County Monaghan is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Ulster, it is named after the town of Monaghan. Monaghan County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county is 60,483 according to the 2011 census. The county has existed since 1585, when the Mac Mathghamhna rulers of Airgíalla agreed to join the Kingdom of Ireland. Following the 20th-century Irish War of Independence and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Monaghan was one of three Ulster counties to join the Irish Free State rather than Northern Ireland. Monaghan is the fifth smallest of the Republic's 26 counties in area and fourth smallest by population, it is the smallest of Ulster's nine counties in size and the smallest in terms of population. Cremorne Dartree Farney Monaghan Trough 1. Monaghan = 7,452 2. Carrickmacross = 4,925 3. Castleblayney = 3,634 4. Clones = 1,761 5. Ballybay = 1,461 Notable mountains include Mullyash Mountain and Coolberrin Hill. Lakes include Lough Avaghon, Dromore Lough, Drumlona Lough, Lough Egish, Emy Lough, Lough Fea, Inner Lough, Muckno Lough and White Lough.
Notable rivers include the River Glyde, the Ulster Blackwater and the Dromore River. Monaghan has a number including Rossmore Forest and Dartrey Forest. Managed by Coillte since 1988, the majority of trees are conifers. Due to a long history of intensive farming and recent intensive forestry practices, only small pockets of native woodland remain; the Finn Bridge is a border crossing point over the River Finn to County Fermanagh. It is close to Scotshouse. Lead was mined in County Monaghan. Mines included Lisdrumgormley Lead Mines. In 1585, the English lord deputy of Ireland, Sir John Perrot, visited the area and met the Irish chieftains, they requested that Ulster be divided into counties and land in the kingdom of Airgíalla be apportioned to each of the McMahon chiefs. A commission was established to accomplish this and County Monaghan came into being; the county was subdivided into five baronies: Farney, Dartrey and Truagh, left under the control of the McKenna chieftains. After the defeat of the rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill and the Ulster chieftains in 1603, the county was not planted like the other counties of Ulster.
The lands were instead left in the hands of the native chieftains. In the Irish Rebellion of 1641 the McMahons and their allies joined the general rebellion of Irish Catholics. Following their defeat, some colonisation of the county took place with Scottish and English families. County Monaghan is traversed by the derelict Ulster Canal, however Waterways Ireland are embarking on a scheme to reopen the canal from Lough Erne into Clones; the Ulster Railway linked Monaghan with Armagh and Belfast in 1858 and with the Dundalk and Enniskillen Railway at Clones in 1863. It became part of the Great Northern Railway in 1876; the partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the boundary with County Armagh into an international frontier, after which trains were delayed by customs inspections. In 1957 the Government of Northern Ireland made the GNR Board close the line between Portadown and the border, giving the GNRB no option but to withdraw passenger services between the border and Clones as well. CIÉ took over the remaining section of line between Clones and Glaslough in 1958 but withdrew goods services between Monaghan and Glaslough in 1959 and between Clones and Monaghan in 1960, leaving Monaghan with no railway service.
Monaghan is divided into four local electoral areas: Carrickmacross, Castleblayney and Monaghan. The towns of Ballybay, Castleblayney and Monaghan are represented by nine-member town councils which deal with local matters such as the provision of utilities and housing. For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the Cavan–Monaghan Constituency which elects five T. D.s. In the 2011 general election, there was a voter turnout of 72.7%. For elections to the European Parliament, the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency. Politically, the county is considered a stronghold for Sinn Féin, the largest party in the county, followed by Fine Gael. County Monaghan is the birthplace of the poet and writer Patrick Kavanagh, who based much of his work in the county. Kavanagh is one of the most significant figures in 20th-century Irish poetry; the poems "Stony Grey Soil" and "Shancoduff" refer to the county. Monaghan has produced several successful artists. Chief among these is George Collie, born in Carrickmacross and trained at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art.
