Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, with general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS. In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen, a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services, Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreen phishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was criticized for being confusing and difficult to learn when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs. On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1. It addressed some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system. Windows 8 was succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for Windows 8 RTM on January 12, 2016, per Microsoft lifecycle policies regarding service packs, Windows 8.1 must be installed to maintain support and receive further updates.
Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store. Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011, it was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work.
However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy was Enterprise edition; the OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011; the traditional Blue Screen of Death was replaced by a new black screen, although this was scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version was leaked on May 1, 2011; the "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked, it introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, scrapped, the circling dots as featured in the final. It had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped. On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California; the "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011. Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows Developer Preview at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was distributed to conference attendees; the build was released for download in the day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit versions, plus a special 64-bit version which included SDKs and developer tools for developing Metro-style apps. The Windows Store was not available in this build. According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release. Set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013. On February 19, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rend
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended to be used by one person at a time, they are connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems; the term workstation has been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered by several current and defunct companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo Computer, DEC, HP, NeXT and IBM which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution of the late 1990s. Workstations offered higher performance than mainstream personal computers with respect to CPU and graphics, memory capacity, multitasking capability. Workstations were optimized for the visualization and manipulation of different types of complex data such as 3D mechanical design, engineering simulation and rendering of images, mathematical plots; the form factor is that of a desktop computer, consist of a high resolution display, a keyboard and a mouse at a minimum, but offer multiple displays, graphics tablets, 3D mice, etc.
Workstations were the first segment of the computer market to present advanced accessories and collaboration tools. The increasing capabilities of mainstream PCs in the late 1990s have blurred the lines somewhat with technical/scientific workstations; the workstation market employed proprietary hardware which made them distinct from PCs. However, by the early 2000s this difference disappeared, as workstations now use commoditized hardware dominated by large PC vendors, such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Fujitsu, selling Microsoft Windows or Linux systems running on x86-64 processors; the first computer that might qualify as a "workstation" was the IBM 1620, a small scientific computer designed to be used interactively by a single person sitting at the console. It was introduced in 1960. One peculiar feature of the machine was. To perform addition, it required a memory-resident table of decimal addition rules; this saved on the cost of logic circuitry. The machine was code-named CADET and rented for $1000 a month.
In 1965, IBM introduced the IBM 1130 scientific computer, meant as the successor to the 1620. Both of these systems came with the ability to run programs written in other languages. Both the 1620 and the 1130 were built into desk-sized cabinets. Both were available with add-on disk drives and both paper-tape and punched-card I/O. A console typewriter for direct interaction was standard on each. Early examples of workstations were dedicated minicomputers. A notable example was the PDP-8 from Digital Equipment Corporation, regarded to be the first commercial minicomputer; the Lisp machines developed at MIT in the early 1970s pioneered some of the principles of the workstation computer, as they were high-performance, single-user systems intended for interactive use. Lisp Machines were commercialized beginning 1980 by companies like Symbolics, Lisp Machines, Texas Instruments and Xerox; the first computer designed for single-users, with high-resolution graphics facilities was the Xerox Alto developed at Xerox PARC in 1973.
Other early workstations include the Terak 8510/a, Three Rivers PERQ and the Xerox Star. In the early 1980s, with the advent of 32-bit microprocessors such as the Motorola 68000, a number of new participants in this field appeared, including Apollo Computer and Sun Microsystems, who created Unix-based workstations based on this processor. Meanwhile, DARPA's VLSI Project created several spinoff graphics products as well, notably the SGI 3130, Silicon Graphics' range of machines that followed, it was not uncommon to differentiate the target market for the products, with Sun and Apollo considered to be network workstations, while the SGI machines were graphics workstations. As RISC microprocessors became available in the mid-1980s, these were adopted by many workstation vendors. Workstations tended to be expensive several times the cost of a standard PC and sometimes costing as much as a new car. However, minicomputers sometimes cost as much as a house; the high expense came from using costlier components that ran faster than those found at the local computer store, as well as the inclusion of features not found in PCs of the time, such as high-speed networking and sophisticated graphics.
