Richard Otto Maack was a 19th-century Russian naturalist and anthropologist. He is most known for his exploration of the Russian Far East and Siberia the Ussuri and Amur River valleys, he wrote some of the first scientific descriptions of the natural history of remote Siberia and collected many biological specimens, many of which were original type specimens of unknown species. Ethnically Maack was a Baltic German from Estonia, he was a member of the Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society. He studied natural sciences at the University of St. Petersburg. In 1852 he became a professor of natural sciences at the Gymnasium in Irkutsk and director of the school. From 1868 to 1879, he was the superintendent of all schools of northern Siberia. During the 1850s he undertook a number of expeditions in Siberia including those to the Amur River valley and the Ussuri River, he participated in the Russian Geographical Society's first expedition to describe the orography and population of the Vilyuy and Chona River basins.
He is credited with discovering Syringa reticulata var. amurensis and independently of Carl Maximowicz. Maack is most famous for collecting unknown species and sending specimens back for scientific descriptions and naming. A number of those he found on his Amur River expedition bear his name. Maackia amurensis — Amur maackia Lonicera maackii — Amur Honeysuckle Prunus maackii — Amur choke cherry Iris maackii — water tolerant Iris Pelodiscus maackii — Amur softshell turtle Nymphaea tetragona var. wenzelii F. Henkel et al. Pleopeltis ussuriensis Regel & Maack Rubia chinensis Regel & Maack Puteshestvie na Amur/Путешествие на Амур. 1859. St. Petersburg. Puteshestvie po doline ryeki Ussuri/Путешествие в долину реки Уссури. 1861 St. Petersburg. Вилюйский округ Якутской области Очерк флоры Уссурийской страны 1862. Енисейская губерния in the "List of settlements Russian Empire"
Oroks, sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast in Russia. The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family. According to the 2002 Russian census, there were 346 Oroks living in Northern Sakhalin by the Okhotsk Sea and Southern Sakhalin in the district by the city of Poronaysk. According to the 2010 census there were 295 Oroks in Russia; the name Orok is believed to derive from the exonym Oro given by a Tungusic group meaning "a domestic reindeer". The Orok self-designation endonym is Ul'ta from the root Ula. Another self-designation is Nani; the Oroks, as well as the Orochs and Udege, are erroneously called Orochons. The total number of Oroks in Russia, according to the 2002 Russian Census, is 346 people, they live in Sakhalin Oblast. Most of the Oroks are concentrated in three settlements – Poronaysk and the village of Val, Nogliksky District. A total of 144 Oroks live in Val. Other places in which the Orok people live include: the villages of Gastello and Vakhrushev in Poronaysky District.
Furthermore, Orok people live on the island of Hokkaido, Japan – in 1989, there was a community of about 20 people near the city of Abashiri. Their number is unknown. Orok oral tradition indicates that the Oroks share history with the Ulch people, that they migrated to Sakhalin from the area of the Amgun River in mainland Russia. Research indicates that this migration took place in the 17th century at the latest; the Russian Empire gained complete control over Orok lands after the 1858 Treaty of Aigun and 1860 Convention of Peking. A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu. Before Soviet collectivization in the 1920s, the Orok were divided into five groups, each with their own migratory zone. However, following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1922, the new government of the Soviet Union altered prior imperial policies towards the Oroks to bring them into line with communist ideology.
In 1932, the northern Oroks joined the collective farm of Val, specialised in reindeer breeding, together with smaller numbers of Nivkhs and Russians. Following the Russo-Japanese War, southern Sakhalin came under the control of the Empire of Japan, which administered it as Karafuto Prefecture; the Uilta, or Oroks, were classified as "Karafuto natives", were not entered into Japanese-style family registers, in contrast to the Ainu, who had "mainland Japan" family registers. Like the Karafuto Koreans and the Nivkh, but unlike the Ainu, the Uilta were thus not included in the evacuation of Japanese nationals after the Soviet invasion in 1945; some Nivkhs and Uilta who served in the Imperial Japanese Army were held in Soviet work camps. Most settled around Abashiri, Hokkaidō; the Uilta Kyokai of Japan was founded to fight for Uilta rights and the preservation of Uilta traditions in 1975 by Dahinien Gendanu. The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family. At present, 64 people of the Sakhalin Oroks speak the Orok language, all Oroks speak Russian.
An alphabetic script, based on Cyrillic, was introduced in 2007. A primer has been published, the language is taught in one school on Sakhalin; the Oroks share cultural and linguistic links with other Tungusic peoples, but before the arrival of Russians, they differed economically from similar peoples due to their herding of reindeer. Reindeer provided the Oroks in northern Sakhalin, with food and transportation; the Oroks practiced fishing and hunting. The arrival of Russians has had a major effect on Orok culture, most Oroks today live sedentary lifestyles; some northern Oroks still practice semi-nomadic herding alongside vegetable farming and cattle ranching. The Orok boys, when it came of time, would participate in a Sturgeon Hunt hunting for the Beluga or Kaluga Sturgeon variants; this involved a lone Orok going out, with only a small supply of food and armed with a special type of spear. Once the sturgeon was killed, the hunter would take one of the predator's teeth and carve a mark in his forehead or arm, which indicated that the hunt was successful.
