Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.
He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.
The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.
It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.
In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched www.popsci.com.au at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced, it was announced that he would remain on staff as an editor-at-large. In September 2018, Popular Science switched to quarterly publication indicating future subscription prices will be increased. Popular Science is headquartered in New York.
Popular Science Radio is a partnership
Water skiing is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski. The sport requires sufficient area on a smooth stretch of water, one or two skis, a tow boat with tow rope, three people, a personal flotation device. In addition, the skier must have adequate upper and lower body strength, muscular endurance, good balance. There are water ski participants around the world, in Asia and Australia, Europe and the Americas. In the United States alone, there are 11 million water skiers and over 900 sanctioned water ski competitions every year. Australia boasts 1.3 million water skiers. There are many options for competitive water skiers; these include speed skiing, trick skiing, show skiing, jumping, barefoot skiing and wakeski. Similar, related sports are wakeboarding, discing and sit-down hydrofoil. Water skiers can start their ski set in one of two ways: wet is the most common, but dry is possible.
Water skiing begins with a deep water start. The skier enters the water with their skis on or they jump in without the skis on their feet, have the skis floated to them, put them on while in the water. Most times it can be easier to put the skis on. Once the skier has their skis on they will be thrown a tow rope from the boat, which they position between their skis. In the deep water start, the skier crouches down in the water while holding onto the ski rope; the skier can perform a "dry start" by standing on the shore or a pier. When the skier is ready, the driver accelerates the boat; as the boat accelerates and takes up the slack on the rope, the skier allows the boat to pull him/her out of the water by applying some muscle strength to get him/her into an upright body position. By leaning back and keeping the legs bent, the skis will plane out and the skier will start to glide over the water; the skier turns by shifting weight right. The skier's body weight should be balanced between the balls of the heels.
While being towed, the skier's arms should be relaxed but still extended so as to reduce stress on the arms. The handle can be held vertically or horizontally, depending on whichever position is more comfortable for the skier. In addition to the driver and the skier, a third person known as the spotter or the observer should be present; the spotter's job is to inform the driver if the skier falls. The spotter sits in a chair on the boat facing backwards to see the skier; the skier and the boat's occupants communicate using hand signals. Water skiing can take place on any type of water – such as a river, lake, or ocean – but calmer waters are ideal for recreational skiing. There should be a 60-metre-wide skiing space and the water should be at least 1.5 to 1.8 metres deep. There must be enough space for the water skier to safely "get up", or be in the upright skiing position. Skiers and their boat drivers must have sufficient room to avoid hazards. Younger skiers start out on children's skis, which consist of two skis tied together at their back and front.
These connections mean. Sometimes these skis can come with a handle to help balance the skier as well. Children's skis are short – 110–150 centimetres long – reflecting the skier's smaller size. Once a person is strong enough to hold the skis together themselves there are various options depending upon their skill level and weight. Water skiers can use one ski; the heavier the person, the bigger the skis will be. Length will vary based on the type of water skiing being performed. A trick ski is around 40 inches and wider than combo skis. Again the skier rides it with her dominant foot in front, it has no fins. Competition skiing uses designed towboats. Most towboats have a small hull and a flat bottom to minimize wake. A true tournament ski boat will have a direct drive motor shaft that centers the weight in the boat for an optimal wake shape. However, some recreational ski boats will have the motor placed in the back of the boat, which creates a bigger wake. Permitted towboats used for tournament water skiing are the Mastercraft ProStar 197, MasterCraft ProStar 190, Nautique 200, Malibu Response TXi, Centurion Carbon Pro.
These boats have ability to pull skiers for trick skiing and slalom. Recreational boats can serve as water skiing platforms as well as other purposes such as cruising and fishing. Popular boat types include bowriders, cuddy cabins, jetboats; the towboat must be capable of maintaining the proper speed. Speeds vary with the skier's weight, experience level, comfort level, type of skiing. For example, a child on two skis would require speeds of 21–26 km/h, whereas an adult on one ski might require as high as 58 km/h. Barefoot skiing requires speeds of 72 km/h. Competition spee
John W. Dickenson
John Wallace Dickenson is an Australian inventor, who developed some liquid flow measuring devices and designed a successful hang glider configuration, for which he was awarded with the Gold Air Medal, the highest award given by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the world governing body for air sports and astronautics world records. In 1963, after seeing an image of a Rogallo wing airfoil on a magazine, Dickenson set to build a water skiing kite that could be released at altitude for a glide to a safe drop in the water, thus designed and built a water skiing kite wing he called the Ski Kite, his ski kite format incorporated an airframe with a triangle control frame as used in hang gliding in Breslau 1908, having a basebar tow-point and was integrated on an all-ready publicized four-boom stiffened Rogallo wing airfoil, where the pilot sat on a swinging seat while the control frame and wire bracing distributed the load to the wing as well as giving a frame to brace for weight-shift control.
