click links in text for more info


Umami or savory taste is one of the five basic tastes. It is characteristic of broths and cooked meats. People taste umami through taste receptors that respond to glutamates, which are present in meat broths and fermented products and added to some foods in the form of monosodium glutamate and others. Since umami has its own receptors rather than arising out of a combination of the traditionally recognized taste receptors, scientists now consider umami to be a distinct taste. Foods that have a strong umami flavor include broths, soups, shellfish and fish sauces, mushrooms, hydrolysed vegetable protein, meat extract, yeast extract and soy sauce. A loanword from the Japanese, umami can be translated as "pleasant savory taste." This neologism was coined in 1908 by Japanese chemist Kikunae Ikeda from a nominalization of umai "delicious." The compound 旨味 is used for a more general sense of a food as delicious. Scientists have debated whether umami was a basic taste since Kikunae Ikeda first proposed its existence in 1908.

In 1985, the term umami was recognized as the scientific term to describe the taste of glutamates and nucleotides at the first Umami International Symposium in Hawaii. Umami represents the taste of the amino acid L-glutamate and 5’-ribonucleotides such as guanosine monophosphate and inosine monophosphate, it can be described as a pleasant "brothy" or "meaty" taste with a long-lasting and coating sensation over the tongue. The sensation of umami is due to the detection of the carboxylate anion of glutamate in specialized receptor cells present on the human and other animal tongues; some 52 peptides may be responsible for detecting umami taste. Its effect is to round out the overall flavor of a dish. Umami enhances the palatability of a wide variety of foods. Glutamate in acid form imparts little umami taste, whereas the salts of glutamic acid, known as glutamates, give the characteristic umami taste due to their ionized state. GMP and IMP amplify the taste intensity of glutamate. Adding salt to the free acids enhances the umami taste.

Monosodium L-aspartate has an umami taste about four times less intense than MSG whereas ibotenic acid and tricholomic acid are claimed to be many times more intense. Glutamate has a long history in cooking. Fermented fish sauces, which are rich in glutamate, were used in ancient Rome, fermented barley sauces rich in glutamate were used in medieval Byzantine and Arab cuisine, fermented fish sauces and soy sauces have histories going back to the 3rd century in China. In the late-1800s, chef Auguste Escoffier, who opened restaurants in Paris and London, created meals that combined umami with salty, sour and bitter tastes, he did not know the chemical source of this unique quality, however. Umami was first scientifically identified in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda, a professor of the Tokyo Imperial University, he found. He noticed that the taste of kombu dashi was distinct from sweet, sour and salty and named it umami. Professor Shintaro Kodama, a disciple of Ikeda, discovered in 1913 that dried bonito flakes contained another umami substance.

This was the ribonucleotide IMP. In 1957, Akira Kuninaka realized that the ribonucleotide GMP present in shiitake mushrooms conferred the umami taste. One of Kuninaka's most important discoveries was the synergistic effect between ribonucleotides and glutamate; when foods rich in glutamate are combined with ingredients that have ribonucleotides, the resulting taste intensity is higher than would be expected from adding the intensity of the individual ingredients. This synergy of umami may help explain various classical foodpairings: Japanese make dashi with kombu seaweed and dried bonito flakes. Umami has a mild but lasting aftertaste associated with salivation and a sensation of furriness on the tongue, stimulating the throat, the roof and the back of the mouth. By itself, umami is not palatable, but it makes a great variety of foods pleasant in the presence of a matching aroma. Like other basic tastes, umami is pleasant only within a narrow concentration range; the optimum umami taste depends on the amount of salt, at the same time, low-salt foods can maintain a satisfactory taste with the appropriate amount of umami.