Due to the fish's size and fierceness, failure to kill the Sturgeon resulted in the hunter's death. Kolga, Margus, "Nivkhs", The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire, Estonia: NGO Red Book, ISBN 9985-9369-2-2 Shternberg, Lev Iakovlevich.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, is a part of evolutionary biology. Studies in this branch of biology examine such phenomena as adaptation and population structure. Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis, its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics. Traditionally a mathematical discipline, modern population genetics encompasses theoretical and field work. Population genetic models are used both for statistical inference from DNA sequence data and for proof/disproof of concept. What sets population genetics apart today from newer, more phenotypic approaches to modelling evolution, such as evolutionary game theory and adaptive dynamics, is its emphasis on genetic phenomena as dominance and the degree to which genetic recombination breaks up linkage disequilibrium.
This makes it appropriate for comparison to population genomics data. Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian biostatistics models. Natural selection will only cause evolution. Before the discovery of Mendelian genetics, one common hypothesis was blending inheritance, but with blending inheritance, genetic variance would be lost, making evolution by natural or sexual selection implausible. The Hardy–Weinberg principle provides the solution to how variation is maintained in a population with Mendelian inheritance. According to this principle, the frequencies of alleles will remain constant in the absence of selection, mutation and genetic drift; the next key step was the work of statistician Ronald Fisher. In a series of papers starting in 1918 and culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher showed that the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes, that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in evolution.
In a series of papers beginning in 1924, another British geneticist, J. B. S. Haldane, worked out the mathematics of allele frequency change at a single gene locus under a broad range of conditions. Haldane applied statistical analysis to real-world examples of natural selection, such as peppered moth evolution and industrial melanism, showed that selection coefficients could be larger than Fisher assumed, leading to more rapid adaptive evolution as a camouflage strategy following increased pollution; the American biologist Sewall Wright, who had a background in animal breeding experiments, focused on combinations of interacting genes, the effects of inbreeding on small isolated populations that exhibited genetic drift. In 1932 Wright introduced the concept of an adaptive landscape and argued that genetic drift and inbreeding could drive a small, isolated sub-population away from an adaptive peak, allowing natural selection to drive it towards different adaptive peaks; the work of Fisher and Wright founded the discipline of population genetics.
This integrated natural selection with Mendelian genetics, the critical first step in developing a unified theory of how evolution worked. John Maynard Smith was Haldane's pupil, whilst W. D. Hamilton was influenced by the writings of Fisher; the American George R. Price worked with both Maynard Smith. American Richard Lewontin and Japanese Motoo Kimura were influenced by Wright; the mathematics of population genetics were developed as the beginning of the modern synthesis. Authors such as Beatty have asserted that population genetics defines the core of the modern synthesis. For the first few decades of the 20th century, most field naturalists continued to believe that Lamarckism and orthogenesis provided the best explanation for the complexity they observed in the living world. During the modern synthesis, these ideas were purged, only evolutionary causes that could be expressed in the mathematical framework of population genetics were retained. Consensus was reached as to which evolutionary factors might influence evolution, but not as to the relative importance of the various factors.
Theodosius Dobzhansky, a postdoctoral worker in T. H. Morgan's lab, had been influenced by the work on genetic diversity by Russian geneticists such as Sergei Chetverikov, he helped to bridge the divide between the foundations of microevolution developed by the population geneticists and the patterns of macroevolution observed by field biologists, with his 1937 book Genetics and the Origin of Species. Dobzhansky examined the genetic diversity of wild populations and showed that, contrary to the assumptions of the population geneticists, these populations had large amounts of genetic diversity, with marked differences between sub-populations; the book took the mathematical work of the population geneticists and put it into a more accessible form. Many more biologists were influenced by population genetics via Dobzhansky than were able to read the mathematical works in the original. In Great Britain E. B. Ford, the pioneer of ecological genetics, continued throughout the 1930s and 1940s to empirically demonstrate the power of selection due to ecological factors including the ability to maintain genetic diversity through genetic polymorphisms such as human blood types.
