Carlo Emilio Gadda
Carlo Emilio Gadda was an Italian writer and poet. He belongs to the tradition of the innovators, writers that played with the somewhat stiff standard pre-war Italian language. Gadda was an engineer from Milan, and he both loved and hated his job. Critics have compared him to writers with a scientific background, such as Primo Levi, Robert Musil. Among Gaddas styles and genres are baroque and grotesque, Carlo Emilio Gadda was born in Milan in 1893, and he was always intensely Milanese, although late in his life Florence and Rome became an influence. Gaddas father died in 1909, leaving the family in reduced economic conditions, the paternal business ineptitude and the maternal obsession for keeping face and appearances turn up strongly in La cognizione del dolore. He studied in Milan, and while studying at the Politecnico di Milano, during the war he was a lieutenant of the Alpini corps, and led a machine-gun team. He was taken prisoner with his squad during the battle of Caporetto in October 1917, who was a fervent nationalist at the time, was deeply humiliated by the months he had to spend in a German POW camp.
After the war, in 1920, Gadda finally graduated and he practiced as an engineer until 1935, spending three of those years in Argentina. Among Gaddas less well-known achievements is the construction, as engineer, the country at that time was experiencing a booming economy, and Gadda used the experience for the fictional South American-cum-Brianza setting of La Cognizione del Dolore. After that, in the 1940s, he dedicated himself to literature and these were the years of fascism, which found him a grumbling and embittered pessimist. With age, his bitterness and misanthropy somewhat intensified, in Eros e Priapo Gadda analyzes the collective phenomena that favoured the rise of Italian Fascism, the Italian fascination with Benito Mussolini. It explains Fascism as an essentially bourgeois movement, Eros e Priapo was refused in 1945 by a magazine for its allegedly obscene content, and would only be published for the first time in 1967, by Garzanti. The 1967 edition, was expurgated of some of what Gadda considered the most heavy satiric strokes, the unexpurgated original 1945 edition will be published in 2013.
In 1946, the magazine Letteratura published, in five episodes, the crime novel Quer pasticciaccio brutto de via Merulana and it experiments heavily with language, borrowing a great deal from several Italian dialects. It is notable for not telling whodunnit at the end, there is some debate amongst scholars as regards Gaddas sexual orientation. According to Italo Calvino Gadda was a bachelor oppressed by a paralyzing shyness in any female presence and this is particularly interesting as the criticism of the bourgeois life comes, as it were, from the inside, with the former engineer cutting a respectable figure in genteel poverty. Gadda kept writing until his death, in 1973, the most important critic of Gadda was Gianfranco Contini
Italo Calvino was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. His best known include the Our Ancestors trilogy, the Cosmicomics collection of short stories. Admired in Britain and the United States, he was the most-translated contemporary Italian writer at the time of his death, Italo Calvino was born in Santiago de las Vegas, a suburb of Havana, Cuba, in 1923. His father, was a tropical agronomist and botanist who taught agriculture and floriculture, born 47 years earlier in Sanremo, Mario Calvino had emigrated to Mexico in 1909 where he took up an important position with the Ministry of Agriculture. In an autobiographical essay, Italo Calvino explained that his father had been in his youth an anarchist, in 1917, Mario left for Cuba to conduct scientific experiments, after living through the Mexican Revolution. Calvinos mother, Eva Mameli, was a botanist and university professor, a native of Sassari in Sardinia and 11 years younger than her husband, she married while still a junior lecturer at Pavia University.
Born into a family, Eva was a pacifist educated in the religion of civic duty. In 1925, less than two years after Calvinos birth, the returned to Italy and settled permanently in Sanremo on the Ligurian coast. Calvinos brother Floriano, who became a distinguished geologist, was born in 1927, the family divided their time between the Villa Meridiana, an experimental floriculture station which served as their home, and Marios ancestral land at San Giovanni Battista. The vast forests and luxuriant fauna omnipresent in Calvinos early fiction such as The Baron in the Trees derives from this legacy, in an interview, Calvino stated that San Remo continues to pop out in my books, in the most diverse pieces of writing. He and Floriano would climb the tree-rich estate and perch for hours on the branches reading their favorite adventure stories. Both verbose by nature, possessed of an ocean of words, in each others presence we became mute, would walk in silence side by side along the road to San Giovanni.