Workstation manufacturers tend to take a "balanced" approach to system design, making certain to avoid bottlenecks so that data can flow unimpeded between the many different subsystems within a computer. Additionally, given their more specialized nature, tend to have higher profit margins than commodity-driven PCs; the systems that come out of workstation companies feature SCSI or Fibre Channel disk storage systems, high-end 3D accelerators, single or multiple 64-bit processors, large amounts of RAM, well-designed cooling. Additionally, the companies that make the products tend to have good repair/replacement plans. However, the line between workstation and PC is becoming blurred as the demand for fast computers and graphics have become
Consumer Electronics Show
CES is an annual trade show organized by the Consumer Technology Association. Held in January at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, United States, the event hosts presentations of new products and technologies in the consumer electronics industry; the first CES was held in June 1967 in New York City. It was a spinoff from the Chicago Music Show, until had served as the main event for exhibiting consumer electronics; the event had over 100 exhibitors. From 1978 to 1994, CES was held twice each year: once in January in Las Vegas known for Winter Consumer Electronics Show and once in June in Chicago, known as Summer Consumer Electronics Show; the winter show was held in Las Vegas in 1995 as planned. However, since the summer Chicago shows were beginning to lose popularity, the organizers decided to experiment by having the show travel around to different cities starting in 1995 with a planned show in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. However, the inaugural E3 gaming show was scheduled to be held on the West Coast in May and proved a source of increasing competition, causing the Philadelphia Summer CES show to be cancelled.
The 1996 Winter show was again held in Las Vegas in January, followed by a Summer show this time in Orlando, however only a fraction of the traditional exhibitors participated. Again, the 1997 Winter show in Las Vegas was successful; the next "Summer" show was scheduled to be held in conjunction with Spring COMDEX in Atlanta, however when only two dozen-or-so exhibitors signed on, the CES portion of the show was cancelled. In 1998, the show changed to a once-a-year format with Las Vegas as the location. In Las Vegas, the show is one of the largest, taking up to 18 days to run and break down; the first CES was held in New York City from June 24 to 28, 1967. The 200 exhibitors attracted 17,500 attendees to the Hilton and Americana hotels over those four days. On view: the latest pocket radios and TVs sporting integrated circuits. Philips unveiled the N1500 videocassette recorder; until that point, VCRs cost upward of $50,000 and were used by TV stations, but the Philips model with a built-in tuner was just $900.
Winter CES held January 7-9 at the Conrad Hilton Hotel. Per the show guide, it included video and calculator and watch areas, considered separate component conferences. Speakers included the FTC's Joan Bernstein on "The Warranty Law -- Its Status and Impact," and the FCC's Richard M. Smith on "Regulating Citizens' Band Radios." Summer CES held June 13-16 in Chicago, at McCormick Place. Winter CES held January in Las Vegas. Atari 400 and 800 computers introduced. Summer CES held June 3-6 at McCormick Place. Features included personal communications, retail advertising and store layout, video, auto sound/telephone sales, a large series of retail sales and sales management breakouts. Summer CES June 6 at Chicago saw the first appearance of Commodore 64 and General Consumer Electronics’ Vectrex. In a one-time experiment, the Summer CES 1993 was open to the general public. Major announcements during this edition were: Capcom unveils Mega Man X for the first Time in North America. Microsoft demonstrated a preview version of Windows XP Media Center Edition at CES 2002.
