click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ultramarine

Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment, made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ultramarinus "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghanistan by Italian traders during the 14th and 15th centuries. Ultramarine was the most expensive blue used by Renaissance painters, it was used for the robes of the Virgin Mary, symbolized holiness and humility. It remained an expensive pigment until a synthetic ultramarine was invented in 1826; the pigment consists of a zeolite-based mineral containing small amounts of polysulfides. It occurs in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli containing a blue cubic mineral called lazurite. In the Colour Index International, the pigment of ultramarine is identified as P. Blue 29 77007; the major component of lazurite is a complex sulfur-containing sodium-silicate, which makes ultramarine the most complex of all mineral pigments. Some chloride is present in the crystal lattice as well; the blue color of the pigment is due to the S − 3 radical anion.

The raw materials used in the manufacture of synthetic ultramarine are the following: white kaolin, anhydrous sodium sulfate, anhydrous sodium carbonate, powdered sulfur, powdered charcoal or ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps. The preparation is made in steps: The first part of the process takes place at 700 to 750 °C in a closed furnace, so that sulfur and organic substances give reducing conditions; this yields a yellow-green product sometimes used as a pigment. In the second step, air or sulfur dioxide at 350 to 450 °C is used to oxidise sulfide in the intermediate product to S2 and Sn chromophore molecules, resulting in the blue pigment; the mixture is heated in a kiln, sometimes in brick-sized amounts. The resultant solids are ground and washed, as is the case in any other insoluble pigment's manufacturing process; the product is at first white, but soon turns green "green ultramarine" when it is mixed with sulfur and heated. The sulfur burns, a fine blue pigment is obtained. "Ultramarine rich in silica" is obtained by heating a mixture of pure clay fine white sand and charcoal in a muffle furnace.

A blue product is obtained at once, but a red tinge results. The different ultramarines—green, blue and violet—are finely ground and washed with water. Synthetic ultramarine is a more vivid blue than natural ultramarine, since the particles in synthetic ultramarine are smaller and more uniform than the particles in natural ultramarine and therefore diffuse light more evenly, its color is unaffected by light nor by contact with oil or lime as used in painting. Hydrochloric acid bleaches it with liberation of hydrogen sulfide. A small addition of zinc oxide to the reddish varieties causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the color. Ultramarine is the aluminosilicate zeolite with a sodalite structure. Sodalite consists of interconnected aluminosilicate cages; some of these cages contain polysulfide groups. The negative charge on these ions is balanced by Na+ ions that occupy these cages; the chromophore is proposed to be S−4 or S4. Synthetic ultramarine, being cheap, is used for wall painting, the printing of paper hangings and calico, etc. and as a corrective for the yellowish tinge present in things meant to be white, such as linen, etc.

Bluing or "Laundry blue" is a suspension of synthetic ultramarine, used for this purpose when washing white clothes. It is often found in make-up such as mascaras or eye shadows. Large quantities are used in the manufacture of paper, for producing a kind of pale blue writing paper, popular in Britain. During World War I, the RAF painted the outer roundels with a color made from Ultramarine Blue; this became BS 108 Aircraft Blue. It was replaced in the 1960s by a new color made on BS110 Roundel Blue; the name derives from Middle Latin ultramarinus "beyond the sea" because it was imported from Asia by sea. In the past, it has been known as azzurrum ultramarine, azzurrum transmarinum, azzuro oltramarino, azur d'Acre, pierre d'azur, Lazurstein. Current terminology for ultramarine includes natural ultramarine, outremer lapis, Ultramarin echt, oltremare genuino, ultramarino verdadero; the first recorded use of ultramarine as a color name in English was in 1598. The first noted use of lapis lazuli as a pigment can be seen in the 6th and 7th-century AD cave paintings in Afghanistani Zoroastrian and Buddhist temples, near the most famous source of the mineral.

