The ʻukulele or ukelele is a member of the lute family of instruments. It employs four nylon strings; the ʻukulele originated in the 19th century as a Hawaiian adaptation of the Portuguese machete, a small guitar-like instrument, introduced to Hawaii by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira and the Azores. It gained great popularity elsewhere in the United States during the early 20th century and from there spread internationally; the tone and volume of the instrument vary with construction. Ukuleles come in four sizes: soprano, concert and baritone; the ʻukulele is associated with music from Hawaii where the name translates as "jumping flea" because of the movement of the player's fingers. Legend attributes it to the nickname of the Englishman Edward William Purvis, one of King Kalākaua's officers, because of his small size, fidgety manner, playing expertise. One of the earliest appearances of the word ʻukulele in print is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations published in 1907.
The catalog describes two ukuleles from Hawaii: one, similar in size to a modern soprano ʻukulele, one, similar to a tenor. Developed in the 1880s, the ʻukulele is based on several small guitar-like instruments of Portuguese origin, the machete, the cavaquinho, the timple, the rajão, introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira and Cape Verde. Three immigrants in particular, Madeiran cabinet makers Manuel Nunes, José do Espírito Santo, Augusto Dias, are credited as the first ukulele makers. Two weeks after they disembarked from the SS Ravenscrag in late August 1879, the Hawaiian Gazette reported that "Madeira Islanders arrived here, have been delighting the people with nightly street concerts."One of the most important factors in establishing the ukulele in Hawaiian music and culture was the ardent support and promotion of the instrument by King Kalākaua. A patron of the arts, he incorporated it into performances at royal gatherings. Kamaka Ukulele or just Kamaka is a family-owned Hawaii-based maker of the ʻukulele, founded in 1916, credited with producing some of the world's finest, created the first pineapple ʻukulele.
In the 1960s, educator J. Chalmers Doane changed school music programs across Canada, using the ʻukulele as an inexpensive and practical teaching instrument to foster musical literacy in the classroom. 50,000 schoolchildren and adults learned ʻukulele through the Doane program at its peak. Today, a revised program created by James Hill and J. Chalmers Doane continues to be a staple of music education in Canada; the ʻukulele arrived in Japan in 1929 after Hawaiian-born Yukihiko Haida returned to the country upon his father's death and introduced the instrument. Haida and his brother Katsuhiko formed the Moana Glee Club, enjoying rapid success in an environment of growing enthusiasm for Western popular music Hawaiian and jazz. During World War II, authorities banned most Western music, but fans and players kept it alive in secret, it resumed popularity after the war. In 1959, Haida founded the Nihon Ukulele Association. Today, Japan is considered a second home for ʻukulele virtuosos. British singer and comedian George Formby was a ʻukulele player, though he played a banjolele, a hybrid instrument consisting of an extended ukulele neck with a banjo resonator body.
Demand surged in the new century because of its relative portability. Another British ukulele player was Tony Award winner Tessie O'Shea, who appeared in numerous movies and stage shows, was twice on The Ed Sullivan Show, including the night The Beatles debuted in 1964; the Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain tours globally, the George Formby Society, established in 1961, continues to hold regular conventions. The ʻukulele was popularized for a stateside audience during the Panama–Pacific International Exposition, held from spring to fall of 1915 in San Francisco; the Hawaiian Pavilion featured a guitar and ʻukulele ensemble, George E. K. Awai and his Royal Hawaiian Quartet, along with ʻukulele maker and player Jonah Kumalae; the popularity of the ensemble with visitors launched a fad for Hawaiian-themed songs among Tin Pan Alley songwriters. The ensemble introduced both the lap steel guitar and the ukulele into U. S. mainland popular music, where it was taken up by vaudeville performers such as Roy Smeck and Cliff "Ukulele Ike" Edwards.
On April 15, 1923 at the Rivoli Theater in New York City, Smeck appeared, playing the ukulele, in Stringed Harmony, a short film made in the DeForest Phonofilm sound-on-film process. On August 6, 1926, Smeck appeared playing the ʻukulele in a short film His Pastimes, made in the Vitaphone sound-on-disc process, shown with the feature film Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the ʻukulele soon became an icon of the Jazz Age. Like guitar, basic ʻukulele skills can be learned easily, this portable inexpensive instrument was popular with amateur players throughout the 1920s, as evidenced by the introduction of uke chord tablature into the published sheet music for popular songs of the time. A number of mainland-based stringed-instrument manufacturers, among them Regal and Martin added ukulele and tiple lines to their production to take advantage of the demand; the ʻukulele made inroads into early country music or old-time music parallel to the popular mandolin. It was played by Jimm
Diego Caballo Alonso is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Albacete Balompié as a left back. Caballo was born in Salamanca, Castile and León, joined Real Madrid's youth setup in 2009, from UD Salamanca, he made his senior debut with the C-team on 24 August 2013, starting in a 1–0 Segunda División B away win against Atlético Madrid B. Caballo first appeared with the reserves on 24 August 2014, playing the full 90 minutes in a 1–2 loss at the same opponent for the third division championship, he scored his first senior goal with the C's on 19 October, netting the opener in a 2–0 Tercera División home defeat of CD Móstoles URJC. On 7 July 2015, free agent Caballo signed for Valencia CF, being assigned to the B-team in the third tier, he moved to another reserve team on 2 July 2017, after agreeing to a contract with Deportivo Fabril in the same division. On 5 July 2018, Caballo renewed his contract with Dépor for two seasons. On 13 August, he was promoted to the main squad in Segunda División.