He was a prolific exhibitor at the Royal Hibernian Academy throughout his lifetime and is represented by works in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland and the Ulster Museum. Monaghan was the home county of the Irish writer Sir Shane Leslie, 3rd Baronet of Glaslough, who lived at Castle Leslie in the north-east corner of the county. A Catholic convert, Irish nationalist and first cousin of Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Leslie became an important literary figure in the early 1900s, he was a close friend of many politicians and writers of the day including the American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, who dedicated his second novel, The Beautiful and Damned, to Leslie. Monaghan County Museum is recognised as one of the l
The Ulster Canal is a disused canal running through part of County Armagh, County Tyrone and County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland and County Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. In the early 19th century the idea of linking the lowlands around Lough Neagh with the Erne Basin and the River Shannon system became popular with the more progressive landowners and merchants of Armagh and Fermanagh; the Ulster Canal was 74 km long with 26 locks. It ran from Charlemont on the River Blackwater to Wattle Bridge on the River Finn, south-east of Upper Lough Erne, it was an ill-considered venture, with the locks built narrower than the other Irish waterways, preventing through trade, an inadequate water supply. It was an abject failure commercially, contributed to the collapse of the Lagan Navigation Company, who took it over from the government but were refused permission to abandon it when they could not afford the maintenance costs, it closed in 1931. Waterways Ireland started work on rebuilding the canal at its southern end in 2015.
In 1778, a proposal was made for a canal from Ballyshannon to the Lower Lough Erne. The estimated cost of the scheme was £32,000, but it was seen as part of a larger project, since a further £8,000 would have provided a link to Enniskillen and Ballyconnell. A future link from Ballyconnell to Ballymore, along the Woodford River valley, on to Lough Scurr and the River Shannon at Leitrim was suggested but not costed, it would thus be an important section of a great waterway, to cross Ireland from east to west, from Belfast to Limerick, which would compete with a similar link formed by the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal further to the south. Government funding was forthcoming in 1783, a section of the canal was constructed between Ballyshannon and Belleek, with Richard Evans, the engineer for the Royal Canal, overseeing the work, which included a lock at Belleek; the project stalled in 1794. The Directors General of Inland Navigation asked Evans to prepare an estimate of the costs to finish the work in 1801, but no action was taken.
By 1814, the Directors General were faced with problems of unemployment in the area, a canal from Lough Neagh to Lough Erne was seen as a way to provide jobs for the local population. John Killaly was commissioned to survey the route of such a link, produced his report in February 1815, his estimate of £233,000 would provide a canal which ascended through six locks from Wattle Bridge to a summit near Monaghan and descended through another sixteen to reach Lough Neagh. It would be 35.5 miles long, would include a branch to Armagh. The plan was ill-thought-out, as he decided to make the locks of a similar size to those on the Royal Canal, 76 by 14 feet, which would accommodate boats up to about 13.3 feet wide, but those that used Lough Neagh, the Lagan Canal, the Newry Canal and the Coalisland Canal, were 14.8 feet wide, would not therefore be able to use the route. A public meeting was held at Monaghan in February 1817, despite strong local support, including an offer to provide two-thirds of the cost by a group of landowners and businessmen, the Directors General did not take any action, the project remained an idea.
The proprietors who had taken over the Lagan Canal in 1810 saw the link as a way to increase traffic on their own canal, public support for it grew until a large group of people requested parliamentary approval for a revised scheme, similar to Killaly's of a decade previously. The government remained unconvinced that they would receive a return on any money advanced, so the Directors General could not act. In 1825, a private company was authorised to construct the canal, it was estimated to cost £160,050, as a new survey had produced a plan which only needed eighteen locks. The company applied to the borrow £100,000 from the Exchequer Bill Loan Commission, a body created under the Poor Employment Act of 1817; the engineer Thomas Telford was sent to Ireland to inspect the plans and estimates, which he duly approved, but the interest rates on the loan could not be agreed, three further Acts of Parliament were obtained before a loan of £120,000 was agreed. Problems were experienced with the contractors, Henry and MacMahon from Dublin, who were awarded the construction contract in 1832.
Telford decided that there were serious problems with the design and that a new survey should be made. This increased the number of locks to 26, the contractors were asked for a new estimate. Agreement could not be reached, they withdrew from the project. John Killaly, the local engineer, died in 1832, it in not known whether he decided to reduce the width of the locks before he died, or whether the decision was made by Telford, but they were built 12 feet wide, preventing through traffic except in specially built boats. William Cubitt succeeded Telford after he died in 1834; the canal was finished in 1841. From the summit pound, nineteen locks descended to Lough Neagh, in the other direction, seven descended to Lough Erne. Water was supplied by Quig Lough reservoir, a lake near Monaghan, enlarged; the final lock at Wattle Bridge was only 11.7 feet wide. The project had cost over £230,000; the canal failed to generate significant trade, as the water supply was inadequate, goods had to be transhipped at either end into narrower boats.