Lapis lazuli has been identified in Chinese paintings from the 10th and 11th centuries, in Indian mural paintings from the 11th, 12th, 17th centuries, on Anglo-Saxon and Norman illuminated manuscripts from c.1100. During the Renaissance, ultramarine was the finest and most expensive blue that could be used by painters; the 15th century artist Cennino Cennini wrote in his painters' handbook: "Ultramarine blue is a glorious and perfect pigment beyond all the pigments. It would not be possible to say anything about or do anything to it which would not make it more so." Natural ultramarine is the

Buddhism and Theosophy

Theosophical teachings have borrowed some concepts and terms from Buddhism. Some theosophists like Helena Blavatsky, Helena Roerich and Henry Steel Olcott became Buddhists. Henry Steel Olcott helped shape the design of the Buddhist flag. Tibetan Buddhism was popularised in the West at first by Theosophists including Evans-Wentz and Alexandra David-Neel. Blavatsky sometimes compared Theosophy to Mahayana Buddhism. In The Key to Theosophy she writes: "But the schools of the Northern Buddhist Church... teach all, now called Theosophical doctrines, because they form part of the knowledge of the initiates..." 25 May 1880 Blavatsky and Olcott embraced Buddhism: they publicly took in Galle the Refuges and Pancasila from a prominent Sinhalese bhikkhu. Olcott and Blavatsky were the first Americans who were converted to Buddhism in the traditional sense. In Buddhology there is an idea that the "Theosophical Buddhists" were the forerunners of all subsequent Western, or, as they were called, "white" Buddhists.

In addition, they attempted to rationalize Buddhism, to cleanse the doctrine, removing from it elements of "folk superstition". They tried to identify Buddhism with esoteric doctrine, recognizing the Lord Buddha as the "Master-Adept." And they considered it their duty to provide assistance and political support to the oppressed Sinhalese Buddhists. Theosophical revival of BuddhismIn 1880 Olcott began to build up the Buddhist Educational Movement in Ceylon. In 1880 there were only two schools in Ceylon managed by the Buddhists. Due to the efforts of Olcott the number rose to 205 schools and four colleges in 1907, thus began the great Buddhist revival in Ceylon. Olcott represented the Buddhist cause to the British government, found redress for the restrictions imposed against Buddhists, such as the prohibition of processions, Buddhist schools, the improved financial administration of temple properties, so on. Olcott "united the sects of Ceylon in the Buddhist Section of the Theosophical Society.

An important part of Olcott's work in Ceylon became the patronage of young Buddhist Don David Hewavitharana, who took himself name Anagarika Dharmapala. Dharmapala, a founder the Maha Bodhi Society, Sri Lanka's national hero, was one of the major figures in the movement for the revival of Buddhism in Ceylon during the British colonial rule. In December 1884 Blavatsky, accompanied by Leadbeater and the marrieds Cooper-Oakley came to Ceylon. Leadbeater, following the example of the leaders of the Theosophical Society, has become a Buddhist, without renouncing Christianity. David joined the Blavatsky's team to go to India. Upon arrival in India Dharmapala as a member of the Theosophical Society worked with Blavatsky and Olcott, they advised him to devote himself to the service of "the benefit of mankind," and begin to study Pali and the Buddhist philosophy. Sangharakshita wrote that at the age of 20 years Dharmapala was fascinated by both Buddhism and theosophy. After returning from India, Dharmapala worked in Colombo as general secretary of the Buddhist section of the Theosophical Society, as director of the Buddhist press.

In 1886, he was a translator, when together with Olcott and Leadbeater made a lecture tour of the island. He helped Olcott in a work on the organization of Buddhist schools; when Olcott instructed Leadbeater to prepare a shortened version of the Buddhist Catechism, Dharmapala undertook to translate it to Sinhala. Work of Dharmapala and theosophists contributed to the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and other countries of the Southern Buddhism. Leadbeater has initiated the organization in various parts of Colombo a large number of Buddhist Sunday schools, he founded an English school, which became known as Ananda College. Among the pupils of this school was a young Buddhist Jinarajadasa, who worked as the fourth President of the Theosophical Society Adyar. In 1893, Dharmapala went to the West, first to England and to the Chicago, where he represented Buddhism at the World Parliament of Religions. Although he was only 29 years old, he was the most famous representative of Buddhism in parliament.