A fan of Rudyard Kiplings The Jungle Book as a child, fascinated by American movies and cartoons, he was equally attracted to drawing and theatre. Other legacies include the beliefs in Freemasonry, Republicanism with elements of Anarchism and Marxism. Austere freethinkers with a hatred of the ruling National Fascist Party, Eva. Italo attended the English nursery school St Georges College, followed by a Protestant elementary private school run by Waldensians, the two teenagers formed a lasting friendship, Calvino attributing his political awakening to their university discussions. Seated together on a flat stone in the middle of a stream near our land, he. Eva managed to delay her sons enrolment in the Partys armed scouts, the Balilla Moschettieri, and arranged that he be excused, as a non-Catholic, from performing devotional acts in Church
Antonio Francesco Gramsci was an Italian Marxist theorist and politician. He wrote on political theory and linguistics and he attempted to break from the economic determinism of traditional Marxist thought and so is considered a key neo-Marxist. He was a member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolinis Fascist regime. He wrote more than 30 notebooks and 3,000 pages of history and his Prison Notebooks are considered a highly original contribution to 20th century political theory. Gramsci drew insights from varying sources - not only other Marxists but such as Niccolò Machiavelli, Vilfredo Pareto, Georges Sorel. The notebooks cover a range of topics, including Italian history and nationalism. The bourgeoisie in Gramscis view develops a hegemonic culture using ideology rather than violence, economic force, hegemonic culture propagates its own values and norms so that they become the common sense values of all and thus maintain the status quo. Hegemonic power is used to maintain consent to the capitalist order, rather than coercive power using force to maintain order.
This cultural hegemony is produced and reproduced by the dominant class through the institutions that form the superstructure, Antonio Francesco Gramsci was born in Ales, on the island of Sardinia, the fourth of seven sons of Francesco Gramsci. The senior Gramsci was an official from Gaeta, who married Giuseppina Marcias. Gramscis father was of distant Arbëreshë descent, though Gramsci mistakenly believed his fathers family left Albania as recently as 1821 and his mother belonged to a local landowning family. The senior Gramscis financial difficulties and troubles with the police forced the family to move about through several villages in Sardinia until they settled in Ghilarza. In 1898 Francesco was convicted of embezzlement and imprisoned, reducing his family to destitution, the young Antonio had to abandon schooling and work at various casual jobs until his fathers release in 1904. As a boy, Gramsci suffered from problems, particularly a malformation of the spine that stunted his growth.
Gramsci was plagued by various internal disorders throughout his life, Gramsci completed secondary school in Cagliari, where he lodged with his elder brother Gennaro, a former soldier whose time on the mainland had made him a militant socialist. However, Gramscis sympathies did not lie with socialism, but rather with the grievances of impoverished Sardinian peasants, in 1911, Gramsci won a scholarship to study at the University of Turin, sitting the exam at the same time as Palmiro Togliatti. At Turin, he read literature and took a keen interest in linguistics, Gramsci was in Turin as it was going through industrialization, with the Fiat and Lancia factories recruiting workers from poorer regions. Trade unions became established, and the first industrial social conflicts started to emerge, Gramsci frequented socialist circles as well as associating with Sardinian emigrants
Sibilla Aleramo is the pseudonym of Rina Faccio, Italian author. She was a feminist best known for her depictions of life as a woman in late 19th century Italy. Born Rina Faccio in Alessandria, Piedmont, at 11, she moved with her family from Milan to the Marche region of Italy, where her father had been appointed manager of a glass factory. Unable to continue schooling beyond the degree in Civitanova Marche, she continued studying on her own. While employed at her fathers factory, she befriended a man,10 years her senior. Rina did not tell her parents about the event, and was persuaded to marry him. A year and a later, at 17, she had her first and only child. Her first novel followed her life and it illustrated her decision to leave her brutal husband, so her son would have a better life, and move to Rome, which she did in 1901. In 1906 her book, Una donna, was published and she became active in political and artistic circles, and engaged in volunteer work in the Agro Romano, the poverty-stricken countryside surrounding Rome.
