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Ulster Volunteer Force

The Ulster Volunteer Force is an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group. It emerged in 1966, its first leader was a former British soldier. The group undertook an armed campaign of thirty years during The Troubles, it declared a ceasefire in 1994 and ended its campaign in 2007, although some of its members have continued to engage in violence and criminal activities. The group is classified as a terrorist organisation by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, United States; the UVF's declared goals were to combat Irish republicanism – the Irish Republican Army – and to maintain Northern Ireland's status as part of the United Kingdom. It was responsible for more than 500 deaths; the vast majority of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were killed at random. During the conflict, its deadliest attack in Northern Ireland was the 1971 McGurk's Bar bombing, which killed fifteen civilians; the group carried out attacks in the Republic of Ireland from 1969 onward. The biggest of these was the 1974 Dublin and Monaghan bombings, which killed 34 civilians, making it the deadliest terrorist attack of the conflict.

The no-warning car bombings had been carried out by units from the Mid-Ulster brigades. The Mid-Ulster Brigade was responsible for the 1975 Miami Showband killings, in which three members of the popular Irish cabaret band were shot dead at a bogus military checkpoint by gunmen in British Army uniforms. Two UVF men were accidentally blown up in this poorly planned attack; the UVF's last major attack was the 1994 Loughinisland massacre, in which its members shot dead six Catholic civilians in a rural pub. Until recent years, it was noted for a policy of limited, selective membership; the other main loyalist paramilitary group during the conflict was the Ulster Defence Association, which had a much larger membership. Since the ceasefire, the UVF has been involved in drug dealing and organised crime; some members have been found responsible for orchestrating a series of racist attacks. The UVF's stated goal was to combat Irish republicanism – the Provisional Irish Republican Army – and maintain Northern Ireland's status as part of the United Kingdom.

The vast majority of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were killed at random. Whenever it claimed responsibility for its attacks, the UVF claimed that those targeted were IRA members or were giving help to the IRA. At other times, attacks on Catholic civilians were claimed as "retaliation" for IRA actions, since the IRA drew all of its support from the Catholic community; such retaliation was seen as an attempt to weaken the IRA's support. Many retaliatory attacks on Catholics were claimed using the covername "Protestant Action Force", which first appeared in autumn 1974, they always signed their statements with the fictitious name "Captain William Johnston". Like the Ulster Defence Association, the UVF's modus operandi involved assassinations, mass shootings and kidnappings, it used submachine guns, assault rifles, pistols, incendiary bombs, booby trap bombs and car bombs. Referring to its activity in the early and mid-1970s, journalist Ed Moloney described no-warning pub bombings as the UVF's "forte".

Members were trained in bomb-making, the organisation developed home-made explosives. In the late summer and autumn of 1973, the UVF detonated more bombs than the UDA and IRA combined, by the time of the group's temporary ceasefire in late November it had been responsible for over 200 explosions that year. However, from 1977 bombs disappeared from the UVF's arsenal owing to a lack of explosives and bomb-makers, plus a conscious decision to abandon their use in favour of more contained methods; the UVF did not return to regular bombings until the early 1990s when it obtained a quantity of the mining explosive Powergel. Since 1964, there had been a growing civil rights campaign in Northern Ireland; the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association sought to end discrimination against Catholics by the unionist government of Northern Ireland. In March and April 1966, Irish republicans held parades throughout Ireland to mark the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising. On 8 March, a group of Irish Republican Army volunteers, acting on their own initiative, planted a bomb that destroyed Nelson's Pillar in Dublin.

At the time, the IRA was weak and not engaged in armed action, but some unionists feared that it was about to be revived and launch another campaign in Northern Ireland. In April, Ulster loyalists led by Ian Paisley, a Protestant fundamentalist preacher, founded the Ulster Constitution Defence Committee, it set up a paramilitary-style wing called the Ulster Protestant Volunteers. The'Paisleyites' set out to stymie the civil rights movement and oust Terence O'Neill, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. Although O'Neill was a unionist, they saw him as being too'soft' on the civil rights movement and too friendly with the Republic of Ireland. There was to be much overlap in membership between the UCDC/UPV and the UVF. On 7 May, loyalists petrol bombed a Catholic-owned pub in the loyalist Shankill area of Belfast. Fire engulfed the house next door, she died of her injuries on 27 June. The group called itself the "Ulster Volunteer Force", after the Ulster Volunteers of the early 20th century, although in the words of a member of the previous organisation "the present para-military organisation... has no connection with