At the conference, he made several appearances on three main themes. Firstly, he said that Buddhism is a religion, which consistent with modern science, because the Buddhist teachings are compatible with the doctrine of evolution, he outlined the Buddhist idea that the cosmos is a sequential process of deployment in accordance with the laws of nature. Secondly, Dharmapala said that in the ethics of Buddhism is much more love and compassion than in the sermons of Christian missionaries working in Ceylon. By a third paragraph of his performances was the assertion that Buddhism is a religion of optimism and activity, but in any case not of pessimism and inactivity. In 1924 in London Humphreys founded the Buddhist Lodge of the Theosophical Society. According to Humphreys, conceptually the Theosophy and Buddhism are identical: the single life after many incarnations returns to the Unmanifest. Path lays through self-fulfillment with Nirvana in the end. Thus, wrote Humphreys, the difference between the Theosophy and Buddhism is only in emphasi

Saardom

The so-called Saardom in Dillingen/Saar is one of the largest sacred buildings in Saarland. It is the parish church of the parish of St Sacrament; the parish belongs to the parish community of the Holy Sacrament, St John the Baptist in Dillingen, St Joseph and St Wendelin in Diefflen, St Maximin in Pachten, St Mary consolation of the saddeneds on the Pachtener Heide. The church belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier; the feast of dedication is Blood of Christ. The church was built between 1910 and 1913 according to plans by the Trier church-architect Peter Marx in the Neo-Romanesque style; the prototypes of the Saardom include the towers of the Bamberg Cathedral, the towers of the cathedrals of Laon and Naumburg, the facade of the Cathedral of Metz. The Saardom has the following dimensions: External length: 62.30 m Largest external width in the transept area: 33.50 m Outer main-facade width: 23.50 m Height of the crossing tower: 33.00 m Height of the eastern tower with tower cross: 48,50 m Height of the western tower with tower cross: 50.00 m Inner width of the central nave: 10 m Inner height of aisles: 6 m Inner height of the central nave: 15 m Inner height of the dome: 27 m Inner height of the Lady Chapel and the Christ the King-Chapel: 8 m Internal height of the choral passage: 7.40 m Intercolumniation of the arcades between middle and aisle: 3.50 m Intercolumniation of the apsea arcades: 2 mComparing the Saardom with the largest churches in Saarland, the St Michael's Church in Saarbrücken measures 60 m in the outer length and 34.60 m in the largest outer width.

The Saardom and the St Michael's Church are in the length surpassed by the neo-Gothic St Josef´s Church in Saarbrücken-Malstatt with 68 m outer length. As early as the First World War in 1917, four out of five bronze bells were melted down for armament purposes. Seven years in 1924, four cast steel bells were replaced, which still can be heard today; the explosion of an ammunition train at the Dillingen station in 1944 as a consequence of an air raid in World War II caused severe damage. A German tank, standing next to the Saardom, attracted American fire, which caused additional damage to the church: Vaults had collapsed, stones broken out, windows burst by explosion blasts. Grenades had torn large gaps in the front entrance; the vestibule with the figurine frieze and the crowning crucifixion group, the large rose window and the overlying arcade with the final triangular pediment were shot to pieces. After the end of the fighting in March 1945, they began to clear and repair the damages of Saardom.

The end of the restoration of the church was celebrated at Easter 1953. H. Brunner, H. Caspary, A. v. Reitzenstein, F. Stich: Rheinland-Pfalz / Saarland, Kunstdenkmäler und Museen. Reclams Kunstführer Deutschland, Bd. 6, 8. Auflage, Stuttgart 1990, S. 91. H. P. Buchleitner: Kultureller Wiederaufbau im Saarland 1945–1955 - Ein Text- und Bildwerk. Band 1, Saarbrücken 1955, S. 62, 65. Georg Dehio: Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler - Rheinland-Pfalz / Saarland. 2. Auflage, München/Berlin 1984, S. 213. Oranna Dimmig, Michaela Mazurkiewicz-Wonn: Kunstort der Saardom: die katholische Pfarrkirche Heilig Sakrament in Dillingen/Saar, Saarbrücken 2012, ISBN 978-3-938070-71-0. Jens Fachbach, Georg Schelbert, Mario Simmer: Zum 50. Todestag des Architekten Peter Marx. In: Neues Trierisches Jahrbuch 48, 2008, S. 257–264. Handbuch des Bistums Trier, 20. Ausgabe, Trier 1952, S. 279. Katholisches Bildungswerk Dillingen-Nalbach e. V.: 100 Jahre Saardom, Heilig Sakrament Dillingen, 1000 Jahre Pfarrei Dillingen. Festschrift zum Jubiläum der Kirchenkonsekration am 25.