Dickenson's Ski Wing turned out to be stable and controllable, unlike the flat manned kites used at water ski shows. The Ski Wing was first flown in public at the'Grafton Jacaranda Festival', New South Wales, Australia, in September 1963 by Rod Fuller while towed behind a motorboat; the ski kite he now called Ski Wing, was light and portable, so Dickenson decided to file for a mechanical patent, but lacking on economic resources, the patent process of formal review of claims could not be entered to determine which, if any, of the claims could hold, so the patent was not awarded. Produced in 1963 Produced on 8 September 1963. Features: Wing: biconical flexible wing Keel and leading edge length: 16 feet Keel and leading edge: rigid Cross bar: rigid Control type: pendulum weight shift Pendulum attachment: single line Control bar: square frame Pilot support: seat Side wires: 8Materials: Wing surface: banana bag plastic Leading edge and keel: 1 ½ inch wood, Oregon douglas fir Cross bar:"cross bar was a length of T.
V. antenna, with a length of turned wood jammed into it to give it the required strength" Leading edge attachment:'D-section' wood and nails Cable: clothesline wire Produced on September 1963. Change: control A-frame added. 1963 October - Flown at the Jacaranda Festival in Grafton, New South Wales, Australia. 1963 Oct 11 - Provisional patent filed. Produced on January 1964. Changes: All aluminium frame, leading edge and keel. Length: 14 feet Produced on March 1964. Changes: Back to wooden leading edge and keel. Leading edge and keel length <14 feet Produced on November 1964. Changes: sewn sail. Diagrams of this sent to Francis Rogallo at NASA. On 1965, John leaves Grafton for Sydney. Produced between 1967 - 1968. Changes: built by Aero Structures. 1969 April - Bill Moyes at NSW, Australia sets ridge soaring record at 32 minutes. Australia. Dickenson's hang glider format was further developed by other builders and directly helped to build the popularity of hang gliding around the world in the 1970s and 1980s.
It is certain that many people from many countries, made contributions to the development of the flexible wing hang glider to the extent that any global mechanical claim for invention would be untenable. In the aviation context of'first flights' and recreational vs. commercial developments and old inventions complement in synergy. John Dickenson was a ski-kite pilot. Most recognitions and awards have been given to Dickenson decades after his invention:'Life Membership' to the Hang Gliding Federation of Australia'Certificate of Recognition' by the British Hang Gliding & Paragliding Association Space Technology Hall of Fame Order of Australia Grafton Town Memorial, NSW Australia'Certificate of Recognition' by the Hang Gliding Federation of Australia The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Hang Gliding Diploma for the invention of the modern hang glider; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Gold Air Medal. Oswald Watt Gold Medal "Flex-Wing Hang Glider Gold Air Award" by the World Hang Gliding Association History of hang gliding Video: Interview with John Dickenson, Bill Moyes and Francis Rogallo on YouTube Video: Flexible wing.
Interview with Francis Rogallo on YouTube. NASA Destination- Tomorrow, segment explaining the history of the flexible wing and of the hang glider
Francis Melvin Rogallo was an American aeronautical engineer inventor born in Sanger, California, U. S.. His patents were ranged over mechanical utility patents and ornamental design patents for wing controls, target kite, flexible wing, advanced configurations for flexible wing vehicles. Francis Rogallo earned an aeronautical engineering degree at Stanford University in 1935. Since 1936, Rogallo worked for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as an aeronautics project engineer at the wind tunnels. During 1948, he and his wife, Gertrude Rogallo and patented a self-inflating flexible kite, they called this kite the "flexible wing". Rogallo had invented the wing with the idea to create an aircraft which would be simple enough and inexpensive enough that anyone could have one; the wing was flown by Rogallo as a model glider with small payloads hung beneath the wing and as a kite. The Rogallo wing is one of the simplest airfoils created. A wing using the airfoil could be used to carry payloads, undercarriage devices, pilot-control assemblies, etc.
