click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Umayyad campaigns in India

In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms to the east of the Indus river. Subsequent to the Arab conquest of Sindh in present-day Pakistan in 712 CE, Arab armies engaged kingdoms further east of the Indus. Between 724 and 810 CE, a series of battles took place between the Arabs and the north Indian King Nagabhata I of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, the south Indian King Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty, other small Indian kingdoms. In the north, Nagabhata of the Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty defeated a major Arab expedition in Malwa. From the South, Vikramaditya II sent his general Pulakesi. In 776 CE, a naval expedition by the Arabs was defeated by the Saindhava naval fleet under Agguka I; the Arab defeats led to an end of their eastward expansion, manifested in the overthrow of Arab rulers in Sindh itself and the establishment of indigenous Muslim Rajput dynasties there. After the reign of Emperor Harshavardhana, by the early 8th century, North India was divided into several kingdoms and large.

The Northwest was controlled by the Kashmir-based Karkota dynasty, the Hindu Shahis based in Kabul. Kanauj, the de facto capital of North India was held by Yashovarman, Northeast India was held by the Pala dynasty, South India by the powerful Chalukyas. Western India was dominated by the Rai dynasty of Sindh, several kingdoms of Gurjara clans, based at Bhinmal, Nandol-Broach and Ujjain; the last of these clans, who called themselves Pratiharas were to be the dominating force. Altogether, the combined region of southern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat was called Gurjaradesa, before it got renamed to Rajputana in medieval times; the Kathiawar peninsula was controlled by several small kingdoms, such as Saindhavas, dominated by Maitrakas at Vallabhi. The third wave of military expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate lasted from 692 to 718 CE; the reign of Al-Walid I saw the most dramatic Marwanid Umayyad conquests. In a period of ten years, North Africa, Spain and Sindh were subdued and colonised. Sindh, controlled by King Raja Dahir of the Rai dynasty, was captured by the Umayyad general Muhammad bin Qasim.

Sindh, now a second-level province of the Caliphate with its capital at Al Mansura, was a suitable base for excursions into India. But, after bin Qasim's departure most of his captured territories were recaptured by Indian kings. During the reign of Yazid II, the fourth expansion was launched to all the warring frontiers, including India; the campaign lasted from 720 to 740 CE. During Yazid's times, there was no significant check to the Arab expansion. However, the advent of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, the 10th Umayyad Caliph, saw a turn in the fortune of the Umayyads which resulted in eventual defeat on all the fronts and a complete halt of Arab expansionism; the hiatus from 740 to 750 CE due to military exhaustion saw the advent of the third of a series of civil wars, which resulted in the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate. After taking full control of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim wrote to `the kings of Hind' calling upon them to surrender and accept the faith of Islam, he dispatched a force against al-Baylaman, said to have offered submission.

The Mid people of Surast made peace. Bin Qasim sent a cavalry of 10,000 to Kanauj, along with a decree from the Caliph, he himself went with an army to the prevailing frontier of Kashmir called panj-māhīyāt. Nothing is known of the Kanauj expedition; the frontier of Kashmir might be what is referred to as al-Kiraj in records, subdued. Bin Qasim destroyed the temples and "idolatrous" artwork, he attempted to establish Sharia law in the conquered regions and during these campaigns, the native population of the region suffered religious persecution, selective killings of males and forced marriages of women. Bin Qasim died en route. Al-Baladhuri writes; the period of Caliph Umar II was peaceful. Umar invited the kings of "al-Hind" to convert to Islam and become his subjects, in return for which they would continue to remain kings. Hullishah of Sindh and other kings adopted Arab names. During the caliphates of Yazid II and Hisham, the expansion policy was resumed. Junayd ibn Abd ar-Rahman al-Murri was appointed the governor of Sindh in 723 CE.

