Involuntary park is a neologism coined by science fiction author and environmentalist Bruce Sterling to describe inhabited areas that for environmental, economic, or political reasons have, in Sterling's words, "lost their value for technological instrumentalism" and been allowed to return to an overgrown, feral state. Discussing involuntary parks in the context of rising sea levels due to global warming, Sterling writes: They bear some small resemblance to the twentieth century's national parks, those government-owned areas nervously guarded by well-indoctrinated forest rangers in formal charge of Our Natural Heritage©, they are, for instance green, full of wild animals. But the species mix is no longer natural, they are fast-growing weeds, a cosmopolitan jungle of kudzu and bamboo, with many genetically altered species that can deal with seeping saltwater. Drowned cities that cannot be demolished for scrap will vanish wholesale into the unnatural overgrowth. While Sterling's original vision of an involuntary park was of places abandoned due to collapse of economy or rising sea-level, the term has come to be used on any land where human inhabitation or use for one reason or other has been stopped, including military exclusion zones and areas considered dangerous due to pollution.
Examples of abandoned human settlements overtaken by foliage and wild animals are known to exist, but Sterling's dystopian vision of an "unnatural" ecology has not been observed. The Chernobyl disaster area, for example, has seen the return of extirpated indigenous species such as boars and bears, as well as a thriving herd of re-introduced Przewalski's Horses. While wildlife flourishes in the least affected areas, tumors and lower brain weight are reported in many small animals living in areas subject to severe contamination; the former Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO was abandoned for years due to contamination from production of chemical weapons, yet the wildlife returned and the site was turned into a wildlife refugium. Involuntary parks where human presence is limited can host animal species that are otherwise threatened in their range; the Korean Demilitarized Zone is thought to house not only Korean tigers, but the critically endangered Amur leopard. The Cattle island in the flood pond of Hirakud Dam The Green Line in Cyprus.
The Korean Demilitarized Zone. The zone of alienation around the area of the Chernobyl disaster, notably the Red Forest; the Frontier Closed Area in Hong Kong. The White Sands Missile Range U. S. government military reservation. Location of the Trinity test site; the stringent military control of the Iron Curtain has left a large green corridor across Europe. An initiative is underway to protect this former involuntary wilderness as a European Green Belt; the waterfront of Hilo, Hawaii was stricken by two devastating tsunami, the strip was abandoned and made into parkland. The land occupied by a residential area in Anchorage, Alaska was cracked and disfigured beyond usefulness by the Good Friday earthquake, was converted into a park named Earthquake Park; the former Rocky Mountain Arsenal and the former Rocky Flats Plant, both of which were sites of manufacturing plants near Denver which were contaminated and which subsequently were converted into wildlife refuges. The neighbourhood that surrounded Love Canal.
The former U. S. navy areas of Vieques, Puerto Rico. Abandoned fishing villages preserved on Zhoushan Islands in China. Montebello Islands, site of nuclear tests. Times Beach, Missouri, a town evacuated and dismantled due to dioxin contamination, now the site of Route 66 State Park; the Ecological Reserve in the city of Buenos Aires, formed by a land-fill of waste material of demolished buildings dumped in the river off Costanera Sud avenue. Over time and sediment began to build up and developed itself into a biodiversity sample of the native Llanura Pampeana ecosystem. Parts of the Eifel National Park are closed to the public because of mines planted during the Second World War. Centralia, Pennsylvania, a town abandoned due to a coal mine fire; the Hanford Reach National Monument, the former buffer zone around the Hanford Site which produced plutonium for nuclear bombs. Declared Red Zones as a result of the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Ujung Kulon National Park in Java formed itself on farmland devastated and depopulated by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa.