For the next six years, the Rogallos tried ceaselessly to attract both government and industry interest in their flexible wing, they licensed a manufacturer in Connecticut to sell a kite based on it. When the DuPont company announced the development of Mylar in 1952, Rogallo saw how superior it would be for his kite, the five-dollar toy "Flexikite" became one of the first products to use the plastic material; the Rogallos found themselves traveling to kiting events around the Northeast to fly and promote the toy, with moderate success. On October 4, 1957, the Russian Sputnik began beeping its message from orbit, everything changed; the space race caught the imagination of the newly formed NASA and Rogallo was in position to seize the opportunity. The Rogallos released their patent to the government, with Rogallo's help at the wind tunnels, NASA began a series of experiments testing the Parawing at altitudes up to 200,000 feet and as fast as Mach 3 in order to evaluate them as alternative recovery system for the Gemini space capsules and used rocket stages.
By 1960, NASA had made test flights of a framed Parawing powered aircraft, called the "flying Jeep" or Fleep, of a weight shift Parawing glider, called Paresev, in a series of several shapes and sizes and unmanned. A key wing configuration applying Francis Rogallo's leadership that gave base to kited gliders with hung pilots using weight-shift control was designed by Charles Richards and constructed by the Richards team in 1961-2. In 1967, projects focused on the Parasev were stopped by NASA in favor of round parachutes. NASA was not in the business of applying Rogallo's family of airfoils to personal aircraft such as kites, hang gliders, powered light aircraft; that task of lightening and tweaking what the Paresev team had done with the Rogallo wing was taken up by independent designers around the world: Barry Palmer in 1961, Richard Miller, Thomas Purcell, Australian Mike Burns were among the first to tap the technology for manned personal-craft glider/kite use. As of 2003, Rogallo had new designs for kites.
Gertrude died on January 28, 2008. Members of the United States Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association, are called "Rogallo" members. Tens of thousands of people have taken hang gliding lessons in Rogallo wing type hang gliders at Jockey's Ridge State Park, an enormous sand dune, located five miles from the site of the first powered aircraft flight. Mr. Rogallo was seen at the park flying his own hang glider in the 1970s and 1980s. Francis Rogallo died at home on September 1, 2009, in Southern Shores, North Carolina, near Kitty Hawk, the birthplace of aviation. Lateral Control of Aircraft US Pat. 2322745, filed: Dec 13, 1940. Flexible Kite US Pat. 2546078, filed Nov. 23, 1948. Co-inventor: Gertrude Sudgen Rogallo. Flexible Kite US Pat. 2751172, filed Nov 17, 1953. Co-inventor: Gertrude Sudgen Rogallo. Jet Aircraft Configuration US Pat. 2991961, filed May 6, 1959. Co-inventors: John M. Riebe and John G. Lowry. Target Kite US Pat. 3296617, filed Jan 23, 1963. Flexible Wing Vehicle Configurations US Pat.
RE26380, filed April 29, 1963. And same date: US Pat. 3197158. And another of same date of filing: US Pat. 3185412 Control for Flexible Parawing US Pat. 3310261, filed Jan. 17, 1964. Aeroflexible Structures US Pat. 3443779, filed Nov 16, 1967
The V-8 designation was re-used by the U. S. armed forces to refer to the AV-8 Harrier. This was an unrelated project; the XV-8 Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle was an improved version of the Flex-Wing. Both aircraft were built by Ryan Aeronautical Company in collaboration with NASA for the United States Air Force and the United States Army and tested in 1961 as a STOL patrol and light utility aircraft to transport people or freight when a more specialized aircraft is not required or available; the Fleep began as the Flex-Wing. The Flex-Wing had four-wheel landing gear, a smaller nose section behind which the pilot sat, a single vertical tail/rudder, whereas the Fleep had tricycle landing gear, a larger nose section and a V tail/rudder; the wing was a fabric delta-shaped Rogallo wing with a fold-able frame. It was tested with two tail configurations -- V-tail; the aircraft wing could be folded into a small package for transport. General characteristics Crew: One pilot Length: 10 ft 6 in Wingspan: 33 ft 5 in Powerplant: 1 × Continental IO-360-A, 210 hp Performance Maximum speed: 65 mph Range: 120 miles Francis Rogallo's airfoil John W. Dickenson History of hang gliding Ultralight trike aircraft Aircraft of comparable role and era NASA Paresev FLEXIBLE WINGS AT WORK Popular Mechanics article by Ryan test pilot Lou Everett
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag. A kite consists of wings and anchors. Kites have a bridle and tail to guide the face of the kite so the wind can lift it; some kite designs don’t need a bridle. A kite may have fixed or moving anchors. One technical definition is that a kite is “a collection of tether-coupled wing sets“; the lift that sustains the kite in flight is generated when air moves around the kite's surface, producing low pressure above and high pressure below the wings. The interaction with the wind generates horizontal drag along the direction of the wind; the resultant force vector from the lift and drag force components is opposed by the tension of one or more of the lines or tethers to which the kite is attached. The anchor point of the kite line may be moving; the same principles of fluid flow apply in liquids, so kites can be used in underwater currents, but there are no everyday uses as yet. Man-lifting kites were made for reconnaissance and during development of the first practical aircraft, the biplane.