In it, she argued that Giovanni Cena had originally convinced her to change her story. Sibilla Aleramo would go on to be one of Italys leading feminists and her personal writings to Poletti have, in more recent years, been studied due to their open minded views toward homosexual relationships, as has her production in general. Aleramos first book in particular, Una donna, is by now considered a classic of Italian literature, throughout the 20th century, Aleramo was mostly remembered for her tumultuous love affairs, with partners that included Umberto Boccioni and Dino Campana. Later in life, Aleramo toured the continent and was active in Communist politics after World War II, Aleramo says that she has lived three lives. Her ‘first life, ’ as a mother and wife, is outlined in her novel Una Donna, during her ‘second life’ she volunteered in a shelter for the poor in Rome run by the Unione Femminile and was active in feminist organizations. Her ‘third life’ consisted of 30 years, which she spent writing her life experiences in her work, whos Who in Gay and Lesbian History, from Antiquity to World War II.
Routledge, London,2001, ISBN 978-0-415-25369-7 via Italian Women Writers database Sibilla Aleramo Works by Sibilla Aleramo at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sibilla Aleramo at Internet Archive
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Gorizia listen is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia and it is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism and commerce. Since 1947, a town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns are joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board, Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Isonzo and Vipava Valleys. It lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia Hills, sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold Bora wind that affects most of the neighbouring areas. The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate throughout the year, the name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica meaning little hill, which is a very common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas.
The document referred to Gorizia as the known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development, the castle district and the village beneath it. The first played a role and the second a rural-commercial role. In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg rule, under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy moved there and started their commerce, Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian and Slovene language was spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a centre of Protestant Reformation, the prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, Catholic Counter-Reformation had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, Tavčar was instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter.
Gorizia was at first part of the County of Görz and since 1754, a new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia were transferred. Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, a synagogue was built within the town walls, which was another example of Gorizias relatively tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces between 1809 and 1813, after the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a summer residence of the Austrian nobility
Riccardo Bacchelli was an Italian writer. In 1927 he was one of the founders of the review La Ronda and his first novel was Il filo meraviglioso di Lodovico Clo. Next was Il Diavolo al Pontelungo La città degli amanti and his most popular work was Il mulino del Po, which covered a century in the life of a rural family. A film adapted from the novel was released in 1949, Riccardo Bacchelli was elected as a member of the Royal Academy of Italy. He was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1971, the novel narrates in more than 2000 pages the lives and problems of Lazzaro Scacerni and his family. Scacerni owns a mill in an area on the river Po. He and his descendants conduct their lives amid political turmoil, economic hardship, the historical and social background was painstakingly researched by Bacchelli, who created a large and comprehensive portrait of life in rural Italy in the 19th century. The language and style of this show that Bacchelli held Alessandro Manzoni as his model.
At the same time, he created a structure that showed his attention to contemporary European novels, works by or about Riccardo Bacchelli at Internet Archive http, //www. maat. it/livello2/fascismo-manifesto. htm http, //www. riccardobacchelli. it/
Alberto Moravia, born Alberto Pincherle, was an Italian novelist and journalist. His novels explored matters of sexuality, social alienation and existentialism. Moravia is best known for his debut novel Gli indifferenti and for the anti-fascist novel Il Conformista, Cedric Kahns LEnnui is another version of La Noia. It is what we are forced to do that forms our character and his writing was marked by its factual, precise style, often depicting the malaise of the bourgeoisie. It was rooted in the tradition of narrative, underpinned by high social and cultural awareness. In his world, where inherited social and moral beliefs were no longer acceptable, he considered sex and money the only criteria for judging social, between 1959 and 1962 Moravia was president of PEN International, the worldwide association of writers. Alberto Pincherle was born in Via Sgambati in Rome and his Jewish Venetian father, was an architect and a painter. His Catholic Anconitan mother, Teresa Iginia de Marsanich, was of Dalmatian origin and his family had interesting twists and developed a complex cultural and political character.
Moravia did not finish conventional schooling because, at the age of nine, he contracted tuberculosis of the bone and he spent three years at home and two in a sanatorium near Cortina dAmpezzo, in north-eastern Italy. He learned French and German and wrote poems in French and Italian, in 1925 at the age of 18, he left the sanatorium and moved to Bressanone. During the next three years, partly in Bressanone and partly in Rome, he began to write his first novel, Gli indifferenti, the novel is a realistic analysis of the moral decadence of a middle-class mother and two of her children. In 1927, Moravia met Corrado Alvaro and Massimo Bontempelli and started his career as a journalist with the magazine 900, the journal published his first short stories, including Cortigiana stanca, Delitto al circolo del tennis, Il ladro curioso and Apparizione. Gli indifferenti was published at his own expense, costing 5,000 Italian lira, literary critics described the novel as a noteworthy example of contemporary Italian narrative fiction.
