SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Recycling

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. It is an alternative to "conventional" waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling can prevent the waste of useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, thereby reducing: energy usage, air pollution, water pollution. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Thus, recycling aims at environmental sustainability by substituting raw material inputs into and redirecting waste outputs out of the economic system. There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, cardboard, plastic, textiles and electronics; the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food or garden waste—is a form of recycling.

Materials to be recycled are either delivered to a household recycling center or picked up from curbside bins sorted and reprocessed into new materials destined for manufacturing new products. In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper or used polystyrene foam into new polystyrene; this is accomplished when recycling certain types of materials, such as metal cans, which can become a can again and again, without losing purity in the product. However, this is difficult or too expensive, so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value, or due to their hazardous nature. Recycling has been a common practice for most of human history, with recorded advocates as far back as Plato in the fourth century BC.

During periods when resources were scarce and hard to come by, archaeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste —implying more waste was being recycled in the absence of new material. In pre-industrial times, there is evidence of scrap bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse. Paper recycling was first recorded in 1031. In Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was collected by "dustmen" and downcycled as a base material used in brick making; the main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in more densely populated areas. In 1813, Benjamin Law developed the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool in Batley, Yorkshire; this material combined recycled fibers with virgin wool. The West Yorkshire shoddy industry in towns such as Batley and Dewsbury lasted from the early 19th century to at least 1914.

Industrialization spurred demand for affordable materials. Railroads both purchased and sold scrap metal in the 19th century, the growing steel and automobile industries purchased scrap in the early 20th century. Many secondary goods were collected and sold by peddlers who scoured dumps and city streets for discarded machinery, pots and other sources of metal. By World War I, thousands of such peddlers roamed the streets of American cities, taking advantage of market forces to recycle post-consumer materials back into industrial production. Beverage bottles were recycled with a refundable deposit at some drink manufacturers in Great Britain and Ireland around 1800, notably Schweppes. An official recycling system with refundable deposits was established in Sweden for bottles in 1884 and aluminum beverage cans in 1982. New chemical industries created in the late 19th century both invented new materials and promised to transform valueless into valuable materials. Proverbially, you could not make a silk purse of a sow's ear—until the US firm Arthur D. Little published in 1921 "On the Making of Silk Purses from Sows' Ears", its research proving that when "chemistry puts on overalls and gets down to business... new values appear.

New and better paths are opened to reach the goals desired."Recycling was a major issue for governments throughout World War II. Financial constraints and significant material shortages due to war efforts made it necessary for countries to reuse goods and recycle materials; these resource shortages caused by the world wars, other such world-changing occurrences encouraged recycling. The struggles of war claimed much of the material resources available, leaving little for the civilian population, it became necessary for most homes to recycle their waste, as recycling offered an extra source of materials allowing people to make the most of what was available to them. Recycling household materials meant a better chance of victory. Massive government promotion campaigns, such as the National Salvage Campaign in Brita

Christoffer Franzén

Christoffer Franzén is a Swedish composer and multi-instrumentalist from Gothenburg. He is known for his alternative and cinematic solo-project Lights & Motion, in which he plays all the instruments and writes all the music. Franzén created the project in 2012 as a result of a longer period insomnia and gained worldwide recognition when his music was featured in Google's commercial at the Oscars in 2013, his music has since been featured in multiple Hollywood trailers, fashion shows, commercials and TV-Shows. Christoffer Franzén created the musical project Lights & Motion in early 2012, after having experienced a prolonged period of insomnia; the band have so far released four full-length albums, Save Your Heart and Dear Avalanche, as well as two separate EP's released in 2018. In 2016 his song "Stardust" was featured in the trailers, his music has been used by Apple on several occasions. In 2017 Apple chose to include two songs written by Franzen to be a part of their Memories Feature, available on all Apple devices globally.

In December 2013, Lights & Motion was voted as "The Best New Artist" in the annual polls by Post-rock on Facebook, the world's largest post-rock community. During 2019 he scored the film Sea Fever, directed by BAFTA-winner Neasa Hardiman, which will premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival; as Lights & MotionReanimation Save Your Heart Chronicle Dear Avalanche Bloom While We Dream As Christoffer FranzénDreamweaver Phenomenon Mountain Film-scoresSea Fever At The End Of The Day In I Dimman Franzén has been a long time user of Fender Guitars. He has used most notably, the 72 deluxe reissue and the thinline. På Official Website