To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Sápmi is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sámi people. Sápmi includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia; the region stretches over four countries: Norway, Sweden and Russia. On the north it is bounded by the Barents Sea, on the west by the Norwegian Sea and on the east by the White Sea. Despite being the namesake of the region, the Sami people are estimated to only make up around 5% of its total population. No political organization advocates secession, although several groups desire more territorial autonomy and/or more self-determination for the region's indigenous population; the area is referred to in English as Lapland. Sápmi refers to both the Sami people. In fact, the word "Sámi" is only the accusative-genitive form of the noun "Sápmi"—making the name's meaning "people of Sápmi." The origin of the word is speculated to be related to the Baltic word *žēmē that means "land". "Häme", the Finnish name for Tavastia, a historical province of Finland, is thought to have the same origin, the same word is at least speculated to be the origin of "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland.
Sápmi is the name in North Sami, while the Julev Sami name is Sábme and the South Sami name is Saepmie. In Norwegian and Swedish the term Sameland is used. In modern Swedish and Norwegian, Sápmi is known as "Sameland", but in older Swedish it was known as "Lappmarken", "Lappland", Finnmark, respectively; these two names did refer to the entire Sápmi, but subsequently became applied to areas inhabited by the Sami. "Lappland" became the name of Sweden's northernmost province which in 1809 was split into one part that remained Swedish and one part falling under Finland. "Lappland" survives as the name of both Sweden's northernmost province and Finland's containing part of the old Ostrobothnian province. In older Norwegian, Sápmi was known as "Finnmork" or "Finnmark". Both Northern Norway and Murmansk Oblast are sometimes marketed as Norwegian Lapland and Russian Lapland, respectively. In the 17th century, Johannes Schefferus assumed the etymology of the lesser used term "Lapland" to be related to the Swedish word for "running", "löpa".
The largest part of Sápmi lies north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys and mountains, the highest point being Mount Kebnekaise, in Swedish Lapland; the Swedish part of Sápmi is characterized by great rivers running from the northwest to the southeast. From the Norwegian province of Finnmark and eastward, the terrain is that of a low plateau with many marshes and lakes, the largest of, Lake Inari in Finnish Lapland; the extreme northeastern section lies within the tundra region. In the 19th century scientific expeditions to Sápmi were undertaken, for instance by Jöns Svanberg; the climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. The mountainous west coast has milder winters and more precipitation than the large areas east of the mountain chain. North of the Arctic Circle polar night characterize the winter season and midnight sun the summer season—both phenomena are longer the further north you go. Traditionally, the Sami divide the year in eight seasons instead of four.
Reindeer, wolf and birds are the main forms of animal life, in addition to a myriad of insects in the short summer. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region. Steamers are operated on some of the lakes, many ports are ice-free throughout the year. All ports along the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea in the northeast to Murmansk are ice-free all year; the Gulf of Bothnia freezes over in winter. The ocean floor to the north and west of Sápmi has deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Sápmi contains valuable mineral deposits iron ore in Sweden, copper in Norway, nickel and apatite in Russia. East Sápmi consists of the Kola peninsula and the Lake Inari region, is home to the eastern Sami languages. While being the most populated part of Sápmi, this is the region where the indigenous population and their culture is weakest. Corresponds to the regions marked 6 through 9 on the map below. Central Sápmi consists of the western part of Finland's Sami Domicile Area, the parts of Norway north of the Saltfjellet mountains and areas on the Swedish side corresponding to this.
Central Sápmi is the region where Sami culture is strongest, home to North Sami—the most used Sami language. In the southernmost part of this subregion, Sami culture is rather weak—this is where the moribound Bithun Sami language is used; the areas around the Tysfjord fjord in Norway and the river Lule in Sweden are home to the Julev Sami language, one of the more used Sami languages. These correspond to the regions marked 3 through 5 on the map below. South Sápmi consists of the areas south of Saltfjellet and corresponding areas in Sweden, is home to the southern languages. In this area Sami culture is visible inland and on the coast of Baltic Sea, the languages are spoken by few. Corresponds to the regions marked 1 and 2 on the map below plus Dalarna County to the south-east of region 1 in Sweden; the inner parts of Sápmi are referred to as Lappi. The name is found on the Russian side as Laplandige and the Norwegian county of Finnmark is sometimes titled the "Norwegian Lapland" by the travel industry.