St Hermes' Church, St Erme

St Hermes’ Church, St Erme is a Grade II* listed parish church in the Church of England Diocese of Truro in St Erme, England, UK. The church was rebuilt in 1819-20 by John Foulston for the Revd. Cornelius Cardew; the church was restored in 1906. The tower was restored with new floors and beams and a new lead roof, the pinnacles were reset; the bells were increased in number to form a new peal of six. A new south doorway was built of Polyphant stone, new doors of solid oak were installed. New windows were inserted into the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Truro Cathedral; the font is Norman and there is a brass of 1596 to Robert Trencreek and family. According to Charles Henderson "The long incumbencies of two wealthy and scholarly rectors in the 18th century reduced the fabric of the church to such a ruinous condition that it had to be rebuilt in 1820, when a new plan was unhappily chosen. Efforts were made to reconcile this with older work in 1908."Cornelius Cardew served as curate and as rector of the parish altogether for 60 years and his portrait is in the church.

In the churchyard 5 Metres South Of Tower, lie the Grade II listed buildings of Two Trethewy Monnuments. The First of, dedicated in memory of Catherine the daughter of Anthony and Elizabeth Trethewy who departed this life the 29th July 1792; the second of, dedicated to the memory of Anthony Trethewy who departed this life on the 6th day of August 1799. Elizabeth Trethewy, who departed on the 7th May 1805. Anthony the son of Anthony and Elizabeth Trethewy, who departed this Life on the 2nd of July 1801. Amy the daughter of Anthony and Elizabeth Trethewy who departed this life on the 28th July1804; the church is in a joint parish with St Crida's Church, Creed St Nun's Church, Grampound St Ladoca's Church, Ladock St Probus and St Grace's Church, Probus The church had an organ by Hele & Co dating from 1927. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register

Lettice Fisher

Lettice Fisher was the founder of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child, now known as Gingerbread. She was an economist and a historian. Lettice Fisher was born on 14 June 1875 in Kensington, London to Sir Courtenay Peregrine Ilbert and his wife Jessie, she was educated at Francis Holland School and Somerville College, where she was awarded a first in modern history in 1897. She worked as a researcher at the London School of Economics from 1897 to 1898. From 1902 to 1913, she taught history at St Hugh's College and she taught economics for the Association for the Higher Education of Women in Oxford. Whilst at Oxford, Fisher was involved in voluntary work in housing, public health and child welfare, she was an active suffragist, chairing the national executive of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies from 1916 to 1918. She ran to become President of the NUWSS in 1919, following Millicent Fawcett‘s post-war resignation, but was defeated by Eleanor Rathbone. During World War I, Fisher undertook welfare work among women munitions workers in Sheffield.

It was the wartime scale of illegitimacy and its resulting hardships that led her, in 1918, to found the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child, in order to challenge the stigma associated with single parent families, to provide them with the support they needed. The Council aimed to reform the Bastardy Acts and Affiliation Orders Acts, which discriminated against illegitimate children, to address the higher death rates of children born outside marriage, by providing accommodation for single mothers and their babies, they provided practical advice and assistance to single parents, helped with their inquiries. Lettice Fisher was the first chair of the Council, with Sybil Neville-Rolfe acting as the deputy chair. In July 1899, she married Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher, a tutor at New College, who had taught her as an undergraduate, he became Warden of New College in 1925. In 1913, they had one daughter, Mary Bennett, who became principal of St Hilda's College, from 1965 to 1980.

After her husband's death in 1940, she moved to Thursley in Surrey. She died there on 14 February 1956 after suffering a stroke. After cremation her ashes were interred at New College, Oxford

Velvet Fingers

Velvet Fingers is a 1920 American adventure film serial directed by George B. Seitz. Although the film is listed as lost by some sources, a copy is available in the archives of the Cinémathèque Française. George B. Seitz as Velvet Fingers Marguerite Courtot as Lorna George Harry Semels as Professor Robin Lucille Lennox as Clara Frank Redman as Pinky Thomas Carr as Mickey Joe Cuny as Needless Smith Al Franklin Thomas Edward Elkas To Catch a Thief The Face Behind the Curtain The Hand from Behind the Door The Man in the Blue Spectacles The Deserted Pavilion Unmasked The House of a Thousand Veils Aiming Straight The Broken Necklace Shots in the Dark The Other Woman Into Ambush The Hidden Room The Trap Out of the Web List of film serials List of film serials by studio Velvet Fingers on IMDb