The Blu-ray Group held at the January 2004 CES the first US press conference to promote the Blu-ray Disc format. The 2005 CES was from January 6 to 9, 2005, in Las Vegas, Nevada, at the Las Vegas Convention Center; the event started off with a twist when the main keynote address by Microsoft chairman Bill Gates went wrong, as his demonstration of Windows Media Center resulted in a Blue Screen of Death, much to the amusement of the onlookers. Samsung showed off a 102-inch plasma television. Zimiti Ltd won the "Best of Innovators" award for Personal Electronics, it is the only British company to have won this award. The 2006 exhibition took place on January 5–8, 2006, at the Las Vegas Convention Center, the Sands Convention Center, the Alexis Park Hotel and the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. HDTV was a central theme in the Bill Gates keynote as well as many of the other manufacturer's speeches; the standards competition between HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc was conspicuous, with some of the first HD movie releases and first HD players being announced at the show.
Philips showed a rollable display prototype whose screen can retain an image for several months without electricity. Hillcrest Labs won the "Best Of Innovations" award in the video accessories category for software and hardware that allows a television to be controlled with natural gestures. Attendance was over 150,000 individuals in 1.67 million net square feet of space, making it the largest electronics event in the United States. In a break from recent tradition, the 2007 CES exhibition did not begin on a Thursday, nor span a weekend, it ran from Monday to Thursday on January 8–11, 2007. The venues changed with the high-performance audio and home theater expo moving from the Alexis Park venue to The Venetian; the remaining venues were the same as previous years: the Las Vegas Convention Center was the center of events, with the adjacent Las Vegas Hilton, the Sands Expo and Convention Center hosting satellite exhibitions. The location for the main keynotes was the other major change for 2007.
Held at the Las Vegas Hilton's Main Theater, they staged for t
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; as of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018; the user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi. IPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by third parties. There have been eight versions of the iPad; the first generation established design precedents. The 2nd-generation iPad introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector; the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; the iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price. There have been five versions of the iPad Mini; the first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the Apple M7 motion coprocessor matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air.
The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple M8 motion coprocessor; the 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC. There have been three generations of the iPad Pro; the first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the company's strategy was simple: "What we want to do is we want to put an great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes... and we want to do it with a radio link in it so you don't have to hook up to anything and you're in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers." Apple's first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, a 1990 spinout of Acorn Computers in which Apple invested.
Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone. Smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apple's iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the iPad's release had been rumored for several years; such speculation talked about "Apple's tablet". The iPad was announced on January 27, 2010, by Steve Jobs at an Apple press conference at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco. Jobs said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone. Jonathan Ive in 1991 had created an industrial design for a stylus-based tablet, the Macintosh Folio, as his first project for Apple. Ive stated that after seeking to produce the tablet first, he came to agree with Jobs that the phone was more important, as the tablet's innovations would work as well in it.
The iPad's internal codename was K48, revealed in the court case surrounding leaking of iPad information before launch. Apple began taking pre-orders for the first-generation iPad on March 12, 2010; the only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch to perform either sound muting or screen rotation locking. The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3, 2010; the Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30. 3G service in the United States is provided by AT&T and was sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price. On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new
A subnotebook is a class of laptop computers that are smaller and lighter than a typical notebook. These computers are sometimes confused with the ultra-mobile PC category, the name of a platform of small form-factor tablet PCs. UMPCs are smaller than subnotebooks, however both run full desktop operating systems such as Windows or Linux, rather than specialized software such as Windows CE, Palm OS, or Internet Tablet OS. Subnotebooks are sometimes confused with netbooks which are a different category of devices that branched off from mini notebooks in general. Netbooks are most much less expensive than subnotebooks, as they are optimized for use as portable Internet capable devices and lack the processing power of a workstation. Netbooks have 9W TDP CPUs, sacrificing performance for power efficiency, whereas subnotebooks use 18W TDP processors. Subnotebooks are larger than handheld computers, they have smaller-sized screens, less than 14 inches, weigh less than typical laptops being less than 2 kg.
