Ulysses (novel)

Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday, it is considered one of the most important works of modernist literature and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement." According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking". Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904. Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism and Ireland's relationship to Britain.

The novel is allusive and imitates the styles of different periods of English literature. Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921, to protracted textual "Joyce Wars"; the novel's stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, experimental prose—replete with puns and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour, have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history. Joyce first encountered the figure of Odysseus/Ulysses in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses, an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seems to have established the Latin name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on the character, entitled "My Favourite Hero". Joyce told Frank Budgen, he thought about calling his short-story collection Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin, but the idea grew from a story written in 1906 to a "short book" in 1907, to the vast novel that he began in 1914.

Leopold Bloom's home at 7 Eccles Street - Episode 4, Episode 17, Episode 18, Penelope Post office, Westland Row - Episode 5, Lotus Eaters. Sweny's pharmacy, Lombard Street, Lincoln Place. Episode 5, Lotus Eaters the Freeman's Journal, Prince's Street, off of O'Connell Street Episode 7, Aeolus And - not far away - Graham Lemon's candy shop, 49 Lower O'Connell Street, it starts Episode 8, Lestrygonians Davy Byrne's pub - Episode 8, Lestrygonians National Library of Ireland - Episode 9, Scylla and Charybdis Ormond Hotel - on the banks of the Liffey - Episode 11, Sirens Barney Kiernan's pub, Episode 12, Cyclops Maternity hospital, Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun Bella Cohen's brothel. Episode 15, Circe Cabman's shelter, Butt Bridge. - Episode 16, EumaeusThe action of the novel moves from one side of Dublin Bay to the other, opening in Sandycove to the South of the city and closing on Howth Head to the North. Ulysses is divided into 18 episodes; the episodes do not have chapter headings or titles, are numbered only in Gabler's edition.

In the various editions the breaks between episodes are indicated in different ways. At first glance, much of the book may appear chaotic; the two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to help defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to The Odyssey clearer, helped explain the work's internal structure. Joyce divides Ulysses into 18 episodes that "roughly correspond to the episodes in Homer's Odyssey". Homer's Odyssey is divided into 24 books. Scholars have suggested that every episode of Ulysses has a theme and correspondence between its characters and those of the Odyssey; the text of the published novel does not include the episode titles that are used below, nor the correspondences, which originate from explanatory outlines Joyce sent to friends, known as the Linati and Gilbert schemata. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters, he took the idiosyncratic rendering of some of the titles from Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée, which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.

While the action of Joyce's novel takes place during one ordinary day in early twentieth-century Dublin, Ireland, in Homer's epic, Odysseus, "a Greek hero of the Trojan War... took ten years to find his way from Troy to his home on the island of Ithaca". Furthermore, Homer's poem includes violent storms and a shipwreck and monsters, gods and goddesses, a different world from Joyce's. Joyce's character Leopold Bloom, "a Jewish advertisement canvasser", corresponds to Odysseus in Homer's epic, it is 8 a.m. Buck Mulligan, a boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus up to the roof of the Sandycove Martello tower where they both live. There is tension between Stephen and Mulligan, stemming from a

Minorities in Greece

Minorities in Greece are small in size compared to Balkan regional standards, the country is ethnically homogeneous. This is due to the population exchanges between Greece and neighboring Turkey and Bulgaria, which removed most Muslims and those Christian Slavs who did not identify as Greeks from Greek territory; the treaty provided for the resettlement of ethnic Greeks from those countries to be followed by refugees. The 2011 census reported a population of 10,816,286 people; the main recognized "minority" is the Muslim minority in Thrace, Northern Greece, which numbered 120,000 according to the 2001 census and consists of Western Thrace Turks and Romani, found in central and Northern Greece. Other recognized minority groups are the Armenians numbering 35,000, the Jews numbering 5,500; the Greek constitution defines the Eastern Orthodox Church as the "prevailing religion" in Greece, over 95% of the population claim membership in it. Any other religion not explicitly defined by law may acquire the status of a "known religion", a status which allows the religion's adherents to worship and to have constitutional recognition.

After a court ruling, the criteria for acquiring the status of a "known religion" were defined as being a "religion or a dogma whose doctrine is open and not secret, is taught publicly and its rites of worship are open to the public, irrespective of whether its adherents have religious authorities. This covers most religious minorities such as Roman Catholics, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses. All known religions to be considered by the Greek state legal entities under private law must establish an association, foundation, or charitable fund-raising committee pursuant to the Civil Code; the Roman Catholic Church refuses to be considered a legal person under private or public law and has requested recognition by its own canon law. In July 1999, following a parliamentary amendment, the legal entity status of all institutions of the Roman Catholic Church established before 1946 was reconfirmed. There is no formal mechanism that exists to gain recognition as a "known religion".