In addition, there was no link to the River Shannon to generate through traffic, unlikely to be one while the canal did not prosper. The company were unable to repay any of the loan made by the Exchequer Bill Loan Commissioners, in
Dundalk railway station
Dundalk Clarke railway station serves Dundalk in County Louth, Ireland. It consists with a bay facing south, it is served by the Dublin-Belfast "Enterprise" express trains as well as local Commuter services to and from Dublin. There is a small museum located in one of the station buildings, displaying various railway artefacts and photographs; the original station opened on 15 February 1849 as Dundalk Junction, the current Dundalk Station, 350m to the north, opened in June 1894. It was given the name Clarke on Sunday 10 April 1966 in commemoration of Tom Clarke, one of the executed leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916; the ticket office and modern waiting area are located at road level, whereas the station proper is beneath this at track level. The two sections are connected by a Victorian covered walkway, by a 21st-century lift for disabled access; the station is noted for its fine iron and polychromic brickwork. It has been said to be the finest station on the Dublin-Belfast line; the town had the important Railway Works on the Great Northern Railway of Ireland system.
Amongst the products developed was the railbus. List of railway stations in Ireland Great Northern Railway of Ireland Irish Rail Dundalk Station Website Eiretrains - Dundalk Station
Derriaghy railway station
Derriaghy railway station is located in the townland of Derriaghy in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It lies between the centres of Lisburn; the station opened on 9 February 1907 and was closed to passengers between 1953 and 1958. Mondays to Saturdays there is a half-hourly service towards Lisburn, Portadown or Newry in one direction, to Great Victoria Street, Belfast Central or Bangor in the other. Extra services operate at peak times, the service reduces to hourly operation in the evenings. On Sundays there is an hourly service in each direction. Media related to Derriaghy railway station at Wikimedia Commons
Belturbet railway station
Belturbet was the former terminus station of both the 4¼ mile Ballyhaise to Belturbet branch of the Great Northern Railway line and of the Cavan and Leitrim Railway. For many years the station was somewhat derelict but it is now restored and houses a museum; the platform remains extant too and a small length of track has been reinstated together with some rolling stock
Belfast and County Down Railway
The Belfast and County Down Railway was an Irish gauge railway in Ireland linking Belfast with County Down. It was built in the 19th century and absorbed into the Ulster Transport Authority in 1948. All but the line between Belfast and Bangor was closed in the 1950s, although some of it has been restored near Downpatrick by a heritage line, the Downpatrick and County Down Railway; the company was incorporated on 26 June 1846 with the first section of line from Belfast to Holywood opening for traffic on 2 August 1848. The line was further extended to Bangor by the Belfast and Bangor Railway, opening on 1 May 1865, acquired by the BCDR in 1884; the line to Downpatrick was opened on 25 March 1859. The line from Downpatrick to Newcastle was built by the Downpatrick and Newcastle Railway, opening on 25 March 1869 and absorbed by BCDR on 14 July 1884; the railway's first chief engineer was Sir John Macneill, responsible for allowing the railway to cross the marshy River Quoile. A branch to Ballynahinch was opened in 1858 via Ballynahinch Junction.
A branch line from Downpatrick to Ardglass was opened in 1892. This resulted in a'triangle'-shaped track layout just outside of Downpatrick, allowing trains between Belfast and Newcastle to collect and drop off passengers at the Loop Platform, who would be ferried between there and the main station at Downpatrick by a local train. Thanks to the triangular layout, trains were still capable of operating directly from the main Downpatrick station to Belfast or Newcastle; the branch from Newcastle to Castlewellan was opened on 24 March 1906. The company operated 80 miles of track in County Down, with its longest route being from Belfast to Castlewellan, a distance of 41 miles. All locomotives were constructed by Beyer, except No. 2, from Harland and Wolff. By 1948 the company had 29 locomotives. Two steam railcars from Kitson & Co. were acquired in 1905. The locomotive works were at Belfast Queen's Quay railway station and closed in 1950. New carriage works had been opened in 1886, with the last carriage being built in 1923.