Ford's work, in collaboration with Fisher, contributed to a shift in emphasis during the course of the modern synthesis towards natural selection as the dominant force. The original, modern synthesis view of population genetics assumes that mutations provi
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Russian Far East
The Russian Far East comprises the Russian part of the Far East, the eastermost territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. The Far Eastern Federal District shares land borders with Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to its south, shares maritime borders with Japan to its southeast and with the United States to its northeast. Although geographically part of Siberia, the Russian Far East is categorized separately from the Siberian Federal District to its west in Russian geographical schemes. In Russia, the region is referred to as just "Far East". What is known in English as the Far East is referred to as "the Asia-Pacific Region", or "East Asia". Beyenchime-Salaatin crater Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano Kuril–Kamchatka Trench Lake Baikal Manchurian wapiti Siberian musk deer Amur leopard Amur tiger Asian black bear Brown bear Polar bear Picea obovata Pinus pumila Russia reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of Okhotsk, consolidated its control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century, after the annexation of part of Chinese Manchuria.
Primorskaya Oblast was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at Khabarovsk. Several entities with the name "Far East" had existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries: 1920–1922: the Far Eastern Republic, which included Transbaikal, Amur and Kamchatka Oblasts and northern Sakhalin; until 2000, the Russian Far East lacked defined boundaries. A single term "Siberia and the Far East" was used to refer to Russia's regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East". In 2000, Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, the Far Eastern Federal District was created, comprising Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast with Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, the Sakha Republic, Sakhalin Oblast. In November 2018, Zabaykalsky Krai and the Republic of Buryatia were added being considered part of the Siberian Federal District.
Since 2000, the term "Far East" has been used in Russia to refer to the federal district, though it is also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East has an area of 6.2 million square kilometres —over one-third of Russia's total area. Russia in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean for the navy as well as to facilitate maritime trade; the established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur in Manchuria was operational all year. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between Japan and the Tsars's government, Japan chose war to protect its domination of Korea and adjacent territories. Russia, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression and of rallying patriotism in the aftermath of several general strikes. Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan's declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur.
Eight days Russia declared war on Japan. The war ended in September 1905 with a Japanese victory following the fall of Port Arthur and the failed Russian invasion of Japan through the Korean Peninsula and Northeast China; the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed and both Japan and Russia agreed to evacuate Manchuria and return its sovereignty to China, but Japan was allowed to lease the Liaodong Peninsula, the Russian rail system in southern Manchuria with its access to strategic resources. Japan received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin from Russia. Russia was forced to confiscate land from Korean settlers who formed the majority of Primorsky Krai's population due to a fear of an invasion of Korea and ousting of Japanese troops by Korean guerrillas. Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to illness, or freezing conditions.
Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years. Koreans were not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG labour camps during Stalin's rule in the region's northern half. After that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by high wages. During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Soviets occupied Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, Yinlong Island, several adjacent islets to separate the city of Khabarovsk from the territory controlled by a hostile power. Indeed, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Jap
Jōmon people is the generic name of people who lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Jōmon period. Today most Japanese historians believe that the Jomon were not a single homogeneous people but were two or three distinct groups. On average, many Jōmon adult men were about 155 adult women were less than 150 cm. Many have so-called engraved deep facial features, the inter-eyebrows protrude, the base of the nose is retracted, they have large eyes, double eyelids and somewhat thick chin bones. It is suggested. Anthropologic studies suggest. While the majority of Hokkaido- and Honshu-Jomon show Ainu-like phenotypes, the Jomon in Kyushu and parts of southern Honshu show similarities to East-Asian phenotypes, it is not known what language or languages were spoken during the Jomon period. Suggested languages are: The Ainu language, Japonic languages, Tungusic languages, Austronesian languages, Paleosiberian languages or unknown and today extinct languages. While the most supported view is to equate the Ainu language with the Jomon language this view is not unproblematic as at least four tribes in central- and western-Japan are believed to have spoken a Tungusic language, at least three tribes in Kyushu and Okinawa an Austronesian language and it is not know if there were other groups with different languages too.
The culture of the Jomon people is known as "Jōmon culture". It was based on food collection but it is suggested that Jomon people practiced early agriculture, they gathered tree nuts and shellfish, laid the foundations for living such as hunting and fishing, made some cultivation. They used stoneware and pottery, lived in a pit dwelling; some elements of modern Japanese culture may come from one or more of the Jomon groups. Among these elements are the precursors to Shinto, some marriage customs, architectural styles, technological developments such as lacquerware, laminated yumi and glass making. There is evidence that the Jomon people built ships out of big trees and used them for Fishing and traveling. There is no agreement if they used paddles; the Jomon used Obsidian and different kinds of wood. The religion of at least some Jomon people was early Shintoism, it was based on animism and shamanism. Some historians link it to the Ainu religion as well; this section deals with the suggested descendants of the people during the Jomon period.