Kites have a long and varied history and many different types are flown individually and at festivals worldwide. Kites may be flown for art or other practical uses. Sport kites can be flown in aerial ballet, sometimes as part of a competition. Power kites are multi-line steerable kites designed to generate large forces which can be used to power activities such as kite surfing, kite landboarding, kite fishing, kite buggying and snow kiting. Kites were invented in Asia. Many early sources point to China. In China, materials ideal for kite building were available including silk fabric for sail material; the kite has been claimed as the invention of the 5th-century BC Chinese philosophers Mozi and Lu Ban. By 549 AD paper kites were being flown, as it was recorded that in that year a paper kite was used as a message for a rescue mission. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources describe kites being used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men and communication for military operations; the earliest known Chinese kites were flat and rectangular.
Tailless kites incorporated a stabilizing bowline. Kites were decorated with legendary figures. After its introduction into India, the kite further evolved into the fighter kite, known as the patang in India, where thousands are flown every year on festivals such as Makar Sankranti. Kites were known throughout Polynesia, as far as New Zealand, with the assumption being that the knowledge diffused from China along with the people. Anthropomorphic kites made from cloth and wood were used in religious ceremonies to send prayers to the gods. Polynesian kite traditions are used by anthropologists to get an idea of early "primitive" Asian traditions that are believed to have at one time existed in Asia. Kites were late to arrive in Europe, although windsock-like banners were known and used by the Romans. Stories of kites were first brought to Europe by Marco Polo towards the end of the 13th century, kites were brought back by sailors from Japan and Malaysia in the 16th and 17th centuries. Konrad Kyeser described dragon kites in Bellifortis about 1400 AD.
Although kites were regarded as mere curiosities, by the 18th and 19th centuries they were being used as vehicles for scientific research. In 1752 Benjamin Franklin published an account of a kite experiment to prove that lightning was caused by electricity. Kites were instrumental in the research of the Wright brothers, others, as they developed the first airplane in the late 1800s. Several different designs of man-lifting kites were developed; the period from 1860 to about 1910 became the "golden age of kiting". In the 20th century many new kite designs were developed; these included Eddy's tailless diamond, the tetrahedral kite, the Rogallo wing, the sled kite, the parafoil, power kites. Kites were used for scientific purposes in meteorology, wireless communications and photography; the Rogallo wing was adapted for stunt kites and hang gliding and the parafoil was adapted for parachuting and paragliding. The rapid development of mechanically powered aircraft diminished interest in kites. World War II saw a limited use of kites for military purposes.