The next year, Moravia started collaborating with the newspaper La Stampa, in 1933, together with Mario Pannunzio, he founded the literary review magazines Caratteri and Oggi and started writing for the newspaper Gazzetta del Popolo. The years leading to World War II were difficult for Moravia as an author, in 1935 he traveled to the United States to give a lecture series on Italian literature. Limbroglio was published by Bompiani in 1937, to avoid Fascist censorship, Moravia wrote mainly in the surrealist and allegoric styles, among the works is Il sogno del pigro. The Fascist seizure of the edition of La mascherata in 1941. That same year, he married the novelist Elsa Morante, whom he had met in 1936 and they lived in Capri, where he wrote Agostino
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for anothers child. Wet nurses are employed when the mother is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself, wet-nursed children may be known as milk-siblings, and in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of milk kinship. Mothers who nurse each others babies are engaging in an act known as cross-nursing or co-nursing. A wet nurse can help when a natural mother is unable or chooses not to feed the infant. Before the development of baby formulas in the 20th century, when a mother was unable to breastfeed her baby, there are many reasons why a mother is unable to lactate or to produce sufficient breast milk. Reasons include the serious or chronic illness of the mother and her treatment which creates a difficulty to nursing. Additionally, a mothers taking drugs may necessitate a wet nurse if a drug in any way changes the content of the mothers milk. There was an increased need for wet nurses under circumstances when the rates of infant abandonment by mothers, some women choose not to breastfeed for social reasons.
Many of these women were found to be of the upper class, some women chose to hire wet nurses purely to escape from the confining and time-consuming chore of breastfeeding. Wet nurses have used when a mother cannot produce sufficient breast milk, i. e. the mother feels incapable of adequately nursing her child. Wet nurses tend to be common in places where maternal mortality is high. A woman can act as a wet-nurse if she is lactating. It was once believed that a wet-nurse must have recently undergone childbirth and this is not necessarily true, as regular breast suckling can elicit lactation via a neural reflex of prolactin production and secretion. Some adoptive mothers have been able to establish lactation using a breast pump so that they could feed an adopted infant, dr Gabrielle Palmer states, Wet nursing is an ancient practice, common to many cultures. It has been linked to class, where monarchies, the aristocracy. Lactation inhibits ovulation in women, thus the practice has a rational basis.
Poor women, especially those who suffered the stigma of giving birth to a child, sometimes had to give their baby up, temporarily or permanently. Many cultures feature stories, historical or mythological, involving superhuman, human, the Bible refers to Deborah, a nurse to Rebekah wife of Isaac and mother of Jacob and Esau, who appears to have lived as a member of the household all her days
Dr. Carlo Levi was an Italian-Jewish painter, activist, anti-fascist, and doctor. He is best known for his book Cristo si è fermato a Eboli, published in 1945, in 1979, the book became the basis of a movie of the same name, directed by Francesco Rosi. Lucania, now called Basilicata, was one of the poorest and most backward regions of the impoverished Italian south. Levi was born in Turin, Piedmont, to wealthy Jewish physician Ercole Levi and Annetta Treves, the sister of Claudio Treves, Levi graduated from high school in 1917. Upon graduation, Levi attended the University of Turin, where he studied medicine and, in 1924, while at university, Levi had become friends with Piero Gobetti who sparked Levis interests in political activism that would continue throughout his life. Soon after graduation from the University of Turin, Levi exhibited some of his works at the XIV Venice Biennale, from 1924 to 1928, Levi continued his specialization studies in Paris with Professor Bourguignon among others, although by 1927 Levi had decided to dedicate his life to painting.