April 2013, Dillingen 2012. Kath. Pfarramt Hl. Sakrament Dillingen: Hl. Sakrament Dillingen/Saar, Kirchenchronik anläßlich des 50. Jahrestages der Konsekration der katholischen Pfarrkirche Hl. Sakrament Dillingen/Saar am 17. November 1963. Dillingen 1963. Manfred Kostka: Katholische Pfarrkirche Hl. Sakrament Saardom Dillingen/Saar. Dillingen/Saar 1987. Manfred Kostka: Peter Marx, ein Trierer Kirchenbaumeister zwischen Historismus und Moderne. Wissenschaftliche Arbeit zur Erlangung des Diploms in Theologie an der Theologischen Fakultät Trier, Trier 1989. Manfred Kostka: Katholische Pfarrkirche Hl. Sakrament "Saardom". 2. Erweiterte und verbesserte Auflage, Dillingen/Saar 1997. Kunstverein Dillingen im Alten Schloss, Dillingen/Saar: Kunstführer Dillingen/Saar. Dillingen/Saar 1999, S. 18–19. Aloys Lehnert: Geschichte der Stadt Dillingen/Saar. Dillingen/Saar 1968. Kristine Marschall: Sakralbauwerke des Klassizismus und des Historismus im Saarland. Saarbrücken 2002, ISBN 3-923877-40-4. Erwin Ney: Die Weihnachtskrippe im Saardom Heilig Sakrament Dillingen/Saar – Gestern und Heute.

Hrsg. vom Pfarramt Hl. Sakrament, Saarlouis o. J.. Matthias Prior: Die neue Kirche in Dillingen/Saar, ihre Vorbereitung und Vollendung. Trier 1913. Franz Ronig: Der Kirchenbau des 19. Jahrhunderts im Bistum Trier. In: Kunst des 19. Jahrhunderts im Rheinland, Band 1, Düsseldorf 1980, ISBN 3-590-30251-8, S. 263 f. L. Sudbrack u. A. Jakob: Das katholische Saarland, Heimat und Kirche. Saarbrücken 1954–1956, II/III, 1954, S. 27 f. Walter Zimmermann: Die Kunstdenkmäler der Kreise Ottweiler und Saarlouis. 2. Auflage, Saarbrücken 1976, S. 176 f. 1000 Jahre Pfarrei Dillingen, 75 Jahre Saardom Heilig Sakrament. In: Saarbrücker Zeitung Nr. 304, Ausgabe Saarlouis, 31. Dezember 1988. Günter Maas – Fassade des Saar-Doms ist

James Zikusoka

James Mbuzi Nyonyintono Zikusoka, was a Ugandan civil engineer, who served as the Cabinet Minister of Works and Transport from 1971 until 1972. He was born on 11 November 1926, in present-day Iganga District, Busoga sub-region, in the Eastern Region of Uganda, he attended local primary schools before he entered Busoga College Mwiri, where he completed his O-Level and A-Level education, graduating in 1947. He served as a prefect at the all-boys boarding school, he trained as a civil engineer. After his training as an engineer, he was hired as the town engineer for Jinja Town, the first African to serve in that position, he was part of the team that designed the streets in the town. In honor of his service to the town, a road, Engineer Zikusoka Road, was named after him, by Jinja Municipal Council. By 1969, he had risen to the position of Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Works in the government of Uganda. In 1971, when Idi Amin overthrew the first government of Milton Obote, he named James Zikusoka as the Minister of Works and Housing in his first cabinet.

However, when forces aligned to Milton Obote launched a botched attempt to overthrow Idi Amin, the dictator fired all cabinet ministers that he did not trust, Zikusoka included. Zikusoka sought political refugee in Kenya, later joined the United Nations Development Program and served as a consultant in New York and Saudi Arabia for the Commonwealth Secretariat in Barbados until Amin was overthrown in 1979, he served as Uganda's high commissioner to the United Kingdom, appointed to that position by Godfrey Binaisa, the newly appointed President of Uganda in 1979. From 1993 until 1997, Zikusoka served as the chairman of the Public Service Commission. In 1988, he was ordained a deacon in Christ the King Cathedral at Bugembe; the following year, he was elected as reverend and dean of the cathedral. He helped with civil repairs to the physical building and purchased and financed the installation of a church organ out of his own pocket, he died on 29 January 2012, in the country's capital, Kampala.

