Ulster Protestants are an ethnoreligious group in the Irish province of Ulster, where they make up about 43% of the population. Many Ulster Protestants are descendants of settlers who arrived in the early 17th century Ulster Plantation; this was the colonisation of the Gaelic, Catholic province of Ulster by English-speaking Protestants from Great Britain from the Scottish Lowlands and Northern England. Many more Scottish Protestant migrants arrived in Ulster in the late 17th century; those who came from Scotland were Presbyterians, while those from England were Anglicans. There is a small Methodist community and the Methodist Church in Ireland dates to John Wesley's first visit to Ulster in 1752. Since the 17th century and political divisions between Ulster Protestants and Catholics have played a major role in the history of Ulster, of Ireland as a whole. Ulster Protestants descend from a variety of lineages, including Lowland Scots, English and Huguenots; the Ulster Protestant community emerged during the Plantation of Ulster.
This was the colonisation of Ulster with loyal English-speaking Protestants from Great Britain under the reign of King James. Those involved in planning the plantation saw it as a means of controlling, "civilising" Ulster; the province was wholly Gaelic and rural, had been the region most resistant to English control. The plantation was meant to sever Gaelic Ulster's links with the Gaelic Highlands of Scotland. Most of the land colonised was confiscated from the native Irish. Begun in 1606, the plantation became government-sponsored in 1609, with much land for settlement being allocated to the Livery Companies of the City of London. By 1622 there was a total settler population of about 19,000, by the 1630s somewhere between 50,000 and as many as 80,000. Another influx of an estimated 20,000 Scottish Protestants to the coastal counties of Antrim and Londonderry, was a result of the seven ill years of famines in Scotland in the 1690s; this migration decisively changed the population of Ulster. While Presbyterians of Scottish descent and origin had become the majority of Ulster Protestants by the 1660s, when Protestants still made up only a third of the population, they had become an absolute majority in the province by the 1720s.
Divisions between Ulster's Protestants and Irish Catholics have played a major role in the history of Ulster from the 17th century to the present day. It has led to bouts of violence and political upheaval, notably in the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite War, the Armagh disturbances, the Irish revolutionary period, the Troubles. There were tensions between the two main groups of Ulster Protestants; the Penal Laws discriminated against both Catholics and Presbyterians, in an attempt to force them to accept the state religion, the Anglican Church of Ireland. Repression of Presbyterians by Anglicans intensified after the Glorious Revolution after the Test Act of 1703, was one reason for heavy onward emigration to North America by Ulster Presbyterians during the 18th century. Between 1717 and 1775, an estimated 200,000 migrated to; some Presbyterians returned to Scotland during this period, where the Presbyterian Church of Scotland was the state religion. These Penal Laws are what led Ulster Presbyterians to become founders and members of the United Irishmen, a republican movement which launched the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Repression of Presbyterians ended after the rebellion, with the relaxation of the Penal Laws. The Kingdom of Ireland became part of the United Kingdom in 1801; as Belfast became industrialised in the 19th century, it attracted yet more Protestant immigrants from Scotland. After the partition of Ireland in 1920, the new government of Northern Ireland launched a campaign to entice Protestants from the Irish Free State to relocate to Northern Ireland, with inducements of state jobs and housing, large numbers accepted; the vast majority of Ulster Protestants live in Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. Most tend to support the Union with Great Britain, are referred to as unionists. Unionism is an ideology, divided by some into two camps; the Loyal Orders, which include the Orange Order, Royal Black Institution and Apprentice Boys of Derry, are Protestant fraternal organisations which originated in Ulster and still have most of their membership there. About 3% of Ulster Protestants live in the three counties of Ulster now in the Republic of Ireland, Cavan and Donegal, where they make up around a fifth of the Republic's Protestant population.
Unlike Protestants in the rest of the Republic, some retain a sense of Britishness, a small number have difficulty identifying with the independent Irish state. Most Ulster Protestants speak Ulster English, some on the north-east coast speak with the Ulster Scots dialects. A small number have learned the Irish language as a second language. Protestantism in Ireland Amity and enmity: variety in Ulster Protestant culture Ulster Protestants - Blood & Belonging
Patch of Land is a peer-to-peer real estate crowdfunding online marketplace and hard money loan provider that connects real estate developers needing financing to lenders and real estate investors. Patch of Land focuses on 6–24 months real-estate first lien mortgage loans with borrower guarantees; the company has originated more than $725 million real estate loans secured by $1.16 billion of real estate and has returned $185 million of investor capital. Patch of Land was one of the first real estate crowdfunding platforms, it was the first real estate crowdfunding platform to focus on real-estate loans as opposed to equity, or both debt and equity simultaneously. Patch of Land was the first to pre-fund the loans it offered, providing immediate accrual of interest and giving borrowers access to all borrowed funds without needing to wait for investors to fund. Patch of Land was one of the first to co-invest in its property loans alongside investors on its platform. Patch of Land was established by Jason Fritton, Brian Fritton and Carlo Tabibi in 2012 in Los Angeles, California shortly after congressional passage of the United States Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, making it one of the earliest providers of online Real-Estate Crowdfunding.