One study showed that ratings of pleasantness, taste intensity, ideal saltiness of low-salt soups were greater when the soup contained umami, whereas low-salt soups without umami were less pleasant. Another study demonstrated that using fish sauce as a source of umami could reduce the need for salt by 10–25% to flavor such foods as chicken broth, tomato sauce, or coconut curry while maintaining overall taste intensity; some population groups, such as the elderly, may benefit from umami taste because their taste and smell sensitivity is impaired by age and medication. The loss of taste and smell can contribute to poor nutrition; some evidence exists to show umami not only stimulates appetite, but may contribute to satiety. Many foods that may be consumed daily are rich in umami components. Glutamate in the form of inosinate comes from meats whereas guanylate comes from vegetables. Mushrooms dried shiitake, are sources of umami flavor fr

Barnesville Petroglyph

The Barnesville Petroglyph is a well-known petroglyph site in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Located 3 miles southwest of the village of Barnesville in Belmont County, the petroglyphs have been known both by archaeologists and the general public since the 1850s or earlier. Although the site was damaged during the twentieth century, it is still a significant archaeological site; the age of the Barnesville Petroglyph is far greater than that of anything created since white settlement of the region began. The precise cultural affiliation of its creators is uncertain: some have attributed the site to the Adena, who inhabited the region between 500 BC and AD 300. However, Barnesville shares many similarities with other petroglyph sites in western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia, other parts of eastern Ohio. Many features of these and similar petroglyph sites in the region indicated to Swauger that they were created by Ojibwe-influenced people of the Monongahela culture, whose earliest presence in the Upper Ohio Valley is believed to have been AD 1200.

The petroglyphs are carved into a single large boulder of Dunkard-series sandstone that sits in woodland atop a hill with an elevation of 1,320 feet. Measuring 3.5 metres from east to west and 4.5 metres from northwest to southeast, the boulder slopes from end to end: the northwestern corner is nearly 1 metre above the soil, but the southeastern corner meets ground level. Dozens of boulders of Dunkard sandstone, both small and large, are littered around the hilltop; when the site was first recorded archaeologically, carvings were scattered among several different boulders on the hilltop. At least one such stone has been removed: during the early twentieth century, a group of men masquerading as staff from a museum obtained the second-largest boulder, it has been lost to science as a result. Smaller rocks were recorded with petroglyphs, but a 1971 professional survey failed to find anything except on the largest boulder. At that time, it was believed that the other stones may have been stolen, become undistinguishable due to weathering, or have become lost among the many similar boulders.

Four years the second boulder was re-discovered. The large boulder of premier interest bears 113 different designs, which have been divided into 6 different classifications: 47 mammal imprints, 26 bird tracks, 21 human body parts, 12 geometric figures, 4 snakes, 3 pits. While the precise identification of the animals whose prints are carved at the stone are uncertain, these designations were applied because they were seen to be the animals most to be encountered by the Native Americans who produced the petroglyph. Similar to carvings at another site that are known as "nut-cracker holes," the pits are small indentations that are most to have been made individually, although it is possible that they are the sole surviving elements of otherwise eroded designs, it is difficult to identify the types of animals whose prints are represented by the smaller tracks: a specialist in mammals from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History was unable to determine whether many of them were meant to be the prints of dogs or of cats.

Most unusual of the designs are the pelts and the human faces: only one other petroglyph site in the Upper Ohio Valley has designs that appear to be stretched-out animal skins, the noses featured on some of the human faces are unknown at other petroglyphs in the region. Those carvings designated as "geometric" are abstract designs. Carvings at Barnesville are noticeably different from those at Belmont County's other significant petroglyph site: known as Barton Rock, this site consists of petroglyphs on a large boulder in the middle of Wheeling Creek 0.7 miles below the unincorporated community of Barton. First described in 2002, Barton Rock consists of images of turtles and birds; such a concentration is similar to the many riverine petroglyph sites in the Ohio Valley that Swauger described, while Barnesville's large number of tracks is similar to many other upland sites in the region. The earliest published record of the Barnesville Petroglyph was created in 1857 or 1858 by Thomas Kite, a similar description was produced soon afterward by James W. Ward.

Drawing on these works, Charles Wittlesey and J. H. Salisbury produced a more systematic description in 1869 and 1871: published in 1872, they describe the carvings present on the boulder, once thought to have been removed from the site as well as documenting the carvings that have always been known. A yet fuller description was included in James L. Swauger's landmark Rock Art of the Upper Ohio Valley, published in 1972; because of the dominance of footprints among the rest of the types of carvings, the petroglyph has become popularly known as the "Track Rocks" among local residents.