He was interned at his ancestral home in Iganga District. He was survived by six of his seven children. Martin Aliker Monica Azuba Ntege Uganda: Local on Obama's Winning Team

Turks in Algeria

The Turks in Algeria commonly referred to as Algerian Turks, Algerian-Turkish Algero-Turkish and Turkish-Algerians are ethnic Turkish descendants who, alongside the Arabs and Berbers, constitute an admixture to Algeria's population. During Ottoman rule, Turkish settlers began to migrate to the region predominately from Anatolia. A significant number of Turks intermarried with the native population, the male offspring of these marriages were referred to as Kouloughlis due to their mixed Turkish and central Maghrebi heritage. However, in general, intermarriage was discouraged, in order to preserve the "Turkishness" of the community; the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry. In the late nineteenth century the French colonisers in North Africa classified the populations under their rule as "Arab" and "Berber", despite the fact that these countries had diverse populations, which were composed of ethnic Turks and Kouloughlis.

According to the U. S. Department of State "Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab and Turkish in origin". Thus, numerous estimates suggest that Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% to 25% of the country's population. Since the Ottoman era, the Turks settled in the coastal regions of Algeria and Turkish descendants continue to live in the big cities today. Moreover, Turkish descended families continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam and many retain their Turkish-origin surnames—which express a provenance or ethnic Turkish origin from Anatolia; the Turkish minority have formed the Association des Turcs algériens to promote their culture. The foundation of Ottoman Algeria was directly linked to the establishment of the Ottoman province of the Maghreb at the beginning of the 16th century. At the time, fearing that their city would fall into Spanish hands, the inhabitants of Algiers called upon Ottoman corsairs for help. Headed by Oruç Reis and his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa, they took over the rule of the city and started to expand their territory into the surrounding areas.

Sultan Selim I agreed to assume control of the Maghreb regions ruled by Hayreddin as a province, granting the rank of governor-general to Hayreddin. In addition, the Sultan sent 2,000 janissaries, accompanied by about 4,000 volunteers to the newly established Ottoman province of the Maghreb, whose capital was to be the city of Algiers; these Turks from Anatolia, called each other "yoldaş" and called their sons born of unions with local women "Kuloğlu’s", implying that they considered their children's status as that of the Sultan's servants. To indicate in the registers that a certain person is an offspring of a Turk and a local woman, the note "ibn al-turki" was added to his name; the exceptionally high number of Turks affected the character of the city of Algiers, that of the province at large. In 1587, the province was divided into three different provinces, which were established where the modern states of Algeria and Tunisia, were to emerge; each of these provinces was headed by a Pasha sent from Constantinople for a three-year term.

The division of the Maghreb launched the process that led to the janissary corps' rule over the province. From the end of the 16th century, Algiers's Ottoman elite chose to emphasize its Turkish identity and nurture its Turkish character to a point at which it became an ideology. By so doing, the Algerian province took a different path from that of its neighboring provinces, where local-Ottoman elites were to emerge; the aim of nurturing the elite's Turkishness was twofold: it limited the number of the privileged group while demonstrating the group's loyalty to the Sultan. By the 18th century there was 50,000 janissaries concentrated in the city of Algiers alone; the lifestyle, language and area of origin of the Ottoman elite's members created remarkable differences between the Algerian Ottoman elite and the indigenous population. For example, members of the elite adhered to Hanafi law while the rest of the population subscribed to the Maliki school. Most of the elites originated from non-Arab regions of the Empire.

Furthermore, most members of the elite spoke Ottoman Turkish while the local population spoke Algerian Arabic and differed from the rest of the population in their dress. From its establishment, the military-administrative elite worked to reinvigorate itself by enlisting volunteers from non-Arab regions of the Ottoman Empire from Anatolia. Hence, local recruiting of Arabs was unheard of and during the 18th century a more or less permanent network of recruiting officers was kept in some coastal Anatolian cities and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea; the recruitment policy was therefore one of the means employed to perpetuate the Turkishness of the Ottoman elite and was practiced until the fall of the province in 1830. During the 18th century, the militia practiced a restrictive policy on marriages between its members and local women. A married soldier would lose his right of residence in one of the city's eight barracks and the daily ration of bread to which he was entitled, he would lose his right to purchase a variety of products at a preferential price.