Chachalacas are galliform birds from the genus Ortalis. These birds are found in wooded habitats in the far southern United States and Central and South America, they are social, can be noisy and remain common near humans, as their small size makes them less desirable to hunters than their larger relatives. As agricultural pests, they have a ravenous appetite for tomatoes, melons and radishes and can ravage a small garden in short order, they travel in packs of six to twelve. They somewhat resemble the guans, the two have been placed in a subfamily together, though the chachalacas are closer to the curassows; the generic name is derived from the Greek word όρταλις, meaning "pullet" or "domestic hen." The common name derives from the Nahuatl verb chachalaca, meaning "to chatter." With a glottal stop at the end, chachalacah was an alternate name for the bird known as the chachalahtli. All these words arose as an onomatopoeia for the four-noted cackle of the plain chachalaca. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data tentatively suggest that the chachalacas emerged as a distinct lineage during the Oligocene, somewhere around 40–20 mya being the first lineage of modern cracids to evolve.

The cracids have a poor fossil record being limited to a few chachalacas. The prehistoric species of the present genus, indicate that chachalacas most evolved in North or northern Central America: Ortalis tantala Ortalis pollicaris Ortalis affinis Ortalis phengites The Early Miocene fossil Boreortalis from Florida is a chachalaca. Media related to Ortalis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Ortalis at Wikispecies

Bébé Manga

Elizabeth Bessem Ayamo Manga known as Bébé Manga, was a Cameroonian makossa singer whose best-known song is "Ami O". She is considered one of the most popular makossa singers of the 1980s, she was born In Manyu Division the South West Region. Bebe Manga was lauded by the journalists in Ivory Coast because of her distinctive and expressive voice, she started her career in 1975, singing in a night club in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, called "Son de Guitare". Her friends impressed on the manager of the club that Bebe Manga could sing. After singing quizas quizas, the manager of the club, lost in admiration for the talented singer hired her on the spot there and so began her professional career. From that point on, it was a roller coaster ride. Manga has performed extensively in Africa: Gabon, Mali, Togo, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Congo Brazzaville, Morocco etc. In the Caribbean Islands, Colombia, USA, France. Bebe Manga rose to stardom and international fame in 1980 when she replayed Ebanda Manfred’s 1962 radio hit "Amie".

Bebe Manga’s version known as "Amio" earned her the prestigious "Maracas D’or" award from SACEM, a firm place in history as one of Cameroon’s greatest voices, an inspiration to a new crop of female stars such as Ruth Kotto and Jackie Biho. Most notably, Bebe Manga transformed Ebanda Manfred’s little-known Radio Douala recording into a worldwide hit that has attained cult status similar to Pete Seeger’s "Guantanamera", that other iconic song replayed by artists as diverse as Joe dassin and Wyclef Jean. At the end of the 1990s, she put out another world-class song, "Mota Benamaa", deploring the situation of children suffering around the world, her talents were celebrated at the Top D'Or 2005 in Abidjan, as she was voted one of the best African artists of all time. She is featured on Manu Dibango's Manu Safari album, partnered with other talented artists like Tom Yoms on several hits; some of her other songs that now feature in an online "BEST OF BEBE MANGA" compilation are: "Aloba", "Bele Sombo", "Djiya kamba", "Alice Agbor", "Esele mba", "Jemea longo", "Muna Muto", "Eyiegele Ding" and "Zipte Men".

On 1 July 2011 Bébé Manga died on the way to hospital after suffering a heart attack at her home in Douala. She was 62, she was buried on 30 July 2011 in her family compound in Tinto, Upper Bayang sub-division of Manyu Division, Cameroon. In the last two decades, Amio has been replayed dozens of times and in different languages by musicians in Europe, The Caribbean and North America, Africa, among them André Astasié, Henri Salvador, star of the French song in 1982, Manu Dibango in 1993, Monique Seka, Nayanka Bell, Fred Paul and Bisso na Biso in 2000, Papa Wemba and Angelique Kidjo, Jacky Biho, along with African Connection with Denise and Bloco in 2004 are among those prestigious artist who played and interpreted this hit single and Bébé Manga again. AlbumsAmi-Oyomiya Beko Djoudjou Dada Temps Futur Allmusic profile