Pomarkku is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the Satakunta region; the municipality has a population of 2,144 and covers an area of 332.05 square kilometres of which 30.95 km2 is water. The population density is 7.12 inhabitants per square kilometre. The municipality is unilingually Finnish. Oskari Vihantola Aulis Sileäkangas Raila Aho Media related to Pomarkku at Wikimedia Commons Municipality of Pomarkku – Official website
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
The Green League, shortened to the Greens, is a green political party in Finland. The Green League is among the largest political parties in Finland; the Greens hold one in the European Parliament. The party is a member of the Global Greens and the European Green Party, while its MEP, Heidi Hautala, sits with The Greens–European Free Alliance in the European Parliament. Split on whether Finland should join the European Union, the Green League is pro-European and was the first Finnish party in favor of the federalisation of the European Union. Founded in 1987, the party absorbed a number of green organisations and their members, including four MPs elected in 1987; the party won ten seats in the 1991 election. Despite falling to nine seats in 1995 election, Pekka Haavisto joined Paavo Lipponen's first cabinet, composed of a rainbow coalition; this move made the Green League the first green party in a national cabinet. The party remained in government until 2002, when it resigned from the cabinet in opposition to nuclear power.
In 2007, the party peaked at 15 seats, joined the centre-right-led government. At the 2011 election, the party fell to ten seats; the Greens were invited to join the six-party Katainen Cabinet. In the 2015 parliamentary election, the party returned to its previous best of 15 seats, at 8.53%, achieved their best share of the overall vote. Since November 2018, the party’s leader and chairman has been Pekka Haavisto; the party is in opposition, has provided vast criticism regarding the actions of the incumbent right-wing Sipilä Cabinet such as financial support for economically well-off companies, Fortum's purchase of Uniper, the expedited process of constitution-changing surveillance laws. The Green League was founded 28 February 1987, was registered as a political party the next year. Political activity had begun in the early 1980s, when environmental activists, disillusioned young politicians from the marginalized Liberal People's Party and other active groups began to campaign on green issues in Finland.
In 1995, it was the first European green party. The party was founded as a popular movement, which explains its name's descriptor liitto, "league". There was much resistance within the movement against the founding of a political party, motivated by Robert Michels' iron law of oligarchy, which claims that movements degenerate into oligarchies when they create a formal organization; the party still stresses openness and democratic decision-making. Though liitto has been dropped from the party's website and advertisements, the word still remains in the official name; the first two parliamentary representatives were elected before the registration, in the 1983 parliamentary election. These were the first independent representatives in the Finnish Parliament. In 1987 the number of seats rose to four, in 1991 to ten. About half of the party’s members were against Finland joining the European Union in 1994. Polls showed that most Greens were anti-Eurozone; the party heads declined to fight against euro adoption.
In the 1995 election, the Green League received a total of nine seats out of 200. The party joined the coalition cabinet led by the Social Democrats, Pekka Haavisto became the Minister of the Environment, thus becoming the first green minister in Europe; the Green League received 7.3% of the vote, gained two additional seats in the 1999 election, raising the total to 11. The Greens continued in the next coalition cabinet, but resigned in protest on 26 May 2002, after the cabinet's decision to allow the construction of a new nuclear plant was accepted by Parliament. In 2003, the Green League received 8.0 % of the vote. They increased their seats to 15 while receiving 8.5 % of the vote. In the 2011 election, the party lost five seats. In the 2009 European Parliament elections, the Greens gained two of the thirteen Finnish seats in the European Parliament, which were occupied by Satu Hassi and Heidi Hautala. At the municipal level, the Greens are an important player in the largest cities of Finland.
In the municipal election of 2008 the Greens received 8.9% of the vote. In several other cities, the Greens achieved the position of the third largest party, its weak spot is the rural countryside in those municipalities experiencing strong outward migration. A 2012 study indicated. By 2017 Green League party congress, Niinistö had served two full terms as the chairman and stepped down according to the rules of the party. In the following leadership election, there were six candidates running for party chair, of whom MP Touko Aalto won the election. Soon after Aalto's election, the popularity of the Green League surged in the polls and raised as the second most popular party in the country. However, in September 2017 the poll numbers turned into a downward slope, which continued until autumn 2018. After taking a month of sick leave due to exhaustion in September 2018, Aalto soon announced that he was resigning from his post, citing depression and fatigue. In November 2018, the Green League decided to choose a temporary chairman to lead the party into the 2019 parliamentary elections and until the next party convention.
In the leadership election, former chairman Pekka Haavisto was once again elected as chairman. The Green League is no longer an alternative movement; some Green candidates reject classifying the party as either
Satakunta is a region of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland, South Ostrobothnia and Ostrobothnia; the capital city of the region is Pori. The name of the region means Hundred; the historical province of the same name was a larger area within Finland, covering modern Satakunta as well as much of Pirkanmaa. The region of Satakunta is made up of 18 municipalities. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Satakunta: Social Democratic Party 24.0% Finns Party 23.6% National Coalition Party 17.6% Centre Party 16.1% Left Alliance 10.9% Green League 3.8% Christian Democrats 3.4% The arms are crowned by a ducal coronet, though in Finnish tradition this resembles a Swedish count's coronet. Blazon: "Per fess Azure and Or, a bear rampant Sable and langued Gules, crowned Or, holding in both paws a sword Argent, sword handle Or. According to one theory, Satakunta was a political and military entity in the Late Iron Age of Finland. During the 13th century, the Swedish rule was consolidated.