Belfast – Ballymacarrett Halt – Victoria Park – Sydenham – Tillysburn – Holywood – Marino – Cultra Halt – Craigavad – Helen's Bay – Carnalea – Bangor West Halt – Bangor Belfast – Bloomfield – Neill's Hill – Knock – Dundonald – Comber Comber – Ballygowan – Shepherd's Bridge Halt – Saintfield – Ballynahinch Junction – Crossgar – King's Bridge Halt – Downpatrick Comber – Ballygowan – Shepherd's Bridge Halt – Saintfield – Ballynahinch Junction – Creevyargon Halt – Ballynahinch Comber – Newtownards – Conlig – Ballygrainey – Millisle Halt – Donaghadee Downpatrick – Downpatrick Loop Platform – Tullymurry – Ballykinlar Halt – Dundrum – Newcastle – Castlewellan Downpatrick – Downpatrick Loop Platform – Racecourse Platform – Ballynoe – Bright Halt – Killough – Coney Island Halt – Ardglass The BH&BR Act of 1881 authorised that company not only to have a railway built between Holywood and Bangor but to run steamships "for the purpose of establishing an improved and efficient communication between Belfast and Bangor".
The BH&BR did not exercise this power, but several years after it had been taken over by the B&CDR the latter company started running scheduled passenger steamship services on the route. The B&CDR took advice from the Glasgow and South Western Railway, running passenger paddle steamers since 1891. For the 1893 season the G&SWR had ordered a new ship, PS Minerva, to be built by J&G Thomson at Clydebank; the two railways ordered from Thomson's two sister ships of a revised design: PS Glen Rosa for the G&SWR and PS Slieve Donard for the B&CDR. Thomson's launched Slieve Donard on 20 May 1893 and she entered service between Belfast's Donegall Quay and Bangor on 20 June, she was named after the highest peak in the Mourne Mountains in County Down. In October 1893 the B&CDR ordered a larger paddle steamer, PS Slieve Bearnagh, named after Slieve Bearnagh, the second-highest peak in the Mourne Mountains, she made her first voyage on Belfast Lough on 1 May 1894. Donard and Bearnagh worked between Donegall Quay and Bangor, between them providing six sailings per day from Mondays to Saturdays and five on Sundays.
From Mondays to Saturdays one mid-afternoon sailing per day extended around the coast to Donaghadee. On Saturday afternoons other sailings continued from Bangor across Belfast Lough to Larne; that summer a local steamer line, the New Belfast and Larne Steamboat Company, went into liquidation and the B&CDR bought two of its ships, PS Bangor Castle and PS Erin, from the receivers. These ships were older and smaller than those that Thomson had supplied, the B&CDR seems to have made little use of them. Bangor Castle had been on charter to the Southampton, Isle of Wight and South of England Royal Mail Steam Packet Company since 1888 and was scrapped in 1899. In 1899 the railway sold Slieve Donard to Alexander Campbell, co-founder of the P&A Campbell pleasure steamer company. Slieve Bearnagh remained with the B&CDR making excursions to Portaferry on the Ards Peninsula, Ardglass in south Down, Larne and Portrush on the coast of County Antrim in addition to her regular scheduled route on Belfast Lough.
At the end of the 1911 sumer season the B&CDR put Slieve Bearnagh up for sale and ordered a new paddle steamer, again larger than her predecessors. A&J Inglis of Pointhouse, Glasgow launched the new ship, PS Erin's Isle, on 12 June 1912 and fitted her out in less than a month. On 19 June 1912 the railway sold Slieve Bearnagh to D&J Nicol of Dundee for service on the east coast of
Great Northern Railway (Ireland)
The Great Northern Railway was an Irish gauge railway company in Ireland. It was formed in 1876 by a merger of the Irish North Western Railway, Northern Railway of Ireland, Ulster Railway; the Ulster Railway was the GNRI's oldest constituent, having opened between Belfast and Lisburn in 1839 and extended in stages to reach Clones in 1863. The Northern Railway of Ireland was itself formed by a merger of the Dublin and Drogheda Railway with the Dublin and the Belfast Junction Railway; the Ulster, D&D and D&BJct railways together formed the main line between Dublin and Belfast, with the D&BJct completing the final section in 1852 to join the Ulster at Portadown. The GNRI's other main lines were between Omagh and Portadown; the Portadown and Omagh Junction Railway together with the Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway enabled GNRI trains between Derry and Belfast to compete with the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, both this and the Dundalk route gave connections between Derry and Dublin. These main lines supported the development of an extensive branch network serving the southwest half of Ulster and northern counties of Leinster.