Caballo made his professional debut on 17 August 2018, starting in a 1–1 away draw against Albacete Balompié. On 2 September of the following year, he terminated his contract with Dépor, signed a one-year deal with fellow second division side Extremadura UD the following day. On 22 January 2020, Caballo cut ties with Extremadura and agreed to a two-and-a-half-year contract with Albacete Balompié, still in the second division. Real Madrid profile Diego Caballo at BDFutbol Diego Caballo at La Preferente Diego Caballo at Soccerway
The Carbon County Strikes took place in Carbon County, Utah from 1903–1904. The strikes consisted of Slavic and Italian immigrant mine workers who partnered with the United Mine Workers of America strikes in Colorado to protest the dangerous working conditions of the Utah coal mines; the Carbon County strikes were considered the most important labor confrontation in the United States at the time. The Utah Fuel Company opposed initiatives to unionize coal workers in Utah and were the primary opposition to the UMWA at the time; the Carbon County Strikes would fail in its attempt to unionize the coal workers of Utah because it "did not have enough support, either internally or externally, to win against a powerful and influential company that played on radical, anti-foreign sentiments in defending its position" but it demonstrated a significant nationwide effort in strengthening unionization in the west. The labor movement in the United States experienced some of its greatest gains in the early years of the twentieth century.
Union membership was not only increasing in established unions but newer unions began to form and expand under a wave of new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. Nationwide union membership was 870,000 in 1900 and in 4 years it had more than doubled to 2,072,700 members; the United Mine Workers Association was the collective voice of mine workers during the labor movement but their influence was limited to only eastern coal regions of Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois. The coal industry had been hit hard by the Panic of 1893 and as a result the average wages of coal miners had diminished by 10 to 30 percent. UMWA leadership struggled to consolidate support among miners in the eastern regions and the bleak economic outlook only stirred more frustration with miners in the coal industry; the UMWA responded to the economic depression with the Coal Miners' Strike of 1897 and the Coal Strike of 1902. The strikes offered a collective voice for miners to speak out against the deplorable conditions of mining camps and proved to be popular movement among miners in eastern mining regions.
Western mining regions would not join or participate in the early Coal Miners' Strikes but the success of the UMWA in increasing wages for their workers inspired support among immigrant miners of the west. The coal miners of Carbon County consisted of immigrant workers and had little association with the UMWA. Up until the twentieth century the UMWA focused its attention to eastern coal regions causing Utah miners to fail numerous times in their effort to unionize but the success of out of state unions had produced hope for members of labor movement in Utah; the UMWA had conducted campaign operations to unionize workers in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois but looked to expand their control over western coal regions in Colorado and Utah. The success of the Coal Miners' Strike the 1902 Anthracite Strike in Pennsylvania had confirmed the influence the UMWA held over the coal industry and mine workers of Utah sought to capture the momentum of the recent union victories; the Carbon County Strike developed in September 1903 from a coal miner strike that began in Colorado.
The Utah strikes coordinated in partnership with the strikes in Colorado to help with efforts in Carbon County and sustain funding, provided by the UMWA. The UMWA leadership organized recruitment campaigns in Utah and gained a majority of coal miners support in the strike efforts. UMWA organizers toured back and forth between Utah and Colorado, establishing a solid base organization within two coordinating strikes; the large population of Italian immigrants who worked in the Utah coal mines had established connections with other Italian miners in Colorado, making the organization efforts easier for the UMWA to consolidate and grow their base of support. The coal miners of Utah favored the message the UWMA promoted and backed their initiatives for greater representation in the coal industry; as union membership continued to surge throughout the United States, Utah miners saw an opportunistic chance to improve working conditions and gain the right to collectively bargain. The UMWA message of a united coal workers front proved to be an effective strategy in harnessing support.
The tragedy of the Scofield Mine disaster brought awareness for the much needed improvement of safety precautions in the mines and motivated Utah mine workers to continue striking. Horrid work conditions of the mines and continued mining incidents fueled Utah strike efforts but public perception of Utah coal miners began to turn negative because of their association with the violent Colorado coal strikes; the partnership of the Carbon County strike and Colorado strikes would prove to be the downfall of the labor movement in Utah. The Colorado strike began to develop into a civil war and the citizens of Utah feared that the Carbon County Strike would soon follow the same course of action; the UMWA vowed to fund the Utah strikers until they had unionized but the financial burden to fight an uphill battle would bleed the union dry. Utah coal strikers resented the abandonment of the UMWA and it took over 10 years before another effort to unionize would take place. Most of the Utah coal strikers in support of the labor movement were left with no compensation or job to financially support themselves once the UMWA withdrew from Utah in 1904.
Opposition to the Carbon County Strike was funded by the Utah Fuel Company and backed by government officials who used the violence exhibited in the Colorado strikes to undermine the growing labor movement in Utah. The Utah Fuel Company created a narrative that Utah miners had no real issue against the working conditions of the