Nonetheless, the militia's marriage policy made c

Senja

Senja or Sážžá is an island in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. At 1,586.3-square-kilometre, it is the second largest island in Norway. It has a wild, mountainous outer side facing the Atlantic, a mild and lush inner side; the island located in Senja Municipality, a municipality, established on 1 January 2020. The island of Senja had 7,864 inhabitants as of 1 January 2017. Most of the residents live along the eastern coast of the island, with Silsand being the largest urban area on the island; the fishing village of Gryllefjord on the west coast has a summer-only ferry connection to the nearby island of Andøya: the Andenes–Gryllefjord Ferry. The island sits northeast of the Vesterålen archipelago, surrounded by the Norwegian Sea to the northwest, the Malangen fjord to the northeast, the Gisundet strait to the east, the Solbergfjorden to the southeast, the Vågsfjorden to the south, the Andfjorden to the west. Ånderdalen National Park is located in the southern part of the island. The Old Norse form of the name must have been Senja or Sændja.

The meaning of the name is unknown, but it might be related to the verb sundra which means to "tear" or "split apart" because the west coast of the island is torn and split by numerous small fjords. It might be derived from a Proto-Norse form of the word Sandijōn meaning " of sand" or "sandy island"; the island of Senja is located along the Troms county coastline with Finnsnes as the closest town. Senja is connected to the mainland by the Gisund Bridge; the municipalities located on Senja are Lenvik, Berg and Tranøy. The northern coasts of Senja faces the open sea, the western coast faces the islands of Andøya and Krøttøya, the southern coast faces the islands of Andørja and Dyrøya. On the western coast and rugged mountains rise straight from the sea, with some fishing villages tucked into the small lowland areas between the mountains and the sea; the eastern and southern parts of the island are milder, with rounder mountains, forests and agriculture land. Senja is referred to as "Norway in miniature", as the island's diverse scenery reflects the entire span of Norwegian nature.

Senja is known domestically for its scenery, is marketed as a tourist attraction. Climate data from the village of Gibostad on the eastern shore of the island; the western side of the island, facing the Norwegian Sea, will have milder but more windy winters. The fishing industry is dominant on Senja, notably the Nergård Group at Senjahopen and Brødrene Karlsen at Husøy. At Skaland there is some graphite mining. Another important industry that can be mentioned is ArtNord and Tromspotet at Silsand, which specializes in potato and potato products, the stair factory in Sollia. Sollia has the world's northernmost insulation glass factory, Nicopan AS, which has customers throughout Norway, plus some exports abroad; the residents of Senja have the Gisund Bridge as a ferry-free road connection to the mainland across Gisundet to the town of Finnsnes. The town serves as a trading center including the island of Senja; the island is connected with the other towns in the county. At Lysnes on northern Senja you have a fast boat connection with the city of Tromsø, a trip that takes about 50 minutes.

From the villages of Flakstadvåg and Skrolsvik on the west and south side of the island, there are ferries to the town of Harstad to the south. During the summer there is a ferry between northern Senja and the island of Kvaløya, between southern Senja and Harstad, between Gryllefjord and Andenes. There are four main roads on Senja; the main road is Norwegian County Road 86 which crosses the Gisund Bridge from Finnsnes, Sørreisa, Bardufoss. It extends across the island to Gryllefjord. From Silsand, Norwegian County Road 861 goes north along Gisundet to northern Senja. Norwegian County Road 860 goes from Stonglandseidet to Silsand, Norwegian County Road 862 goes from Straumsbotn in Berg, via Senjahopen to Botnhamn in Lenvik. In March 2017, the Parliament of Norway voted to merge the municipalities of Berg, Torsken and Tranøy; the new municipality will be established on 1 January 2020 as Senja Municipality. It is located in the traditional district of Hålogaland; the administrative centre of the municipality will be the town of Finnsnes.

The municipality will include all of the island of Senja, the smaller surrounding islands, part of the mainland between the Gisundet strait and the Malangen fjord. Among the sights of the island are Ånderdalen National Park with coastal pine forests and mountains, traditional fishing communities, the Senja Troll, the world's largest troll statue; the southernmost municipality Tranøy has several small museums documenting local history, among these the Halibut Museum in Skrolsvik. The island of Senja is mentioned in David Armine Howarth's World War II novel We Die Alone: A WWII Epic of Escape and Endurance, it has a namesake island in the MMORPG Tibia. The Norwegian musician Moddi comes from the island and his music is said to have been influenced by its beauty; the Norwegian musician Biosphere lives in Senja and his album The Senja Recordings, recorded in Senja, refers to a number of places in Senja. List of islands of Norway Media related to Senja at Wikimedia Commons Senja travel guide from Wikivoyage Alpin moro på eventyrøya Senja