Ryszard Reiff

Ryszard Reiff was a Polish politician, lawyer and resistance fighter. He was a deputy to the Polish parliament during the 1968 Polish political crisis and again during the Martial law in Poland. Born in Warsaw in 1923, Reiff studied law at the University of Warsaw. After German invasion of Poland, he took part in the Polish resistance movement in World War II, he was a member of the right-leaning Konfederacja Narodu underground organization and commanded one of the first units of the Uderzeniowe Bataliony Kadrowe. He became a member of the Armia Krajowa by default as the Konfederacja Narodu merged with it, fought against Nazi Germans near Navahrudak; as a member of Armia Krajowa, he was arrested by the Soviet NKVD, imprisoned for two years. In 1946 after the Soviet liberation, he started work as a publicist, becoming involved with the pro-communist, but pro-Catholic faction in the Party. First, he worked in Dziś i Jutro newspaper, from 1950 to 1953 he was a chief editor of Słowo Powszechne daily and publishing arm of the secular Catholic Polish government sponsored PAX Association, during the darkest years of Stalinism in Poland.

In 1976, he became PAX deputy director, in 1979, its full director. He adopted a position supportive of an independent Polish trade union. A Catholic intellectual, he was a committed critic of Polish government policies, he once urged a coalition to be formed of leaders from Solidarity, the Polish United Workers' Party, the Catholic Church, advocating "the establishment of a corporatist arrangement between major political actors as the only way to stabilize Poland's political situation and resolve the deepening economic crisis." From 1965 to 1969 and from 1980 to 1985 he was a deputy to the Polish parliament. On the night of December 12/13, 1981, martial law was proclaimed in Poland. In an effort to try to make the implementation of martial law appear legal, the Polish military ordered the Polish Council of State—a collective presidency—to approve it by a formal vote. Reiff was the only member of the Council of State to vote against the measure, he lost his position in the Council the following year.

In January 1982, he was removed from his leadership of PAX by several members of the organization. Some observers were reported to have concluded that this was because those members wanted to change the direction of PAX towards a pro-government stance similar to what it held in the 1950s, though one source contends that the removal was engineered by the leadership of the Polish government in an effort to re-assert its control over the group. From 1980 to 1985, he was once again a Sejm deputy. With the coming fall of communism in Poland, from 1989 to 1991 he was a member of the Solidarity Citizens' Committee, joined the Democratic Union party, he was a chairman of the Association of Sybiraks. Between 1939 and 1941, 1944 and 1953, around 1.8 million Poles were deported to the Russian region of Siberia, resulting in 500 000 deaths. Ostensibly, the deportations occurred to those who had resisted the Soviet takeover of eastern Poland in 1939, assisted the Nazis during the Second World War, who were members of the Polish Home Army—an anti-Communist resistance group during the war.

A number of human rights groups in Poland protesting against the deportations that occurred, formed the Siberian Union in 1988 with Reiff as its leader. He died on 9 December 2007 in Warsaw

Island Pond (Stoddard, New Hampshire)

Island Pond is a 179-acre water body located in Cheshire County in southwestern New Hampshire, United States, in the town of Stoddard. It is fed by the outflow from Highland Lake, its outlet is a tributary of the North Branch Contoocook River, part of the Merrimack River watershed; the lake is classified as a warmwater fishery and contains largemouth and smallmouth bass, rock bass, yellow perch and horned pout. List of lakes in New Hampshire Island Pond Association

Enough is Enough - Restart (party)

Association "It's Enough – Restart" known in English as Enough is Enough, is a Serbian political organization, established on 27 January 2014 around former Minister of Economy Saša Radulović and his associates from the ministry. It took part in Serbian elections in 2014 and 2016, it was founded on 27 January 2014 as Association "It's Enough–Restart". The It's Enough–Restart group in the National Assembly lost three of its members in February 2017, when Aleksandra Čabraja, Jovan Jovanović, Sonja Pavlović left to start an organization called the Civic Platform. On 15 March 2018, Ljupka Mihajlovska resigned from the DJB assembly group to sit as an independent; the following day, Miloš Bošković resigned from DJB and resigned from the assembly, returning his mandate to the association. The DJB main board subsequently expelled assembly members Nenad Božić, Vladimir Đurić, Aleksandar Stevanović from membership in the association on 29 March 2018. Tatjana Macura resigned from the association on 12 April 2018, following a brief, abortive bid for its presidency.