Kites are now used for recreation. Lightweight synthetic materials are used for kite making. Synthetic rope and cord are used as kite line. Designs emulate flying insects and other beasts, both real and mythical; the finest Chinese kites are made from split bamboo, covered with silk, hand painted. On larger kites, clever hinges and latches allow the kite to be disassembled and compactly folded for storage or transport. Cheaper mass-produced kites are made from printed polyester rather than silk. Tails are used for some single-line kite designs to keep the kite's nose pointing into the wind. Spinners and spinsocks can be attached to the flying line for visual effect. There are rotating wind socks. On large display kites these tai
The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of wing. In 1948, Francis Rogallo, a NASA engineer, his wife Gertrude Rogallo, invented a self-inflating flexible wing they called the Parawing known after them as the "Rogallo Wing" and flexible wing. NASA considered Rogallo's flexible wing as an alternative recovery system for the Mercury and Gemini space capsules, for possible use in other spacecraft landings, but the idea was dropped from Gemini in 1964 in favor of conventional parachutes. Rogallo had been interested in the flexible wing since 1945, he and his wife flew kites as a hobby. They could not find official backing for the wing, including at Rogallo's employer National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, so they carried out experiments in their own time. By the end of 1948 they had two working designs using a flexible wing — a kite they called "Flexi-Kite" and a gliding parachute they referred to as a "paraglider". Rogallo and his wife received a patent on a flexible square wing in March 1951. Selling the Flexi-kite as a toy helped to finance their work and publicize the design.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, U. S. aerospace manufacturers worked on parachute designs for space capsule recovery. NASA considered the Rogallo wing to replace the traditional round parachute for the Project Mercury capsule during temporary development problems; the Rogallo wing was the initial choice for the Project Gemini capsule, but development problems forced its replacement with the parachute. Nowadays the term "Rogallo wing" is synonymous with one composed of two partial conic surfaces with both cones pointing forward. Slow Rogallo wings have shallow cones. Fast subsonic and supersonic Rogallo wings have narrow cones; the Rogallo wing is a inexpensive flying wing with remarkable properties. The wing itself is not a kite, nor can it be characterized as glider or powered aircraft, until the wing is tethered or arranged in a configuration that glides or is powered. In other words, how it is attached and manipulated determines what type of aircraft it becomes; the Rogallo wing is most seen in toy kites, but has been used to construct spacecraft parachutes, sport parachutes, ultralight powered aircraft like the trike and hang gliders.
Rogallo had more than one patent concerning his finding. The Charles Richards design and use of the Rogallo wing in the NASA Paresev project resulted in an assemblage that became the stark template for the standard Rogallo hang-glider wing that would blanket the world of the sport in the early 1970s. Beyond that, the wing is designed to bend and flex in the wind, so provides favorable dynamics analogous to a spring suspension. Flexibility allows the wing to be less susceptible to turbulence and provides a gentler flying experience than a similarly-sized rigid-winged aircraft; the trailing edge of the wing –, not stiffened – allows the wing to twist, provides aerodynamic stability without the need for a tail. In 1961–1962, aeronautical engineer Barry Palmer foot-launched several versions of a framed Rogallo wing hang glider to continue the recreational and sporting spirit of hang gliding. Another player in the continuing evolution of the Rogallo wing hang glider was James Hobson whose "Rogallo Hang Glider" was published in 1962 in the Experimental Aircraft Association's magazine Sport Aviation, as well as shown on national USA television in the Lawrence Welk Show.
In Australia John Dickenson in mid-1963, set out to build a controllable waterskiing kite/glider as he admitted adapting from a Ryan Aeronautical flex-wing aircraft. Publicity from the Paresev tested-and-flown hang gliders and the various space contractors sparked interest in the Rogallo-promoted wing design among several tinkerers in order: Thomas H. Purcell, Jr. Barry Hill Palmer, James Hobson, Mike Burns, John Dickenson, Richard Miller, Bill Moyes, Bill Bennett, Dave Kilbourne, Dick Eipper, hundreds of others. John Worth was early leader in the pack of four-boom hang glider builders and designers using public domain arts. Single-point hang was an ancient art demonstrated at least in Breslau in 1908 as well as the triangle control frame that would be seen in NASA's John Worth's hang gliders and powered hang gliders. Thomas Purcell and Mike Burns would use the triangle control frame. Much Dickenson would do as he fashioned an airframe to fit on the by-then standard four boom stiffened Rogallo wing.
Dickenson's model made use of a single hang point and an A frame: He started with a framed Rogallo wing airfoil with a U-frame to it. Weight-shift was used to control the glider; the flexible wing – called "Ski Wing" – was first flown in public at the Grafton Jacaranda Festival in September 1963 by Rod Fuller while towed behind a motorboat. The Australian Self-Soar Association states that the first foot-launch of a hang glider in Australia was in 1972. In Torrance, Bill Moyes was assisted in a kited foot-launch by Joe Faust at a beach slope in 1971 or 1972. Moyes went on to build a company with his own trade-named Rogallo wing hang gliders that used the trapeze control frame he had seen in Dickenson's and Australian manned flat-kite ski kites. Bill Moyes and Bill Bennett exported new refinements of their own hang gliders throughout the world; the parawing hang glider was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame in 1995. Hang gliders have been used with different forms of weight-shift control since Otto Lilienthal.
The most com