After subduing Sindh, Junayd sent campaigns to various parts of India. The justification was that these parts had paid tribute to Bin Qasim but stopped; the first target was al-Kiraj, whose conquest put an end to the kingdom. A large campaign was carried out in Rajasthan which included al-Baylaman and Jurz. Another force was sent against Uzayn, which made incursions into its country and some parts of it were destroyed. Ujjain itself may not have been conquered. A separate force was sent against al-Malibah, but the outcome is not recorded. Towards the North, Umayyads attempted to expand into Punjab but were defeated by Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir. Another force was dispatched south, it subdued Qassa, al-Mandal, Surast (Sau

Andrew Thompson (priest)

Andrew Thompson is an English Anglican Priest based at St Andrew's Church, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, he is an author and interfaith activist. Thompson went to the Heart of England school in Balsall Common, his parents were both officers in the Church Army, an Anglican organisation which provides evangelists for the Church of England and other places in the Anglican Communion. He studied Behavioural Sciences at the Polytechnic of Wales. After graduating, he spent several years working with churches in the Middle North Africa, he returned to the UK and served as a Youth Worker at Holy Trinity Church, Matlock Bath in the Diocese of Derby. During this time, he developed his skills in magic and used this as a teaching tool for the Christian faith and released his first book, he was ordained in Derby Cathedral by Jonathan Bailey in June 2000. He served his curacy at the Oakwood Ecumenical Church from 2000 – 2004, while studying for a Master's Degree from the University of Nottingham, in which he studied the Muslim community of Derby and issues of identity and cultural integration.

He returned to the Middle East, where he was the chaplain at St Paul’s Church, in Kuwait from 2006 – 2010 and was made an Honorary Canon of Bahrain Cathedral. He sparked controversy when a newspaper article recorded a statement, in which he declared that it “was easier to be a Christian in the UAE than in the UK”; this statement was subsequently used by the UAE ambassador to the USA in support of the tolerant ethos his country. In 2010, Thompson became the chaplain at St Andrew’s Church, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, this church is part of the Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf. Thompson is chairman of the board for the Al Amana Centre, in Muscat, Oman; this is the only muslim-christian relations interfaith institute run by the church in the Arabian Peninsula, the centre provides scriptural reasoning and other interfaith encounters between visiting groups of christian students, pastors and local Omani muslims. He has had the opportunity to promote a better understanding of life for christians in the Persian Gulf region, in various contexts, including at the House of Lords in London, the G20 Interfaith Summit in Australia, he has spoken at the Doha Trialogues, in Parliament in Denmark, met Pope Francis in the Vatican as part of a delegation from the United Arab Emirates.

He has attended the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, D. C.. and the Religious Pluralism Conference in Athens, as a representative of the Christian community in the United Arab Emirates. Thompson was awarded an MBE in 2011, for his "services to human rights and promoting interfaith dialogue between Christians and Muslims in Kuwait". Jesus of ArabiaJesus of Arabia explores the teachings of Jesus through the culture of the Persian Gulf region, the book has received favourable reviews, and has been translated into Arabic. Christianity in the United Arab EmiratesThis book considers the history and significance of the christian faith in the United Arab Emirates, the author discusses the increasing importance of Muslim-Christian relations in enabling international security, he calls for and gives examples of bridge building activities; the book launch was hosted by the British Ambassador to the UAE, Dominic Jermey and was attended by Prince Andrew, Duke of York and Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan, the Minister of Culture for the UAE.

The Christian Church in KuwaitGospel Magic for Preachers: Theology & Praxis Gospel Magic. How to use Magic Tricks as Visual Aids Thompson has been the subject of two films: One. One. was directed and produced by Daniel Malak, it is a short documentary based on the friendship and hope for religious tolerance between a priest and an imam. Hartom Hartom is a documentary written and directed by Arkus Arksus, based on the professional life of Andrew Thompson, it has been screened at various film festivals and won the best producer award at the 2016 Arab Film studio, as well as best documentary short at the 2017 Whatashort Independent International Film Festival in India. Thompson is married to Navina and they have three children, he is working towards a PHD in Muslim-Christian Relations in the Persian Gulf through the University of Gloucestershire

Daum (studio)