Jason Fritton was among those who lobbied the United States Congress for the inclusion of real-estate crowdfunding in the JOBS Act. The company hired AdaPia d'Ericco as Chief Marketing Amy Wan as General Legal Counsel. In August 2015, Patch of Land announced its Indentured Trustee Investment Model, offering a bankruptcy remote investment structure and stronger consumer protections for its investors. Patch of Land opened its Indentured Trustee Model documentation to the public in the hopes that other firms would follow suit, as many did. In May 2015, Patch of Land completed the largest real-estate investment loan offering of $1,900,000 to be crowdfunded as of that date. In 2015, CNBC created its Crowdfunding Index, powered by Crowdnetic, included Patch of Land in both the real estate sub-sector as well as the overarching crowdfinancing sectorIn April 2016, the company hired Paul Deitch from Oaktree Capital Management as CEO, he was replaced by co-founder and chairman Jason Fritton. In 2016, Entrepreneur named Patch of Land to its list of 100 Brilliant Companies.
In October 2014, Patch of Land became the first real estate crowdfunding firm to crowdfund itself via the SeedInvest equity fund-raising platform. In April 2015, the company raised $23.6 million in a Series A round led by SF Capital Group as well as an investment from Ron Suber, president of Prosper Marketplace. In February 2016, the company announced that it had secured $250 million in investments from a large east coast credit fund via a forward flow arrangement. Crowdsourcing Peer-to-peer lending Peer-to-peer banking Comparison of crowdfunding services Disruptive innovation Crowdfunding Non-bank financial institution Prosper Marketplace Hard money loan Bridge Loans Official website
King Rat is an urban fantasy novel by British writer China Miéville, published in 1998. Unlike his Bas-Lag novels, it is set in London during the late 1990s, it follows the life of Saul Garamond after his meeting with King Rat. As King Rat takes Saul under his wing, the young man is embroiled in a centuries-old rivalry. King Rat was Miéville's debut novel. Saul Garamond returns to the flat he shares with his father in London late one evening, skipping on greetings and heading straight to bed. In the morning he is awakened by police pounding on the door, come to arrest him, it appears. After spending most of a day being interrogated and in a holding cell, Saul finds he has a mysterious visitor, who introduces himself as King Rat; the two begin. At the end of this journey, King Rat reveals to Saul that he is his uncle by way of Saul's mother being a rat and that Saul has been set up to take the fall for his father's death. Saul follows King Rat exploring the secrets of London, from the rooftops to the sewers.
Being half rat, his two primary abilities are being able to eat anything garbage, squeezing into holes and shadows too small for other creatures. Meanwhile, Saul's friend Natasha Karadjian, a drum and bass musician, begins to write and record new music with a flautist named Pete. Two of their other mutual friends and Kay, are unnerved by this stranger but find it hard not to like the music the two are making; these friends are being pursued by the police for any information on Saul's whereabouts. After spending several days with King Rat, Saul hears whispers of the return of the Ratcatcher; this prompts King Rat to gather allies, the spider king, Loplop, the bird king. So, King Rat relates the story of living in Hamelin, the last time he was king, but he was displaced, by the Pied Piper of Hamelin and his flute. It is revealed; the three animal kings end the story by swearing revenge. With his newfound powers, Saul is forced to stay in the shadows with King Rat, but cannot forget his own friends and past.
He visits Kay but the two no longer understand each other. This visit leads to Pete, being revealed as the returned Piper and murdering Kay. Meanwhile, the animal kings' plans begin to fall short and they drift apart. Saul begins to explore London on his own. During this time, he meets a vagrant. Together they return to Saul's former flat. Here finds an entry about an attack on his mother nine months before his own birth, he realises he is not King Rat's nephew but his son, by way of rape and that everything since his father's death has been a set up by King Rat, who must therefore be the murderer of the man Saul considers his father. As they discover these facts, the Piper confronts Deborah, he kills Loplop saves Saul. The piper reveals that he cannot control Saul as he can the others, as the Piper can only play one song at a time and as such a tune that controls rats will be ignored by Saul's human side and vice versa. Saul returns to the sewers leading to a falling-out, he wants to leave the Piper to the animal kings.
Natasha and Pete have set up an act at Jungle, to debut their music. Fabian is interrogated by the police again and he realises that the flute left behind when Saul was attacked belongs to Pete, he calls the police to meet him at Natasha's home but arriving ahead of them he is wounded and both he and Natasha are taken by the Piper. After wandering for a few days, Saul meets up with Anansi, who informs him of Kay's death by the Piper, he begins to notice something is wrong in the sewer as well, as the rats have disappeared, their scratching replaced by a new sound, music. He traces the sound back to King Rat's throne room, now filled with dancing and dead rats. Saul realises, he finds a poster for Natasha and the Piper's show, despite knowing it is a trap, he goes to save his friends. Saul sneaks into Anansi leading the spiders. Loplop, left deaf by Saul during the Piper's first attack is unable to rally his birds. However, when Natasha takes the stage to spin her records, Pete throws her a DAT, which has his flute samples on it.
The layering of tracks allows the Piper to play several tunes at once, controlling the rats and spiders all at once. Unable to defend himself Anansi is killed by the Piper and Saul is overwhelmed. However, King Rat bursts from under the stage and attacks the Piper, but proves to be only a momentary distraction. With the musical fusion playing, the entire club is under the Piper's control and all he wants to kill Saul, who will not dance for him; the music does not mesh: instead of one solo flute, two flutes compete for the overlying sound. This dissonance causes Saul to regain control; the Piper knows he cannot win a physical fight, so he tears a hole in reality by playing his flute through which he can escape, just as he tore a hole in the mountain to hide the children of Hamelin. King Rat attacks the Piper with the Piper's own flute. Saul and King Rat are unsung heroes of the clu