Macura subsequently started a new association called the Free MPs parliamentary group, joined by Božić, Đurić, Stevanović. In addition, Bošković's replacement Nada Kostić chose not to sit with DJB. In the aftermath of these changes, DJB had seven deputies in the assembly. Only several months Dušan Pavlović left the DJB; this led to another wave of leaving. Another five deputies leave the DJB parliamentary club. By the mid-November 2018, DJB was reduced to only two deputies in the Assembly and no parliamentary club. In the 2018 Belgrade election, a combined DJB–Dveri list failed to pass the electoral threshold. Saša Radulović subsequently stepped down as president of the party on 6 March 2018, along with all deputy presidents. On 21 April 2018 head of the DJB in Bor, was elected party president. On 8 November 2018 Branislav Mihajlović was dismissed and replaced by deputy party president Branka Stamenković as a temporary leader; this is a list of notable members of the Enough is Enough, incumbent members of the party's Presidency: Saša Radulović, engineer and economist Dušan Pavlović, political economist and university professor Miroslava Milenović, forensic accountant Jasmina Nikolić, philologist Branislav Mihajlović, engineer Politics of Serbia List of political parties in Serbia Official website


Kepler-186e is a confirmed exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf star Kepler-186 582 light years away from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus. It is near the optimistic habitable zone but not in it making it have a runaway greenhouse effect, like Venus; the exoplanet was found by using the transit method, in which the dimming effect that a planet causes as it crosses in front of its star is measured. Four additional planets orbiting the star were discovered; the exoplanet is only larger than Earth, with a radius 1.27–1.33 times that of Earth. Its mass is not known but it is to have a similar composition to Earth, giving it a mass of about 2.29–2.72 times the mass of the Earth. Kepler-186e orbits an M-dwarf star with about 4% of the Sun's luminosity with an orbital period of 22.4077 days and an orbital radius of about 0.11 times that of Earth's. The habitable zone for this system is estimated conservatively to extend over distances receiving from 88% to 25% of Earth's illumination; the star hosts four other planets discovered so far.

Because of the slow evolution of red dwarfs, the age of the Kepler-186 system is poorly constrained, although it is to be greater than a few billion years. Due to its proximity to its star, Kepler-186e is tidally locked, facing one side to its star at all times, one side facing away from its star at all times; the side in permanent daylight would be hot and the side in permanent darkness would be cold. But between these hostile environments, there would be a sliver of habitability, which could support life. Kepler-186e's axial tilt is very small, in which case it would not have tilt-induced seasons as Earth and Mars do, its orbit is close to circular, so it will lack eccentricity-induced seasonal changes like those of Mars. However, the axial tilt could be larger if another undetected nontransiting planet orbits between it and Kepler-186f. If such a planet exists, it cannot be much more massive than Earth as it would cause orbital instabilities; the exoplanet, along with the other planets of the Kepler-186 system, were announced on April 17, 2014 in an article published by NASA.

As the Kepler telescope observational campaign proceeded, an identified system was entered in the Kepler Input Catalog, progressed as a candidate host of planets to a Kepler Object of Interest. Thus, Kepler 186 started as KIC 8120608 and was identified as KOI 571. Kepler 186e was mentioned when known as KOI-571-04 or KOI-571.04 or using similar nomenclatures in 2013 in various discussions and publications before its full confirmation. Habitability of red dwarf systems List of habitable exoplanets Kepler-186f NASA – Kepler Mission. NASA – Kepler Discoveries – Summary Table. Habitable Exolanets Catalog at UPR-Arecibo