The Văcărești Nature Park in Bucharest, Romania. Rabbit à la Berlin — a documentary about the zone between East and West Germany during the Cold War Rewilding Urban prairie Feral "Peace prospects imperil Korea's wildlife paradise", National Geographic Google Earth view of Earthquake Park
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia. Its provincial capital city is Serang; the province bordered West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java and the neighbouring island of Sumatra. The population of Banten was estimated at 11,834,087 at the start of 2014, up from over 10.6 million during the 2010 census. Part of the province of West Java, Banten became a separate province in 2000; the province is a transit corridor to the neighbouring Indonesian island of Sumatra. It has had a culture distinct from the rest of Java and that of the broader Indonesian archipelago. In recent years, the northern half those areas near Jakarta and the Java Sea coast, have experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, while the southern half that facing the Indian Ocean, maintains more of its traditional character. Centuries ago, the area in what-is-now Banten is ruled by the Sundanese Tarumanagara kingdom.
After the fall of the Tarumanegara, Banten was controlled by many Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, such as the Srivijaya Empire and the Sunda Kingdom. The spread of Islam in the region begins in the 15th century. By the late 16th century, Islam has replaced Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in the province, with the establishment of the Banten Sultanate. At that time however, Europeans traders started arriving in the region; the first was the Portuguese the British and the Dutch. In the end, through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch controlled the economy in the region, causing a gradual decline of the Banten Sultanate in the region. On 22 November 1808, the Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels declared that the Sultanate of Banten had been absorbed into the territory of the Dutch East Indies; this marked the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years. In March 1942, the Japanese invaded the Indies and occupied the region for 3 years, before they surrendered in August 1945.
The area was returned to Dutch control for 5 years, before they handed the region to the new Indonesian government when the Dutch left in 1950. Banten was absorbed into the province of West Java. However, separatist sentiment led to the creation of the province of Banten in 2000. A diverse province, Banten is populated by many ethnic groups, the most dominant being the Bantenese, a sub-group of the Sundanese people. Therefore, the Sundanese language forms the lingua franca of the province, although Indonesian is the main official language; the Javanese language is spoken by many Javanese migrants from Central or East Java. In the Lebak Regency lives the semi-isolated Baduy people, who spoke the Baduy language, an archaic form of the Sundanese language. Nonetheless, most of the people in Banten can speak Indonesian fluently as their second language; the name "Banten" turns out to have several possible origins. The first possible origins comes from the Sundanese phrase katiban inten, which means "struck down by diamonds".
The phrase comes from the history of the Bantenese people, who were animist embraced Buddhism or Hinduism. After Islam began to spread in Banten, the community began to embrace Islam; this spread of Islam in Banten is described as "struck down by diamonds". Another story about the origin of the name "Banten" is when the Hindu God Batara Guru Jampang traveled from east to west arrived at a place called Surasowan; when arriving in Surasowan, Batara Guru Jampang sits on a rock, called watu gilang. The stone was glowing, presented to King Surasowan, it was told that Surasowan was surrounded by a clear river of water, as if this country was surrounded by stars. The place is described as a ring covered with diamonds, which evolved into the name "Banten". Another possible origin is that "Banten" comes from the Indonesian word bantahan, because the local Bantenese people resisted to be subjected to regulations enacted by the Dutch colonial government at that time. Apart from the story of the origin of the name "Banten" mentioned above, the word "Banten" has appeared long before the establishment of the Banten Sultanate.
This word is used to name a river, namely the Cibanten River. The higher plains on the edge of Cibanten River are called Cibanten Girang, abbreviated as Banten Girang. Based on the results of research conducted in Banten Girang, there have been settlements in this area since the 11-12th century. In the 16th century, this area developed rapidly; the development of settlements in Banten Girang extends towards Serang and towards the northern coast. The coastal area would became the Sultanate of Banten, founded by Sunan Gunung Jati; this Sultanate controlled all terriitory of the former Sunda Kingdom in West Java. But Sunda Kelapa or Batavia were captured by the Dutch, while Cirebon and the Parahiyangan region were captured by the Mataram Sultanate; the territory of the former Banten Sultanate was converted to a residentie by the Dutch. In the 5th century, Banten was part of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara; the Lebak relic inscriptions, found in lowland villages on the edge of the Cidanghiyang River in Munjul, Pandeglang were discovered in 1947 and contains two lines of poetry with Pallawa script and Sanskrit language.