At the same time, the coastal strip received some Swedish inhabitants, who however were assimilated in the mainstream Finnish population. The remnant of the influx can be seen in some of the toponyms in coastal Satakunta. Genetically connections to Scandinavia seem to be strong. Haplogroup I, Scandinavian, is common in Satakunta. During the Middle Ages, the major cities of the province were Ulvila, established in the 14th century and Rauma, established 1442. Due to the rising of land, the former lost its access to the sea; the city of Pori was founded to the coast by Johan, Grand Duke of Finland in 1558. Administratively, the province lost its function in 1649 when it was combined with Southwest Finland to form Turku and Pori County. In the 19th century, the eastern parts of the province were transferred to the Tavastia County. At the present, the eastern part of the old province has formed the region of Pirkanmaa and the western part forms the region of Satakunta. Satakunta, with the rest of Finland, was separated from Sweden when Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809.
During the era of Autonomy, the province experienced slow industrialization, Pori becoming the most important industrial city of the region. The forest and textile industries dominated the business life. In addition, the merchants of Rauma and Pori had impressively large fleets of sailpowered merchantmen, which made up a large fraction of the total merchant navy of the Russian empire; the large-scale use of sail ships continued until the 1930s while the steampower started to dominate the international seatraffic. The building of the Tampere–Pori and Kokemäki–Rauma railroads connected the province into Finnish inland and diminished the importance of unnavigable Kokemäenjoki river as a means of transport. After this, the ports of Rauma and Pori have remained among the most important export ports for the Finnish industry; the development of agriculture towards market-based economy was started during the 18th century, when crop rotation and large-scale drainage projects were initiated. At the same time, clearing of forests for agricultural use continued, leading into the formation of a large crofter class, living on small-holdings rented from larger farms.
During the 19th century the social divisions among the rural population deepened. In Finnish Civil War of 1918, Satakunta formed an important part of Red Finland. Since independence, the development of Satakunta has followed the general Finnish pattern; the rural areas have suffered from the drain of young population towards population centers, which until the early 1990s benefited the industrial cities of Rauma and Pori with their surroundings. The metal and forest industries expanded necessitating the building of the nuclear plant at Olkiluoto; the increase of industrial production was not without problems, however. The area around Harjavalta copper–nickel smelting plant suffered from acid rain and Kokemäenjoki became polluted; these problems have been controlled to large extent since the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the traditional industries of the region have more or less stagnated and the relative importance of her cities has dwindled. One of the perceived reasons for this development has been the fact that Satakunta lacks a university of its own.
The exact borders of Satakunta towards Southwest Finland and Southern Tavastia are rather well-defined. However, this is not the case with the Northern Tavastia, i.e. in the modern day region of Pirkanmaa. This is because northern parts of Pirkanmaa were only sparsely inhabited wilderness and the borders of the provinces were never well defined before the introduction of county system in 1634. In that year, the border between Turku and Pori County which included Satakunta, Uusimaa and Tavastia county was rather arbitrarily drawn in Tammerkoski. To further complicate matters, Tampere with her surroundings was transferred to Tavastia Province in the 19th century; as a result, the region around Ikaalinen and Parkano is variously described as being part of Satakunta, Sata-Häme or Pirkanmaa. Satakunta is characterized by a strong contrast of inland areas; the southernmost part of the coast is flanked by the archipelago of Rauma but towards north, the number of coastal islands decreases markedly. The seabed is flat and due to this, the still-continuing post-glacial rising is perceivable during a single person's lifetime.
Kankaanpää is a town and municipality of Finland. Kankaanpää was founded in 1865, became a township in 1967 and a town in 1972, it is located in the crossroads of Hämeenkangas and Pohjankangas ridges. It belongs to the region of Satakunta. Kankaanpää has a population of about 11,500 inhabitants. First signs of humanity in the area are from the stone age and during the 16th century people started to settle in Kankaanpää area. Oldest houses that area found from the documents of Sweden-Finland are from the 1560 decade; the oldest passage in the province was from Hämeenkyrö through the ridges to Kauhajoki. In the 17th century it was the most important road between southern Finland and Ostrobothnia; the king of Sweden visited Kankaanpää twice. Gustavus Adolphus travelled from Ilmajoki to Hämeenlinna through Kankaanpää in 1614 and Adolf Fredrik had a rest in Kuninkaanlähde spring to water his horses and to eat in 1752; the spring was named after this event. The church of Kankaanpää has been built in 1839.
Architect of the church was C. L. Engel. Based on the village of Niinsalo about 5.7 km northeast of the site the climate is a continental subtarctic frontier considering that the warmest fourth month is around 9 °C, which puts Kankaanpää in a humid continental climate being closer to Helsinki than Oulu, it means that summer is more consistent and warm but winters are still cold. The municipality is considered one of the rainiest of Finland with 571 mm only during a growing season in 1995. Being the growing season from early May to October 10. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Kankaanpää: True Finns 37.2% Centre Party 25.5% National Coalition Party 11.8% Social Democratic Party 10.6% Left Alliance 7.7% Christian Democrats 4.4% Green League 2.4% Kankaanpää offers basic education with 12 elementary schools and a secondary school. There is a trade school and a polytechnic school which will be abolished in near future; the Artillery School in the Artillery Brigade provides university-level education for all future career artillery officers.
Kankaanpää town museum is presenting the life in Kankaanpää during the last 100 years. It is located near the Pohjankangas Training Area, capable of housing main battle tanks used by the United States Marine Corps. Kankaanpää is twinned with: Bollnäs, Sweden Flekkefjord, Norway Gagra, Georgia Misburg-Hannover, Germany Morsø Municipality, Denmark Elwood, demoscene musician Cristal Snow, musician Toni Vilander, racing driver Official website
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste