Yanaki and Milton Manaki
The Manaki brothers and Milton, were photography and cinema pioneers of the Balkan Peninsula and the Ottoman Empire. They were the first to bring a film camera and create a motion picture in the city of Manastir, an economic and cultural center of Ottoman Rumelia, their first film, The Weavers, was a 60-second documentary of their grandmother spinning and weaving. The Manaki brothers used a 35 mm Urban Bioscope camera that Yanaki imported from London in 1905. Yanaki and Milton filmed documentaries about various aspects of life in the city of Manastir, they made a name for themselves in their local photography studio and, in 1906, they received an invitation from King Carol I of Romania to participate in the Bucharest Jubilee Exhibition, where they won a gold medal for their collection and were asked to be the King's official photographers. They became the official photographers of the Ottoman Sultan and the King of Yugoslavia Alexander Karađorđević, in 1911 and 1929, respectively. In 1921 they built an outdoor cinema named Manaki and transformed it into a movie theater, destroyed by a fire in 1939.
The National Archive of the Republic of Macedonia preserves more than 17,000 photos and over 2,000 meters of movie film from the brothers Manaki. The brothers documented a number of historical events—the Ilinden Uprising, the Balkan Wars, World War I, the development of Manastir as a consulate and military center of the Ottoman Empire, they left a rich legacy of important documentary value of the historical and cultural development of Eastern Europe. In their honor the Manaki Brothers Film Festival is held every year; the brothers were born in the village of Avdella near the town of Gerebena during the Ottoman Empire. Milton was born in 1882 and Yanaki was born in 1878, their Aromanian family were wealthy land owners and their parents were livestock dealers and lenders. The area became a center of the Romanian national movement among the Aromanians in the 1860s, their father, joined the movement, to some extent the brothers developed a sense of Aromanian identity. They both attended Romanian elementary school in Avdella.
Milton studied at the Romanian high school in Yanya and Yanaki at the Romanian high school in Manastir. Yanaki was interested in painting and photography, during his high school years. Milton was not dropped out after completing one year. After completing high school, Yanaki worked as a teacher. Yanaki was employed as an art teacher in a Romanian school in Yanya when he opened his first photographic studio in 1898. Yanaki asked his brother to learn photography. Yanaki gained interest in photography and learned the craft. Yanaki, after many negotiations, purchased a plot of land on the main street of the capital of the Rumelia Eyalet within Vilayet of Manastir—Manastir. In 1904 both brothers started to work on the construction of their independent workshop, which they named Atelier for Photographic Art. Yanaki permanently moved to Manastir in 1905. Milton worked as a cleaner in the studio, maintaining the equipment, but he studied photography and showed expertise, it is assumed that Milton began to participate in the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization during this time.
Milton took fifty photographs of Aromanian revolutionaries in the organization. It is believed that Milton helped transport arms from Albania to Macedonia for the 2nd Revolutionary Committee of Bitola; the Manaki's had a passion for travel. They traveled separately through many of the European capitals; when the brothers went together to Bucharest in 1905, they were told that film cameras could be purchased in London. Yanaki was interested and while traveling through Paris and Vienna, he stopped in England to buy a Bioscope 300 film camera from Charles Urban Trading Company. With this camera they filmed their 114-year-old grandmother Despina; the film was made only years after the first Lumière brothers film, which had influenced the brothers. King Carol I invited them to visit Romania for a second time to participate in the Bucharest Jubilee Exhibition, a photographic contest, held from the fifth to the twelfth of November 1906, they won a gold and silver medal for their work and were named the official photographers of the Romanian King.
The brothers traveled in the region to take photographs in Aromanian-populated villages. Parallel to their photography work, the brothers started to film documentaries. During the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and 1909, they took around 450 photographs and a short film that recorded every significant event of that period. In 1909, they filmed and made a series of photographs of the arrival of the royal Romanian delegation to Manastir, they filmed the visit of the Turkish Sultan Mehmed V to Manastir in 1911—Milton traveled to the port of Thessaloniki where he recorded the arrival of the Sultan by boat the Sultan's train journey on the Selanik–Manastir route, the Sultan's reception on the railway station in Manastir, as well as events held in honor of the visit of the Sultan. The same year they were honored as official photographs of the Ottoman Sultan; the First Balkan War started on 18 October 1912 between Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Because of the Treaty of Bucharest, the town of Manastir was occupied by the Serbian army on 6 November 1912.
Milton and Yanaki took over 200 photographs of Serbian officers and soldiers and important political figures of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In early 1914, Milton Manaki made a trip to Grevena and Advella to see his parents and r
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities, is home to 555,210 inhabitants.a Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans. Sarajevo is the political and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media and the arts. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans", it is one of only a few major European cities which have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue in the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is home to the Balkans first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.
Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, the constituent republic's capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, for 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series Lonely Planet has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2019; the earliest known name for the large central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna. The name Sarajevo derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion"; the letter "j" in the Bosnian language is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet". The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455, meaning "the plains around the palace" or "palace plains". However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "evo" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some.
The first mention of name Sarajevo was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg. The official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna, it is still known by that name in modern Turkish. Sarajevo has had many nicknames; the earliest is Šeher, the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance which in turn comes from Persian: شهر shahr; as Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem"; some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government house. Sarajevo is near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper, it is situated 518 meters above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps. The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era.
The city is surrounded by forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica at 2,088 meters Bjelašnica mountain at 2,067 meters, Jahorina at 1,913 meters, Trebević at 1,627 meters, with 1,502 meters Igman being the shortest; the last four are known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo. The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences perched on the hillsides; the Miljacka river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source 2 kilometres south of the town of Pale at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo center; the Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne near Ilidža, is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams such as Koševski Potok run through the city and its vicinity.
Nausicaa is a character in Homer's Odyssey. She is the daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of Phaeacia, her name, in Greek, means "burner of ships". In Book Six of the Odyssey, Odysseus is shipwrecked on the coast of the island of Scheria. Nausicaä and her handmaidens go to the sea-shore to wash clothes. Awoken by their games, Odysseus emerges from the forest naked, scaring the servants away, begs Nausicaä for aid. Nausicaä gives Odysseus some of the laundry to wear, takes him to the edge of the town. Realizing that rumors might arise if Odysseus is seen with her and the servants go ahead into town, but first she advises Odysseus to go directly to Alcinous' house and make his case to Nausicaä's mother, Arete. Arete is known as wiser than Alcinous, Alcinous trusts her judgment. Odysseus follows this advice, approaching Arete and winning her approval, is received as a guest by Alcinous. During his stay, Odysseus recounts his adventures to his court; this recounting forms a substantial portion of the Odyssey.
Alcinous generously provides Odysseus with the ships that bring him home to Ithaca. Nausicaä is young and pretty. Nausicaä is known to have several brothers. According to Aristotle and Dictys of Crete, Nausicaä married Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, had a son named Ptoliporthus. Homer gives a literary account of love never expressed. While she is presented as a potential love interest to Odysseus – she says to her friend that she would like her husband to be like him, her father tells Odysseus he would let him marry her – no romantic relationship takes place between the pair. Nausicaä is a mother figure for Odysseus. Odysseus never tells Penelope about his encounter with Nausicaä, out of all the women he met on his long journey home; some suggest. The 2nd century BC grammarian Agallis attributed the invention of ball games to Nausicaä, most because Nausicaä was the first person in literature to be described playing with a ball. An asteroid discovered in the year 1879, 192 Nausikaa, is named after her.
Friedrich Nietzsche, in Beyond Good and Evil, said: "One should part from life as Odysseus parted from Nausicaa—blessing it rather than in love with it." In his 1892 lecture, "The Humor of Homer", Samuel Butler concludes that Nausicaa was the real authoress of the Odyssey, since the laundry scene is more realistic and plausible than many other scenes in the epic. His theory that the Odyssey was written by a woman was further developed in his 1897 book The Authoress of the Odyssey. An episode in James Joyce's Ulysses echoes the "Nausicaa" story to a degree: the character Gerty McDowell tempts Bloom. In 1907, the Hungarian composer Zoltán Kodály wrote the song "Nausikaa" to a poem by Aranka Bálint. Kodály showed great interest in Greek antiquity in his whole life: he not only studied the language and read up on the different editions of Homer’s Iliad and Odysseus, but he planned an opera about the latter figure since 1906. Only one song, "Nausikaa", survived from this opera plan. In 1915 the Polish composer Karol Szymanowski completed Métopes, Op. 29.
It is a cycle of three miniature tone poems drawing on Greek mythology. Each of the three movements features a female character encountered by Odysseus on his homeward voyage; the movements are: "The Isle of the Sirens", "Calypso" and "Nausicaa". William Faulkner named the cruise ship Nausikaa in his 1927 novel Mosquitoes. Armenian poet, prose writer Yeghishe Charents wrote his poem "Navzike" in 1936 about longing for his Nausicaa, himself being "lost" in the political storms of the forties. Robert Graves' 1955 novel Homer's Daughter presents Nausicaa as the author of the Odyssey, which draws on experiences and influences of her own life; the Australian composer Peggy Glanville-Hicks wrote an opera entitled Nausicaa, first performed in 1961 at the Athens Festival. The Nobel Prize-winning Saint Lucian poet Derek Walcott's poem; the manga and 1984 animated film Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, was indirectly inspired by the character in the Odyssey. Miyazaki read a description of Nausicaa in a Japanese translation of Bernard Evslin's anthology of Greek mythology, which portrayed her as a lover of nature.