The inscriptions which tells the life in the Tarumanegara kingdom under the reign of Purnawarman. After the collapse of the Tarumanagara kingdom, due to an attack by Srivijaya, power in western Java fell to the Kingdom of Sunda; the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 122
Cát Tiên National Park
Cát Tiên National Park is a national park located in the south of Vietnam 150 km north of Ho Chi Minh City. It has an area of about 720 km2 and protects one of the largest areas of lowland tropical forests left in Vietnam; the surrounding area was occupied by the Ma people - in the area, now Cat Loc and Stieng people in western Dong Nai Province. After the formation of the Park, many of these people were re-settled in Talai village, to the south-west of Nam Cat Tien. Cát Tiên National Park was protected in 1978 as two sectors, Nam Cat Tien and Tay Cat Tien. Another sector, Cat Loc, was gazetted as a rhinoceros reserve in 1992 upon the discovery of a population of the Vietnamese Javan rhinoceros, an occasion that brought the park into the world's eye; the three areas were combined to form one park in 1998. Nam Cat Tien is contiguous with Vĩnh Cửu nature reserve thus providing an enlarged area for species to breed; the forest is now protected by the Kiểm lâm with responsibilities for managing poaching, fire control, other issues.
Parts of the park area suffered during the Vietnam War when it was extensively sprayed with defoliant herbicides. However, substantial further damage was done by logging up until the 1990s. To this day these areas have extensive bamboo and grassland cover and trees have not yet grown back; the Cát Tiên archaeological site is located just outside the park boundary on the northern bank of the Dong Nai river. Excavations carried out between 1994 and 2003 revealed a group of temples, belonging to a unknown Hindu civilization which inhabited the area between the 4th century and 9th centuries AD. A large number of a number of gold, ceramic, coloured stone, glass artefacts, are displayed in the Da Lat museum. Cát Tiên National Park consists of seasonal tropical forests and riparian areas, with Park Authorities identifying five major habitat types as follows: 1. Primary evergreen forest areas comprise only about 2% of the Nam Cat Tien area. Dipterocarpaceae: notably Dipterocarpus alatus, which occurs but with a good survival rate, it is used for replanting.
Primary and secondary mixed or deciduous forest: Where soils are well-drained the following trees are common: Lagerstroemia calyculata, Tetrameles nudiflora, of there are spectacularly large specimen trees, Anogeissus acuminata. The abundance L. calyculata is discussed by Blanc et al. as an indicator of secondary forest. "It appears to be a good competitive species able to regenerate on denuded areas: along roads and on land abandoned after cultivation. Human disturbances have affected Dipterocarpaceae for resin and Fabaceae for their wood." The low canopy and under-story zones contains species such as the endemic Cycas inermis. 3. Secondary forest with abundant bamboo species: this due to human activity, the forest having been degraded by logging, forest fires and in some areas war-time defoliants, which have caused the forest canopy to be replaced with bamboos. Common trees include Lagerstroemia calyculata, Mesua sp. and Xylia xylocarpa, with bamboo species present. 4. Bamboo forest may have been affected by human activity, including areas where forest was cleared for subsistence agriculture creating favourable conditions for bamboos.
5. Seasonally flooded grasslands: CTNP has substantial area of grassland and wetlands In the rainy season, Dong Nai river water floods into an area of 2,500 ha area of northern Nam Cat Tien, along the Da Kluo, a reverse flow stream replenishing the lakes: Bau Sau, Bau Chim, Bau Co and the surrounding grasslands. In the flat eastern half of Nam Cat Tien there are a number of swamps surrounding isolated, poorly-drained small open areas – 3-10 ha - that might best be described as wet meadows - that are surrounded with swamp forest and may contain vernal pools; as in most seasonal tropical forests the Park has an abundance of epiphytes. Lianas are abundant and include: Ancistrocladus tectorius, box beans: Entada spp.'monkey ladders': Lasiobema scandens and Rattans: Calamus spp. in wet areas. In flat lowland areas and along streams, areas of freshwater swamp forest notable tree species include: Ficus benjamina, Livistona saribus, Crateva and Horsfieldia spp. Occurring patches of Bambusa blumeana are abundant in riparian areas and flooding forest.
Other plants include Schumannianthus dichotomus. Numerous endemic species, having their type locality at CTNP, have been described by Vietnamese and international scientists: including those at the Vietnam-Russia Tropical Centre. At least 14 species of organisms have the
The Javan leopard is a leopard subspecies confined to the Indonesian island of Java. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008; the population is estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend. The total remaining habitat is estimated at only 2,267.9 to 3,277.3 km2. The Javan leopard was described as being black with dark black spots and silver-grey eyes. Javan leopards have either a normal spotted coat, or a recessive phenotype resulting in an all-black coat; the Javan leopard is confined to the Indonesian island of Java. It is known to occur in Gunung Halimun National Park, Ujung Kulon National Park, Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Ceremai National Park, Merbabu National Park, Merapi National Park, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Meru Betiri National Park, Ijen Mountain, Baluran National Park, Alas Purwo National Park, it inhabits altitudes from sea level to 2,540 m ranging from dense tropical rainforest to dry deciduous forests.
Outside protected areas, it was recorded in secondary forest, mixed agriculture and production forest between 2008 and 2014. In the 1990s, it survived in the seral stages of successional vegetation patterns, which made it less susceptible to humans' disruptive activities than many other mammals. From 2001 to 2004, monitoring research has been conducted in a 20 km2 area of Gunung Halimun National Park using camera traps and radio tracking. Seven leopards were identified in the study area; the total population was estimated at 42 to 58 individuals. The home range of an adult female averaged 9.82 km2. The Javan leopard's prey comprises barking deer, wild boar, Java mouse-deer, monkeys such as crab-eating macaque, silvery lutung, Javan gibbon. Javan leopards look for food in close by villages and have been known to prey on domestic dogs and goats. Two leopards were radio collared in the Gunung Halimun National Park, their daily activity pattern showed peaks in the early mornings between 6:00 and 9:00, late afternoons between 15:00 and 18:00.
The Javan leopard is threatened by loss of habitat, prey base depletion, poaching due to human population growth and agricultural expansion. Conflict between local people and leopards is considered to be a main threat to the Javan leopard. Java has lost more than 90% of its natural vegetation and is one of the most densely populated islands in the world. Primary forests remain only in the mountainous regions at elevations above 1,400 m. Panthera pardus melas is listed in the CITES Appendix I. Efforts are being made to restore the Javan leopard population and prevent its extinction. Hunting laws are enforced. In 2005, Gunung Halimun National Park was enlarged to three times its original size for the protection of the Javan leopard, the silvery gibbon, the Javan hawk-eagle. To address the issue of Java’s overpopulation and encroachment on habitat of protected species, the Indonesian government has formed a nationwide family planning program; this program makes contraceptive devices like condoms and several different forms of birth control pills more available to the public.
In 1997, 14 Javan leopards were kept in European zoos. The Javan leopard is not managed in captive breeding programs in Europe and America; as of 2007, the Taman Safari Zoo in Bogor, kept 17 Javan leopards — seven males and 10 females, of which four were breeding pairs. The Indonesian zoos of Ragunan and Surabaya keep Javan leopards; as of December 2011, two male and one female Javan leopard were kept in Germany. In 2013, one male Javan leopard was transferred from Tierpark Berlin to the Prague Zoo. Morphological research indicates that the Javan leopard is craniometrically distinct from other Asian leopard subspecies, is a distinct taxon that split off from other Asian leopard subspecies in the Middle Pleistocene about 800,000 years ago. In the Middle Pleistocene, it may have migrated to Java from South Asia across a land bridge that bypassed Sumatra and Borneo. Leopard subspecies: African leopard · Arabian leopard · Anatolian leopard · Persian leopard · Indian leopard · Indochinese leopard · Sri Lankan leopard · Amur leopard · Panthera pardus spelaea Species portrait Panthera pardus in Asia and short portrait P. pardus melas.