The savings in size and weight are achieved by omitting ports and optical disc drives. Many can be paired with docking stations to compensate; the Compaq LTE, launched in 1989, was the first to be known as a "notebook computer" because its small dimensions — 4.8×22×28 cm — matched those of a pair of stacked US Letter size paper notebooks. The Compaq was followed in October 1992 by the popular IBM ThinkPad, the first to include a 26.416 cm screen in a notebook measuring 5.6 × 21.1 × 28.4 cm. Portables with noticeably smaller form factors thus became known as subnotebooks; the term was applied to the NEC UltraLite, unveiled in 1988 — although its dimensions were similar to the Compaq LTE. Smaller DOS-based PCs such as the Poqet PC and the Atari Portfolio—both released in 1989—were called either "pocket PCs" or handhelds. One early subnotebook was the PowerBook 100 released in 1991 by Apple Inc. measuring 8.5″ deep by 11″ wide by 1.8″ high and weighing 5.1 lbs. The Gateway Handbook released in 1992 and updated to use a 486 processor in late 1993, was only 9.7 inches wide, 5.9 inches deep, 1.6 inches high, weighed less than three pounds.
Apple followed-up with PowerBook Duo series in October 1992, which further reduced their subnotebook line to 8.5″ deep by 10.9″ wide by 1.4″ high and is an example of a portable supporting few on-board features, but which could be inserted into a docking station to achieve the full functionality of a desktop – a feature soon emulated by other manufacturers. Another early subnotebook was the Hewlett-Packard OmniBook 300, launched as a "superportable" in 1993, it measured 1.4 × 6.4 × 11.1 inches, was available with an optional Flash memory disk instead of a hard drive, to reduce the weight. Toshiba, which had concentrated on portables in the 1980s entered the market that year with the Portege T3400, claiming that "It's the first subnotebook computer with all the functionality of a much larger computer"; the version with an 8.4 ″ monochrome screen weighed 1.8 kg. Toshiba introduced the T3400CT at this time, the first subnotebook with a color screen. Toshiba put the subnotebook PC format on the map in 1995 with the Libretto 20.
This featured a 6.1″ screen and 270 MB hard disk. CNet reported about the Libretto 50CT that " is the first full-fledged Windows 95 notebook in the United States weighing less than two pounds". Compaq introduced its own short lived subnotebook line in 1994 called Contura Aero, which had two models: the greyscale display 4/25 and the color 4/33, notable for using a battery, intended to be standard rather than only useful for Compaq products. In 1997, Apple launched the light-weight but short-lived PowerBook 2400c; this was made for Apple by IBM Japan to replace the aging PowerBook Duo line. However, it measured 1.9 × 8.5 × 10.5 inches, so it was bigger than a Compaq LTE notebook. IBM had sold "thin and light" models in its ThinkPad range, such as the ThinkPad 560 ultraportable and best-selling ThinkPad 600, it entered the subnotebook market in 1999 with the 1.3 kg ThinkPad 240, targeted at business travellers. The 240 and 240X had 10.4″ screens. However, IBM replaced these with the X range, with 12.1″ screens.
At 8.3″ × 10.6″, the ThinkPad X40 is not much smaller than A4 and better described as an ultraportable, rather than a subnotebook. Sony launched an ultraportable less than an inch thick in Japan in 1997, the PCG-505, which reached the US in 1997 as the VAIO 505GX; this was followed by the thinner Sony VAIO X505, which measured just 0.8 × 8.2 × 10.2 inches, reached 0.3″ at its thinnest. However, it was expensive and had poor battery life, was soon withdrawn. Sony launched the C1 range of subnotebooks, starting in Japan in 1998. One of the most notable Sony models was the Transmeta-based Vaio PCG-C1VE or PictureBook, which measured only 1×6×9.8 inches. It had a digital camera built into the lid, which could be used for video conferencing or swivelled round to photograph a scene; this was followed in 2005 by the Transmeta-based Flybook convertible with a touch-sensitive 8.9 inch. Widescreen from Taiwan's Dialogue Technology; the Flybook features a built-in phone connection for GPRS or 3G networking, is availa