Miyazaki added other elements based on animist tradition. In 1991, the public aquarium Nausicaä Centre National de la Mer, one of the largest in Europe, opened in Boulogne-sur-Mer in France. In 2010, the band Glass Wave recorded a song entitled "Nausicaa", sung in the voice of the Phaeacian maiden. Nausicaans are a race of tall, aggressive humanoids in the Star Trek universe. Portions of this material originated as excerpts from the public-domain 1848 edition of the Classical Dictionary by John Lemprière. Media related to Nausicaa at Wikimedia Commons
Days of '36
Days of'36 is a 1972 Greek dramatic independent underground art film directed by Theo Angelopoulos. Its title is a tribute to Constantine P. Cavafy. Filmed during the Regime of the Colonels, the film draws parallels between the regime and the dictatorship of Ioannis Metaxas, but it does so implicitly, in order to escape censorship. Angelopoulos elsewhere speaks of an "aesthetic of the unspoken." He points out that the most important things always happen out of the field of view, behind closed doors or on the phone. When something is said, it is only whispered. In May 1936, in a Greece riven by political strife, a trade union leader is assassinated. Sofianos, a petty criminal and smuggler as well as a police informant and leftist agitator, is accused of the murder. Kept incommunicado in a room separate from the other detainees, his only two visitors are a member of parliament from the Conservative Party and his driver, his brother. One day, Sofianos takes the member of parliament as a hostage inside his cell to obtain his release before midnight.
The prison guards are powerless, while the warden is under pressure from his political bosses to find a quick resolution to the standoff. Sofianos's lawyer tries to reason with him, explaining to his client that the weapon in his possession is a trap, set up for him, that by taking the deputy as a hostage he is playing the game of those who accuse him; the lawyer conducts an investigation to exonerate Sofianos but ends up being beaten up in a deserted street. In the meantime, an escape attempt takes place in the prison, but three escapees are caught up in the countryside. Under pressure from representatives of the major powers, the political and prison authorities are trying to put an end to the hostage-taking by various means, including the poisoning of the prisoner. At nightfall, a sniper shoots Sofianos in his cell; the next morning, the three escapees are shot and the body of Sofianos is added to the funeral truck. Title: Days of'36 Original title: Μέρες του'36 Director: Theo Angelopoulos Screenplay: Theo Angelopoulos, Petros Markaris, Stratis Karras and Thanassis Valtinos Cinematography: Giorgos Arvanitis Production Design/Costume Design: Mikes Karapiperis Music: Giorgos Papastephanou Editing: Vassilis Syropoulos Production Manager: Giorgos Samiotis Country: Greece Format: Color – Mono – 35 mm Genre: Drama Duration: 105 Minutes Release date: 20 September 1972 Kostas Pavlou: Sofianos Thanos Grammenos: Sofianos' Brother/Kriezis's Driver Giorgos Kyritsis: Kontaxis Petros Zarkadis: Sofianos' Accomplice Christoforos Neezer: Prison Director Toula Stathopoulou: Prostitute Christos Kalavrouzos: Second Trade Unionist Vasilis Tsaglos: Prison Guard Giannis Kandilas: Minister Kriezis/Hostage Petros Hoidas: Prosecutor Takis Doukatos: Police Chief Petros Markaris: Murdered Trade Unionist Kostas Sfikas: Prosecutor's Assistant Christoforos Himaras: Minister Vangelis Kazan Alekos Boubis Giorgos Tzifos Kaiti Ibrohori Yannis Smaragdis Thanassis Valtinos Lambros Papadimitrakis Titika Vlahopoulou Yanka Avayianou Kiriakos Katrivanos Panos Kokkinopoulos Kostas Mandilas It was awarded Best Director and Best Picture at the Thessaloniki Festival of Greek Cinema in 1972.