Lappi- appears as a common component o
The reindeer known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra and mountainous regions of northern Europe and North America. This includes both migratory populations. Rangifer herd size varies in different geographic regions; the Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. What was once the second largest herd is the migratory boreal woodland caribou George River herd in Canada, with former variations between 28,000 and 385,000; as of January 2018, there are fewer than 9,000 animals estimated to be left in the George River herd, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The New York Times reported in April 2018 of the disappearance of the only herd of southern mountain caribou in the lower 48 states, with an expert calling it "functionally extinct" after the herd's size dwindled to a mere three animals.
Rangifer varies in size and colour from the smallest, the Svalbard reindeer, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou. The North American range of caribou extends from Alaska through Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut into the boreal forest and south through the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia and Selkirk Mountains; the Barren-ground caribou, Porcupine caribou, Peary caribou live in the tundra, while the shy boreal woodland caribou prefer the boreal forest. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga; the migrations of Porcupine caribou herds are among the longest of any mammal. Barren-ground caribou are found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut; some subspecies are rare and at least one has become extinct: the Queen Charlotte Islands caribou of Canada. The range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada and into the northern States in the U.
S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada.. Siberian tundra reindeer herds are in decline, Rangifer tarandus is considered to be vulnerable by the IUCN. Arctic peoples have depended on caribou for food and shelter, such as the Caribou Inuit, the inland-dwelling Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in northern Canada, the Caribou Clan in Yukon, the Inupiat, the Inuvialuit, the Hän, the Northern Tutchone, the Gwich'in. Hunting wild reindeer and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer are important to several Arctic and sub-Arctic peoples such as the Duhalar for meat, antlers and transportation; the Sami people have depended on reindeer herding and fishing for centuries. In Lapland, reindeer pull pulks. Male and female reindeer can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies between population and season.
Antlers are larger on males. In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to good children on Christmas Eve. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. Liber 22, Cap. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. Linnaeus chose the word tarandus as the specific epithet, making reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi's Quadrupedum omnium bisulcorum historia fol. 859–863, Cap. 30: De Tarando. However and Konrad Gesner – thought that rangifer and tarandus were two separate animals. In any case, the tarandos name goes back to Theophrastus; the use of the terms Reindeer and caribou for the same animal can cause confusion, but the IUCN delineates the issue: "The world's Caribou and Reindeer are classified as a single species Rangifer tarandus. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou."
The word rein is of Norse origin. The word deer was broader in meaning, but became more specific over time. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind, in contrast to cattle; the word caribou comes through French, from the Mi'kmaq qalipu, meaning "snow shoveler", referring to its habit of pawing through the snow for food. Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, the caribou is known by the name tuktu; the Gwich’in people have over two dozen distinct caribou-related words. The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; the woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid suggesting that they are quite distinct.
In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that
The rock ptarmigan is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family. It is known as the ptarmigan in the UK and in Canada, where it is the official bird for the territory of Nunavut and the official game bird for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. In Japan, it is known as the raichō, which means "thunder bird", it is the official bird of Gifu and Toyama Prefectures and is a protected species nationwide. The ptarmigan's genus name, Lagopus, is derived from Ancient Greek lagos, meaning "hare", + pous, "foot", in reference to the bird's feathered legs; the species name, comes from New Latin and means "mute", referring to the simple croaking song of the male. It was for a long time misspelt mutus, in the erroneous belief that the ending of Lagopus denotes masculine gender. However, as the Ancient Greek term λαγώπους lagṓpous is of feminine gender, the species name has to agree with that, the feminine muta is correct; the word ptarmigan comes from the Scottish Gaelic tàrmachan croaker.