The GNRI became second largest railway network. In its early years the GNR imitated the image of its English namesake, adopting an apple green livery for its steam locomotives and a varnished teak finish for its passenger coaches; the company adopted its famous pale blue livery for locomotives, with the frames and running gear picked out in scarlet. Passenger vehicles were painted brown, instead of varnished. On 12 June 1889, a significant rail accident occurred when a passenger train stalled between Armagh and Newry; the train was divided, but during the uncoupling operation ten carriages ran away and collided with another passenger train. A total of 80 people were killed and 260 were injured in what was the deadliest railway accident to have occurred in Europe; as of 2019, the accident remains the deadliest to have occurred on the island of Ireland. In the early 20th century increasing traffic led the GNRI to consider introducing larger locomotives; the Great Southern and Western Railway had introduced express passenger locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement, the GNRI wanted to do the same.
However, the lifting shop in the GNRI Dundalk works was too short to build or overhaul a 4-6-0, so the company persisted with 4-4-0 locomotives for the heaviest and fastest passenger trains. This led to the GNRI to order a modern and powerful class of 4-4-0's, the Class V three cylinder compound locomotives built by Beyer, Peacock in 1932; this class has been compared with another notable V class, that introduced by the Southern Railway in England in 1930. The Partition of Ireland in 1921 created a border through the GNRI's territory; the new border crossed all some of its secondary lines. The imposition of border controls caused some service disruption, with main line trains having to stop at both Dundalk and Goraghwood stations; this was not eased until 1947 when customs and immigration facilities for Dublin–Belfast expresses were opened at Dublin Amiens Street station and Belfast Great Victoria Street station. A combination of the increasing road competition facing all railways and a change in patterns of economic activity caused by the partition of Ireland reduced the GNRI's prosperity.
The company modernised and reduced its costs by introducing modern diesel multiple units on an increasing number of services in the 1940s and 1950s and by making Dublin–Belfast expresses non-stop from 1948. In Dundalk at the GNR Works the railway engineers developed railbuses for use on sections of the rural network. By the 1950s the GNRI had ceased to be profitable and in 1953 the company was jointly nationalised by the governments of Ireland and Northern Ireland; the two governments ran the railway jointly under a Great Northern Railway Board until 1958. In May 1958 the Government of Northern Ireland's wish to close many lines led to the GNRI Board being dissolved and the assets divided between the two territories. At midnight on 30 September 1958 all lines in Northern Ireland were transferred to the Ulster Transport Authority and all lines in the Republic of Ireland were transferred to Córas Iompair Éireann. CIÉ had been formed as a private company in 1945 but had been nationalised in 1950.
In an attempt at fairness, all classes of locomotive and rolling stock were divided between the transport operators of the two new owners. Most classes of GNRI locomotive had been built in small classes, so this division left both railways with an operational and maintenance difficulty of many different designs all in small numbers; the Northern Ireland Government, which had a anti-rail policy closed most of the GNRI lines in Northern Ireland. Exceptions were the Belfast–Dundalk and Portadown–Derry main lines and the Newry–Warrenpoint and Lisburn–Antrim branches, it made the Lisburn–Antrim branch freight-only from 1960 and closed the Portadown–Derry and Newry–Warrenpoint lines to all traffic in 1965. The Republic of Ireland government tried to maintain services on lines closed at the border by the Northern Ireland government, but this was impractical, the Republic had to follow suit in closing most GNRI lines south of the border. Since 1960 the Drogheda–Navan branch has survived for freight traffic only.
The GNR's north western main line between Dundalk and Derry bypassed the small County Tyrone town of Fintona, instead served by a 1 mile branch line from Fintona Junction station. The service was operated by the double-deck