At the Berlin International Film Festival in 1973, it received a prize from the International Federation of Film Critics. Michel Demopoulos, directeur de publication, Le Cinéma grec, Centre Georges Pompidou, collection "cinéma/pluriel," 1995, 263 pages, ISBN 2858508135. Vrasidas Karalis, A History of Greek Cinema, New York City and London, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012, 344 pages, ISBN 978-1-4411-9447-3. Sylvie Rollet, directeur de publication, Théorème 9: Théo Angelopoulos au fil du temps, Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2007, 189 pages, ISBN 978-2-87854-372-8. Stéphane Sawas, "Grèce – Les écrans grecs sous la dictature des colonels: la grande rupture,» dans Raphaël Muller et Thomas Wieder, directeurs de publication, Cinéma et régimes autoritaires au xxe siècle: Écrans sous influence, Paris, Éditions École Normale Supérieure rue d'Ulm et Presses Universitaires de France, collection "Les rencontres de Normale Sup'," 2008, 285 pages, ISBN 978-2-13-055749-4. Stéphane Sawas, "Entre amnésie collective et mémoire retrouvée: La guerre civile grecque au cinéma," dans Carola Hähnel-Mesnard, Marie Liénard-Yeterian, et Cristina Marinas, directeurs de publication, Culture et mémoire: Représentations contemporaines de la mémoire dans les espaces mémoriels, les arts du visuel, la littérature et le théâtre, Paris, Éditions de l'École Polytechnique et Éditions Ellipses, 2008, 534 pages, ISBN 978-2-7302-1492-6.
Days of'36 on IMDb Days of'36 at Rotten Tomatoes Days of'36 at AllMovie Days of'36 at the TCM Movie Database
In Homer's Odyssey, Penelope is the wife of Odysseus, known for her fidelity to Odysseus while he was absent, despite having many suitors. Her name has therefore been traditionally associated with marital fidelity; the origin of her name is believed by Robert S. P. Beekes to be Pre-Greek and related to pēnelops or pēnelōps, glossed by Hesychius as "some kind of bird", where -elōps is a common Pre-Greek suffix for predatory animals. In folk etymology, Pēnelopē is understood to combine the Greek word pēnē, "weft", ōps, "face", considered the most appropriate for a cunning weaver whose motivation is hard to decipher. Penelope is the wife of the main character, the king of Ithaca and daughter of Icarius of Sparta and his wife Periboea, she only has one son by Odysseus, born just before Odysseus was called to fight in the Trojan War. She waits twenty years for the final return of her husband, during which she devises various strategies to delay marrying one of the 108 suitors. On Odysseus's return, disguised as an old beggar, he finds.
She has devised tricks to delay her suitors, one of, to pretend to be weaving a burial shroud for Odysseus's elderly father Laertes and claiming that she will choose a suitor when she has finished. Every night for three years, she undoes part of the shroud, until Melantho, one of twelve unfaithful slave women, discovers her chicanery and reveals it to the suitors; because of her efforts to put off remarriage, Penelope is seen as a symbol of connubial fidelity. But because Athena wants her "to show herself to the wooers, that she might set their hearts a-flutter and win greater honor from her husband and her son than heretofore", Penelope does appear before the suitors; as Irene de Jong comments: As so it is Athena who takes the initiative in giving the story a new direction... The motives of mortal and god coincide, here they do not: Athena wants Penelope to fan the Suitors’ desire for her and make her more esteemed by her husband and son, she is ambivalent, variously asking Artemis to kill her and considering marrying one of the suitors.
When the disguised Odysseus returns, she announces in her long interview with the disguised hero that whoever can string Odysseus's rigid bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe heads may have her hand. "For the plot of the Odyssey, of course, her decision is the turning point, the move that makes possible the long-predicted triumph of the returning hero". There is debate as to. Penelope and the suitors know that Odysseus would surpass all in any test of masculine skill, so she may have intentionally started the contest as an opportunity for him to reveal his identity. On the other hand, because Odysseus seems to be the only person who can use the bow, she could just be further delaying her marriage to one of the suitors; when the contest of the bow begins, none of the suitors are able to string the bow, but Odysseus does, wins the contest. Having done so, he proceeds to slaughter the suitors—beginning with Antinous whom he finds drinking from Odysseus' cup—with help from Telemachus and two slaves, Eumaeus the swineherd and Philoetius the cowherd.
Odysseus has now revealed himself in all his glory. Odysseus protests that this cannot be done since he made the bed himself and knows that one of its legs is a living olive tree. Penelope accepts that he is her husband, a moment that highlights their homophrosýnē. Homer implies, that from on, Odysseus would live a long and happy life together with Penelope and Telemachus, wisely ruling his kingdom and enjoying wide respect and much success. In some early sources such as Pindar, Pan's father is Apollo via Penelope. Herodotus, Cicero and Hyginus all make Hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. 5th-century AD source Dionysiaca by Nonnus names Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia Pan's mother. Other sources report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, gave birth to Pan as a result; this myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name with the Greek word for "all".
Penelope is recognizable in Greek and Roman works, from Attic vase-paintings—the Penelope Painter is recognized by his representations of her—to Roman sculpture copying or improvising upon classical Greek models, by her seated pose, by her reflective gesture of leaning her cheek on her hand, by her protectively crossed knees, reflecting her long