It is agreed that the Ainu people are the direct descendants of the Jomon people. Although the Ainu show some influence from the Okhotsk people, a genetic study shows that the Hokkaido Ainu share most of their genome with ancient Jomon samples from northern Honshu and Hokkaido; the Emishi, a former non-Yamato group in Honshu, are linked to the Ainu people, but several historians suggest that they were their own Jomon group and did not share close cultural connections to the people of Hokkaido. The Emishi were also not a single group. Tribes like the Koshibito and Saeki people are suggested to be of Tungusic origin and are not related to the Ainu. While the Koshibito and Saeki people lived during the Jomon period in Japan and are thus classificated as "Jomon people" they do not share the Ainu-like ancestry; the Ryukyuan people are regarded as a mixture of local Jomon people and migrants from China and Korea. The Jomon ancestry in Ryukyuans is estimated at 28%; some other studies show a higher amount in some individuals.
The Yamato Japanese are descended from the Yayoi people but have admixture from the Jomon people. It is estimated that the Jomon ancestry is less than 20%. Another study estimates the Jomon ancestry in people from Tokyo at 12%; some ethnic groups in southeastern Siberia, such as the Ulch people, the Nivkh people and the Itelmens, show some Ainu-like genome informations. It is suggested that ancient Jomon people migrated to parts of Siberia and mixed with the local population; the origin of the Jomon people and their ancestors is disputed. Several theories suggested Northeast Asia as possible place of origin. Another theory supported an origin in East Asia. Newest genetic studies conclude that the Jomon are the last descedants of an unique group of ancient people; the study suggests an ancient origin in modern Central Asia. It is thought that the haplogroups C1a1 were frequent in Jōmon people. In fact, a Jōmon man excavated from Rebun Island was found to belong to Haplogroup D1b2a. Haplogroup D1b is found in haplogroup C1a1 in about 10 % of modern Japanese people.
C1a1 has its highest amount in Tokushima Prefecture at about 17%, followed by Okinawa Prefecture and Tokyo at about 8-9%. In addition, it is assumed. Haplogroup D-M174 is common in modern Japanese, Pumi and Andamanese tribes. A medium distribution of haplogroup D is found in Central Asia and other minority groups in southern China. Haplogroup C1a1 is found in Jomon people, modern Japanese and Neolithic Europe and in few samples of modern Europeans and Arabs. Mitsuru Sakitani said that C1a1's ancestral type reached Japan via the Korean Peninsula via Altai Mountains from South-west Asia. MtDNA Haplogroup of Jōmon people is characterized by M7a and N9b. M7a has N9b in Hokkaido. In addition, B and F are found in Jōmon people as well; the gene related to Jōmon people is a re
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were a Tungusic people who lived in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River; the Mohe constituted a major part of the population in the kingdom of Balhae, which lasted from the late 7th century to early 10th century. After the fall of Balhae, few historical traces of the Mohe can be found, though they are considered to be the primary ethnic group from whom the Jurchen people descended; the Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated. The Mohe practiced a sedentary agrarian lifestyle and were predominantly farmers who grew soybean, wheat and rice, supplemented by pig raising and hunting for meat; the Mohe were known to have worn pig and dog skin coats. The Chinese exonym Mohe 靺鞨 is a graphic pejorative written with mo 靺 "socks.
Mo is a customary expression meaning "barbarian" or Xiongnu. In the Dynasties before the Five dynasties recorded as "靺羯", such as Honglujing Stele, he 鞨 is gal, meaning "stone" by Jie/Gal language. The Jie ruler Shi Le takes the surname shi 石 "stone" from gal. According to the History of Jin, Shi Tu Men is the prince of the Jurchen people, whose surname shi hints to a connection with the Mohe and Jie; the ethnonym of the Mohe bears a notable resemblance to that of the historically attested *Motgit in Middle Chinese.. The name of the Mohe appears as "Maka" in "Shin-Maka" or "New Mohe,", the name of a dance and the musical piece that accompanies it. In modern Japanese historical texts, the name of the Mohe is annotated with the "kana" reading Makkatsu, a transliteration based on the standard Sino-Japanese readings of the Chinese characters used to transcribe the ethnonym of the Mohe. According to some records, there were seven/eight. 580-620 Li Jinhang, 619-683, Tudiji's son Dae Joyeong,?-719■ Baishan Mohe Geolsa Biu ■ Heisui Mohe A Tou Tou Fu Su Wugai Gao Zhimen Wusukemung Nisuliji ■ Funie Mohe Shiyimeng Li Duozuo ■ Yuexi Mohe Wushikemeng Balhae Jie people Shi Le Guanqiu Jian Aisin Gioro, Ulhicun.
"Manchuria from the Fall of the Yuan to the rise of the Manchu State". Retrieved 10 March 2014. Crossley, Pamela Kyle, The Manchus, Blackwell Publishing Gorelova, Liliya M. ed.. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 8 Uralic & Central Asian Studies, Manchu Grammar. Volume Seven Manchu Grammar. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004123075. Retrieved 6 May 2014. History of China History of Manchuria Balhae