Daum is a crystal studio based in Nancy, founded in 1878 by Jean Daum. His sons, Auguste Daum and Antonin Daum, oversaw its growth during the burgeoning Art Nouveau period. Daum is the only commercial crystal manufacturer employing the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures, a technique in which crushed glass is packed into a refractory mould and fused in a kiln; the Daum family worked at the beginning of the Art Nouveau era and created one of France's most prominent glassworks. Established at the end of the 19th century, Daum’s renown was linked to the École de Nancy and the art of pâte-de-cristal, a major contributing factor in terms of its worldwide reputation. During the Universal Exhibition of 1900 Daum was awarded a ‘Grand Prix’ medal. Daum glass became more elaborate. Acid etching was combined with carving and engraving on a single piece of glass to produce creative glass masterpieces; the most complicated creations featured applied glass elements, such as handles and ornamental motifs in naturalistic forms.

The Daum brothers soon became a major force in the Art Nouveau movement rivalling Gallé, so much so that when Émile Gallé died in 1904 they became the leaders in the field of decorative glass. In 1906 Daum revived pâte de verre, an ancient Egyptian method of glass casting, developing the method so that by the 1930s Daum's window panels used pâte de verre for richness instead of leaded or painted glass. Today Daum still uses this method to produce their pieces. Daum has always been linked with the city of Nancy, its main manufacturing locations are in the downtown of Nancy and a nearby village called Vannes-le-Châtel. All the pieces are still handmade by hundreds of employees in the region. Daum has a store at Place Stanislas in Nancy. More than 600 glasswork items are in the Daum Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts of Nancy, which documents the history of glass manufacturing from the 1880s through the 1990s. Since the peak of the Art Nouveau era, DAUM has worked with hundreds of artists and designers to create new collections.

Arman Hilton McConnico Philippe Starck Salvador Dalí Cyril Phan, aka Kongo Richard Texier Emilio Robba Philippe Druillet Official website Daum sponsor of Paris Art Fair 2016

Advanced Medical Research Center

The Advanced Medical Research Center is an ancillary establishment of Yokohama City University in Kanazawa-ku, Japan. It was established in October 2006, a new research building at the AMRC was opened on the YCU Fukuura campus in March 2013; the city of Yokohama plans to enlarge the research building at the AMRC in 2015. Research at the AMRC covers a wide variety of medical fields, including oncology, genetics, regenerative medicine, translational research. Department of Research and Development Department of Clinical Research Promotion Department of Research Support and coordination Biobank Division Shigeo Ohno Tomio Inoue Hisashi Hirano Official website

Croatia national under-17 football team

The Croatia national under-17 football team represents Croatia in international football at this age level and is controlled by the Croatian Football Federation, the governing body for football in Croatia. 1999 UEFA U-16 European Championship squad 2001 UEFA U-16 European Championship squad 2001 FIFA U-17 World Championship squad 2005 UEFA U-17 European Championship squad 2013 UEFA U-17 European Championship squad 2013 FIFA U-17 World Cup squad 2015 UEFA U-17 European Championship squad 2015 FIFA U-17 World Cup squad 2017 UEFA U-17 European Championship squad Croatia national football team Croatia U21 national football team Croatia U19 national football team UEFA European U17 Football Championship UEFA Under-17 Official website Youth level statistics at the Croatian Football Federation official website

Alessandra Sensini

Alessandra Sensini is an Italian windsurfer. She is a 4-time Olympian, winning three additional medals, she won 3 gold, 2 silver medals and 1 bronze at World Championships, as well as 3 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze medals at European Championships. She has sailed in three different windsurfing classes: Lechner A-390, Mistral and RS:X. Alessandra Sensini was one of four candidates for the role of flagbearer for Italy at the 2012 London Olympics; the others were Federica Pellegrini, Josefa Idem, Valentina Vezzali, chosen. Italian sportswomen multiple medalists at Olympics and World Championships Women multiple medallist at the Windsurfing World Championships Official website Alessandra Sensini at World Sailing "Alessandra Sensini at Beijing 2008 official website". Archived from the original on 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2008-08-21. Alessandra Sensini at the International Olympic Committee Alessandra Sensini at the Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano Alessandra Sensini at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com