There are around two thousand Greeks who adhere to a reconstruction of the ancient Greek Religion. A place of worship has been recognized as such by court. There is a Muslim minority who are Greek citizens living in Thrace, concentrated in the Rhodope and Xanthi regional units. According to the 1991 census, there were 98,000 Muslims in western Thrace, 50% of them of Turkish ethnic origin, with 35% Pomaks and the remaining 15% Roma. Other sources estimate the size of the Muslim minority at 0.95% of the population, or 110,000. Aside from the indigenous Muslim minority in Greece, the Muslim immigrant population in the rest of the country was estimated at 200,000 to 300,000, though these are recent migrants and not considered a minority. Under Greek administration, the Muslim minority of Greece has adopted a moderate, non-political form of Islam; the Lausanne Treaty and as a result the Greek government define the rights of the Muslim communities in Western Thrace, both Turkish and Pomak, on the basis of religion instead of ethnicity.

A Turkish community lives in Western Thrace, in the north-eastern part of Greece. According to the 1991 census, there were 50,000 Turks, out of the 98,000 Muslim minority of Greece Other sources estimate the size of the minority between 120,000 and 130,000; the Turks of Thrace descend from Turkish populations living in the area during the Ottoman period. Like the Greeks of Istanbul, they were exempted from the 1923 population exchange; the Greek government continues to deliver Turkish-language public education, there are two Islamic theological seminaries, one in Komotini and one in Echinos. The Turkish community of Greece enjoys full equality under the law, adopting Turkish names, publishing numerous Turkish-language newspapers, operating Turkish-language radio stations, converse in Turkish and use Turkish in Greek courts, they are allowed to maintain their own Turkish-language schools, which catered to about 8,000 students in the 1999-2000 school year. Since 1920, members of the Turkish minority participate in elections, electing representatives to Parliament.

The great majority of Turkic Muslims in Thrace espouse moderate political views and are ready to work and prosper as citizens of the Greek state, with the exception of a small group of ethnocentric activists. In 1922, Turks owned 84% of the land in Western Thrace, but now the minority estimates this figure to be 20–40%; this stems from various practices of the Greek administration whereby ethnic Greeks are encouraged to purchase Turkish land with soft loans granted by the state. The Greek government refers to the Turkish community as Greek Muslims or Hellenic Muslims, does not recognise a Turkish minority in Western Thrace. Greek courts have outlawed the use of the word'Turkish' to describe the Turkish community. In 1988, the Greek High Court affirmed a 1986 decision of the Court of Appeals of Thrace in which the Union of Turkish Associations of Western Thrace was ordered closed; the court held that the use of the word'Turkish' referred to ci

Nuisance parameter

In statistics, a nuisance parameter is any parameter, not of immediate interest but which must be accounted for in the analysis of those parameters which are of interest. The classic example of a nuisance parameter is the variance, σ2, of a normal distribution, when the mean, μ, is of primary interest. Nuisance parameters are variances, but not always. In general, any parameter which intrudes on the analysis of another may be considered a nuisance parameter. A parameter may cease to be a "nuisance" if it becomes the object of study, as the variance of a distribution may be; the general treatment of nuisance parameters can be broadly similar between frequentist and Bayesian approaches to theoretical statistics. It relies on an attempt to partition the likelihood function into components representing information about the parameters of interest and information about the other parameters; this can involve ideas about ancillary statistics. When this partition can be achieved it may be possible to complete a Bayesian analysis for the parameters of interest by determining their joint posterior distribution algebraically.

The partition allows frequentist theory to develop general estimation approaches in the presence of nuisance parameters. If the partition cannot be achieved it may still be possible to make use of an approximate partition. In some special cases, it is possible to formulate methods that circumvent the presences of nuisance parameters; the t-test provides a useful test because the test statistic does not depend on the unknown variance. It is a case. However, in other cases no such circumvention is known. Practical approaches to statistical analysis treat nuisance parameters somewhat differently in frequentist and Bayesian methodologies. A general approach in a frequentist analysis can be based on maximum likelihood-ratio tests; these provide both significance tests and confidence intervals for the parameters of interest which are valid for moderate to large sample sizes and which take account of the presence of nuisance parameters. See Basu for some general discussion and Spall and Garner for some discussion relative to the identification of parameters in linear dynamic models.

In Bayesian analysis, a applicable approach creates random samples from the joint posterior distribution of all the parameters: see Markov chain Monte Carlo. Given these, the joint distribution of only the parameters of interest can be found by marginalizing over the nuisance parameters. However, this approach may not always be computationally efficient if some or all of the nuisance parameters can be eliminated on a theoretical basis. Profile likelihood Basu, D. "On the Elimination of Nuisance Parameters," Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 77, pp. 355–366. Doi:10.1080/01621459.1977.10481002 Bernardo, J. M. Smith, A. F. M. Bayesian Theory. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-49464-X Cox, D. R. Hinkley, D. V. Theoretical Statistics. Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-412-12420-3 Spall, J. C. and Garner, J. P. “Parameter Identification for State-Space Models with Nuisance Parameters,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 26, pp. 992–998. Young, G. A. Smith, R. L. Essentials of Statistical Inference, CUP.

ISBN 0-521-83971-8