The silent initial p was added in 1684 by Robert Sibbald through the influence of Greek pteron, "wing", "feather", or "pinion". The rock ptarmigan is 34–36 cm long with a wingspan of 54–60 cm, it is smaller than the willow ptarmigan by about 10%. The male's "song" is a loud croaking; the rock ptarmigan is seasonally camouflaged. The breeding male has greyish upper parts under parts. In winter, its plumage becomes white except for the black tail, it can be distinguished from the winter willow ptarmigan by habitat—the rock ptarmigan prefers higher elevations and more barren habitat. The rock ptarmigan is a sedentary species which breeds across arctic and subarctic Eurasia and North America on rocky mountainsides and tundra, it is widespread in the Arctic Cordillera and is found in isolated populations in the mountains of Scotland, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Urals, the Pamir Mountains, the Altay Mountains, Japan—where it occurs only in the Japan Alps and on Hakusan mountain. Because of the remote habitat in which it lives, it has only a few predators—such as golden eagles—and it can be approachable.
It has been introduced to New Zealand, South Georgia, the Kerguelen Islands, the Crozet Islands. The small population living on Franz Josef Land in the Russian High Arctic overwinters during the polar night and survives by feeding on rich vegetation on and underneath high cliffs where seabird colonies are located in summer. During the last ice age, the species was far more widespread in continental Europe; the rock ptarmigan feeds on birch and willow buds and catkins when available. It eats various seeds, leaves and berries of other plant species. Insects are eaten by the developing young. Apart from the comb, the male rock ptarmigan has no ornaments or displays that are typical for grouses in temperate regions. Studies on other grouses have shown that much variation in comb size and colour exists between the species, that the comb is used in courtship display and aggressive interactions between males. Many studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between the comb size and the level of testosterone in males.
The male's comb has been the focus of studies regarding sexual selection. Studies of a population of male rock ptarmigans in Scarpa Lake, have shown that during the first year, mating success among males was influenced by comb size and condition, bigamous males had larger combs than monogamous males; the correlation to size disappeared after the first year, but the correlation to comb condition remained. This is consistent with another study of the same population of L. muta that showed that mating success overall is correlated to comb condition. Exceptions were first-time breeders; the rock ptarmigan becomes sexually mature at six months of age and has up to six chicks. Because of this high breeding rate, the size of the population is affected little by factors such as hunting. Rock ptarmigan meat is a popular part of festive meals in Icelandic cuisine. Hunting of rock ptarmigans was banned in Iceland in 2004 due to its declining population. Hunting has been allowed again since 2005, but is restricted to selected days, which are revised yearly and all trade of rock ptarmigan is illegal.
In Thomas Bewick's A History of British Birds the species is named as "White Grouse" with alternatives "White Game, or Ptarmigan". The birds feed, records Bewick, "on the wild productions of the hills, which sometimes give the flesh a bitter, but not unpalatable taste: it is dark coloured, has somewhat the flavour of the hare." The Rock ptarmigan is the official territorial bird of Canada. Its Inuktitut name is aqiggiq atajulik, it is the official game bird of Labrador. Stamps: Rock Ptarmigan. Avibase. Montin. Phys. Sälsk. Kandl. 1: 155
Neal Winston Foster is a member of the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 39th District, centered on Nome, Alaska. He has served in the House since November 15, 2009, he was appointed to the House to replace his father, Richard Foster, who had died in office the previous month. In the 27th Alaska State Legislature, Foster joined along with the other three Democrats from Western Alaska, Bryce Edgmon, Bob Herron and Reggie Joule, as members in the Republican-led majority caucus in the House. Neal Foster, as was Cathy Muñoz, is a third-generation member of the Alaska Legislature. Foster's grandfather named Neal W. Foster and nicknamed "Willie," served one term in the Territorial legislature during the 1950s and in the State Senate in the 1960s. List of Native American politicians Official legislative page Caucus member page Neal Foster at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea on the western coast of the U. S. state of Alaska, south of the Seward Peninsula. It is 200 km wide; the Yukon River delta forms a portion of the south shore and water from the Yukon influences this body of water. It is ice-free from June to October. Norton Sound was explored by Captain James Cook in September 1778, he named the body of water after Sir Fletcher Norton Speaker of the British House of Commons. The Norton Sound area has been home to Yup ` Inupiat for many centuries, it is the boundary between the two peoples. The town of Nome is along the northern edge of Norton Sound; the villages of Elim, Stebbins, White Mountain, Shaktoolik, St. Michael, Unalakleet are on the shores or waterways flowing into Norton Sound; the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race runs through coastal villages between Nome. The seaplane tender USS Norton Sound was named after the inlet. Norton Sound Encyclopædia Britannica U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Norton Sound
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website