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is understood to be continuous, though not named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such. A point is considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less peninsulae. List of peninsulas Isthmus
The smooth-coated otter is an otter species occurring in most of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, with a disjunct population in Iraq. As its name indicates, the fur of this species is smoother and shorter than that of other otter species; the smooth-coated otter is a large otter, from 7 to 11 kg in weight and 59 to 64 cm in head-body length, with a tail 37 to 43 cm long. It is distinguished from other otter species by its more rounded head and a hairless nose in the shape of a distorted diamond, its tail is flattened, in contrast to the more rounded tails of other otters. Its legs are strong, with large webbed feet bearing strong claws; as its name suggests, it has sleek fur. Females have two pairs of teats; the smooth-coated otter has been recorded in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, southwest China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesian islands of Borneo and Java, Brunei. An isolated population is found in the marshes of Iraq, it occurs in areas where fresh water is plentiful — wetlands and seasonal swamps, rivers and rice paddies.
Where it is the only occurring otter species, it lives in any suitable habitat. But where it is sympatric with other otter species, it avoids smaller streams and canals in favour of larger water bodies. Although it is found in saltwater near the coast on smaller islands, it requires a nearby source of fresh water; the smooth-coated otter is the only living species in the genus Lutrogale. Three subspecies are recognised: L. p. perspicillata – occurs in most of India, southwestern Yunnan, most of Southeast Asia, Java L. p. maxwelli – occurs in Iraq L. p. sindica – occurs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sind, PakistanFossils belonging to the genus Lutrogale are known from the early Pleistocene in Java. Two fossil species, an earlier form, L. robusta, the more recent L. palaeoleptonyx, are known. They fed on shellfish, rather than on fish as the current species does. Smooth-coated otters are hunt in groups, they are diurnal, have a short lull in activity during midday. They spend the night in dens dug under tree roots, or among boulders.
They use scent to communicate both within the otter species, with other animals. Each otter possesses a pair of scent glands at the base of the tail which are used to mark land or objects, such as rocks or vegetation, near feeding areas in a behavior called sprainting, they communicate through vocalisations such as whistles and wails. Some may construct permanent holts near water, in a layout similar to that of a beaver dam, with an underwater entrance and a tunnel that leads to a nest above the water. Fish comprise over 70% of their diet, but they eat reptiles, insects and small mammals. In areas where other species of otter are found, they prefer larger fish between 5 and 30 cm in length, they sometimes hunt in groups of up to 11 individuals. In the Kuala Selangor Nature Park, an otter group was observed hunting, they formed an undulating V-shaped line, pointing in the direction of movement and nearly as wide as the creek. The largest individuals occupied the middle section. In this formation, they undulated wildly through the creek, causing panic‑stricken fish to jump out of the water a few metres ahead.
They dived and grasped the fish with their snouts. They moved ashore, tossed the fish up a little on the muddy part of the bank, swallowed it head‑first in one piece. A group of otters can have a feeding range of 7 to 12 km2. A single adult consumes about 1 kg of food per day in captivity. Smooth-coated otters form small family groups of a mated pair with up to four offspring from previous seasons. Copulation lasts less than one minute. So long as the food supply is sufficient, they breed throughout the year, but where otters are dependent on monsoons for precipitation, breeding occurs between October and February. A litter of up to five pups is born after a gestation period of 60 to 63 days. However, on 14 June 2014, a smooth-coated otter called Ping at Wingham Wildlife Park in the UK gave birth to a litter of seven young; the mothers raise their young in a burrow near water. They may either construct such a burrow themselves. At birth, the pups are blind and helpless, but after 10 days, their eyes open, they are weaned at about three to five months.
They reach adult size at about a year of age, sexual maturity at two or three years. In Singapore, it was discovered that female Asian small-clawed otters interbred with male smooth-coated otters, resulting in the first documented case of hybridization between otter species in the wild; the resulting offspring and their descendants bred back into the smooth-coated otter population, but maintained many of the genes found in their small-clawed otter ancestors. Today, a population of at least 60 of these hybrid otters exists in Singapore, but the question remains as to how widespread the hybridization is between these two species is, the resulting effects it has. Major threats to Asian otter population are loss of wetland habitats due to construction of large-scale hydroelectric projects, reclamation of wetlands for settlements and agriculture, reduction in prey biomass and contamination of waterways by pesticides. In most Asian countries, increased human population during the last century and ineffective rural development programmes have not been able to address the