society was exposed in 1792. In 1794, four new companies were formed: the Georgia Company, the Georgia-Mississippi Company, the Upper Mississippi Company, the new Tennessee Company, their principals included individuals active in the 1789 purchases, as well as leading Georgia politicians such as James Gunn and United States Supreme Court Associate Justice James Wilson.

These companies persuaded the Georgia state assembly to sell more than 40,000,000 acres of land for $500,000. Many Georgia officials and legislators were offered shares in these companies or bribes to secure their agreement to the sale. On January 7, 1795, Governor Mathews signed into law a bill authorizing the sale of the 40,000,000 acres, known as the Yazoo Act; the territory, the subject of these purchases included most of the land, the subject of the 1789 purchase attempt, a significant portion of it was resold to buyers in other parts of the country who were not aware of the shaky nature of the transactions. When the details of the sale were revealed, public outrage was widespread, people protested to federal officials and Congressmen. Jared Irwin and U. S. Senator James Jackson led the reform efforts: Irwin was elected Governor of Georgia and, less than two months after taking office, signed a bill on February 13, 1796 nullifying the Yazoo Act; the state burned all copies of the bill except for one, sent to President George Washington.

Jackson resigned as Sena