Levi lived almost exclusively in Paris from 1932 to 1934 and even attended the funeral in 1933 of his uncle and he joined with Francesco Menzio in the famous Gruppo dei Sei, all painters in Turin, including Jessie Boswell, Gigi Chessa, Nicola Galante and Enrico Paulucci. As a result of his activism and involvement with anti-fascist movements, Levi was arrested and exiled to Aliano, there he encountered a poverty almost unknown in prosperous northern Italy. While there, Levi worked on the side as one of the doctors for the villagers, during his exile he spent much of his time painting. After his release, he moved to France and lived there from 1939 to 1941, in 1941, he returned to Italy, and was arrested in Florence and imprisoned in the Murate prison. He was released following Benito Mussolinis arrest and sought refuge across the street from the Pitti Palace and he continued to write and paint, exhibiting in Europe and the United States. His written works include LOrologio, Le parole sono pietre, in 1963, he was elected to the Senate as an independent on the Communist Party ticket, he was re-elected to the Senate in 1968 and served there until 1972.
He died of pneumonia in Rome on 4 January 1975, the Persiana Gallery in Palermo exhibited his last work and Daphne, executed on a goatskin drum the day before he was admitted to hospital. Below is a list of important works written by Carlo Levi, Levi wrote numerous prefaces and introductions for many authors throughout his lifetime. There have been collections of Levis works published after his death, notably essays, miscellaneous writings, Carlo, Roma fuggitiva, una città e i suoi dintorni. Levi, Fleeting Rome, In Search of the Dolce Vita, Carlo, Stanislao G. Pugliese, and Carlo Levi. Fear of Freedom, With the Essay, Fear of Painting, new York, Columbia University Press,2008. Carlo Levi inedito, con 40 disegni della cecità, Donato Sperduto, Edizioni Spes, Donato, Armonie lontane, Roma,2013
Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived.
Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic
Armistice of Cassibile
It was signed at a conference of generals from both sides in an Allied military camp at Cassibile in Sicily, which had recently been occupied by the Allies. The armistice was approved by both King Victor Emmanuel III and Italian Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio, the armistice stipulated the surrender of Italy to the Allies. After its publication, Germany retaliated against Italy, attacking Italian forces in Italy, South of France, Italian forces were quickly defeated and most of Italy was occupied by German troops, while the King, the government and most of the navy reached territories occupied by the Allies. Following the surrender of the Axis powers in North Africa on 13 May 1943 and these moves by Mussolini were described as slightly hostile acts to the king, who had been growing increasingly critical of the war. To help carry out his plan, the King asked for the assistance of Dino Grandi. Grandi was one of the members of the Fascist hierarchy and, in his younger years. The King was motivated by the suspicion that Grandis ideas about Fascism might be changed abruptly, various ambassadors, including Pietro Badoglio himself, proposed to him the vague possibility of succeeding Mussolini as dictator.
The conspirators devised an Order of the Day for the reunion of the Grand Council of Fascism which contained a proposal to restore direct control of politics to the king. Following the Council, held on 23 July 1943, where the order of the day was adopted by majority vote, Mussolini was summoned to meet the King, upon leaving the meeting, Mussolini was arrested by carabinieri and spirited off to the island of Ponza. Badoglio took the position of Prime Minister and this went against what had been promised to Grandi, who had been told that another general of greater personal and professional qualities would have taken the place of Mussolini. The appointment of Badoglio apparently did not change the position of Italy as Germanys ally in the war, many channels were being probed to seek a peace treaty with the Allies. Meanwhile, Hitler sent several divisions south of the Alps, officially to help defend Italy from allied landings, three Italian generals were separately sent to Lisbon in order to contact Allied diplomats.
In the end, Castellano was admitted to speak with the Allied diplomats in order to set the conditions for the surrender of Italy. To ease communication between the Allies and the Italian Government, a captured British SOE agent, Dick Mallaby, was released from Verona prison and secretly moved to the Quirinale. It was vital that the Germans remained ignorant of any suggestion of Italian surrender, Badoglio still considered it possible to gain favourable conditions in exchange for the surrender. He ordered Castellano to insist that any surrender of Italy was subordinate to a landing of Allied troops on the Italian mainland. On 31 August General Castellano reached Termini Imerese, in Sicily, by plane and was transferred to Cassibile. It soon became obvious that the two sides in the negotiations had adopted rather distant positions, Castellano pressed the request that the Italian territory be defended from the inevitable reaction of the German Wehrmacht against Italy after the signing