A Christmas Carol
A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843 and illustrated by John Leech. A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser, visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past and Yet to Come. After their visits, Scrooge is transformed into a gentler man. Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol during a period when the British were exploring and re-evaluating past Christmas traditions, including carols and newer customs such as Christmas trees, he was influenced by the experiences of his own youth and by the Christmas stories of other authors including Washington Irving and Douglas Jerrold. Dickens had written three Christmas stories prior to the novella, was inspired following a visit to the Field Lane Ragged School, one of several establishments for London's street children; the treatment of the poor and the ability of a selfish man to redeem himself by transforming into a more sympathetic character are the key themes of the story.
There is discussion among academics as to whether this was a secular story, or if it is a Christian allegory. Published on 19 December, the first edition sold out by Christmas Eve. Most critics reviewed the novella favourably; the story was illicitly copied in January 1844. He went on to write four other Christmas stories in subsequent years. In 1849 he began public readings of the story which proved so successful he undertook 127 further performances until 1870, the year of his death. A Christmas Carol has been translated into several languages. A Christmas Carol captured the zeitgeist of the mid-Victorian revival of the Christmas holiday. Dickens had acknowledged the influence of the modern Western observance of Christmas and inspired several aspects of Christmas, including family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, games and a festive generosity of spirit; the book is divided into five chapters, which Dickens titled "staves". A Christmas Carol opens on a bleak, cold Christmas Eve in London, seven years after the death of Ebenezer Scrooge's business partner, Jacob Marley.
Scrooge, an ageing miser, dislikes Christmas and refuses a dinner invitation from his nephew Fred—the son of Fan, Scrooge's dead sister. He turns away two men who seek a donation from him to provide food and heating for the poor and only grudgingly allows his overworked, underpaid clerk, Bob Cratchit, Christmas Day off with pay to conform to the social custom; that night Scrooge is visited at home by Marley's ghost, who wanders the Earth entwined by heavy chains and money boxes forged during a lifetime of greed and selfishness. Marley tells Scrooge that he has a single chance to avoid the same fate: he will be visited by three spirits and must listen or be cursed to carry much heavier chains of his own; the first spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Past, takes Scrooge to Christmas scenes of Scrooge's boyhood, reminding him of a time when he was more innocent. The scenes reveal Scrooge's lonely childhood at boarding school, his relationship with his beloved sister Fan, a Christmas party hosted by his first employer, Mr Fezziwig, who treated him like a son.
Scrooge's neglected fiancée Belle is shown ending their relationship, as she realises that he will never love her as much as he loves money. They visit a now-married Belle with her large, happy family on the Christmas Eve that Marley died. Scrooge, upset by hearing Belle's description of the man that he has become, demands that the ghost remove him from the house; the second spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Present, takes Scrooge to a joyous market with people buying the makings of Christmas dinner and to celebrations of Christmas in a miner's cottage and in a lighthouse. Scrooge and the ghost visit Fred's Christmas party. A major part of this stave is taken up with Bob Cratchit's family feast and introduces his youngest son, Tiny Tim, a happy boy, ill; the spirit informs Scrooge. Before disappearing, the spirit shows Scrooge two hideous, emaciated children named Ignorance and Want, he mocks Scrooge's concern for their welfare. The third spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, shows Scrooge a Christmas Day in the future.
The silent ghost reveals scenes involving the death of a disliked man whose funeral is attended by local businessmen only on condition that lunch is provided. His charwoman and the local undertaker steal his possessions to sell to a fence; when he asks the spirit to show a single person who feels emotion over his death, he is only given the pleasure of a poor couple who rejoice that his death gives them more time to put their finances in order. When Scrooge asks to see tenderness connected with any death, the ghost shows him Bob Cratchit and his family mourning the death of Tiny Tim; the ghost allows Scrooge to see a neglected grave, with a tombstone bearing Scrooge's name. Sobbing, Scrooge pledges to change his ways. Scrooge awakens on Christmas morning a changed man, he makes a large donation to the charity he rejected the day before, anonymously sends a large turkey to the Cratchit home for Christmas dinner and spends the afternoon with Fred's family. The following day he gives Cratchit an increase in pay and begins to become a father figure to Tiny Tim.
From on Scrooge treats everyone with kindness, generosity and co
Huey, Dewey, and Louie
Huey and Louie Duck are triplet cartoon characters created in 1937 by writer Ted Osborne and cartoonist Al Taliaferro, are owned by The Walt Disney Company. Huey and Louie are the nephews of Donald Duck and the grandnephews of Scrooge McDuck. Like their uncles, the boys are anthropomorphic white ducks with yellow-orange feet, they wear shirts and colorful baseball caps, which are sometimes used to differentiate each character. Huey and Louie have made several animated appearances in both films and television, but comics remain their primary medium; the trio are collectively the 11th most published comic book characters in the world, outside of the superhero genre, second only to Donald. While the boys were created as mischief-makers to provoke Donald's famous temper appearances showed them to be valuable assets to him and Scrooge on their adventures. All three of the boys are members of the fictional scouting organization the Junior Woodchucks. Huey and Louie were the idea of Al Taliaferro, the artist for the Silly Symphonies comic strip, which featured Donald Duck.
The Walt Disney Productions Story Dept. on February 5, 1937, sent Taliaferro a memo recognizing him as the source of the idea for the planned short, Donald's Nephews. The nephews debuted in Taliaferro's comic strip, which by this time had been renamed Donald Duck, on Sunday, October 17, 1937, beating the theatrical release of Donald's Nephews by six months. According to Don Rosa, Carl Barks has claimed that in fact they were his creation while working as a writer on Donald Duck animated cartoons in 1937; the names were devised by Disney gag man Dana Coty, who took them from Huey Long, Thomas Dewey, Louis Schmitt, an animator at the Disney Studio in the 1930s and 1940s. Taliaferro's introduction of the nephews emulated the three nephews in the Happy Hooligan comic strip and was influenced by Mickey Mouse's nephews and Ferdie Fieldmouse. In translations of Disney works the nephews have different local-sounding names that follow the repetition of the English names. Examples include Hugo and Luis.
Further information: Duck family § Della Duck and § Huey and Louie's fatherHuey and Louie are the sons of Donald's sister Della Duck. In the original theatrical shorts, they were sent to visit Donald for only one day. In both the comics and animated shorts, the boys' parents were never heard from or mentioned again after these instances, with the boys ending up permanently living with Donald. All four of them live in the fictional state of Calisota; the three ducklings are noted for their identical personalities. A running joke involves the three sometimes finishing each other's sentences. In the theatrical shorts, Huey and Louie behave in a rambunctious and mischievous manner, they sometimes commit retaliation or revenge on their uncle Donald Duck. In the comics, however, as developed by Al Taliaferro and Carl Barks, the young ducks are more portrayed as well-behaved, preferring to assist their uncle Donald Duck and great-uncle Scrooge McDuck in the adventure at hand. In the early Barks comics, the ducklings were still wild and unruly, but their character improved due to their membership in the Junior Woodchucks and the good influence of their wise old great-grandmother Elvira Coot "Grandma" Duck.
According to Don Rosa, Huey and Louie became members of the Junior Woodchucks when they were around 11 years old. In early comic books and shorts, the caps of Huey and Louie were colored randomly, depending on the whim of the colorist. On few occasions until 1945 and most every cartoon short afterward, all three nephews wore identical outfits, it wasn't until the 1980s when it became established that Huey is dressed in red, Dewey in blue, Louie in green. Disney's archivist Dave Smith, in "Disney A to Z," said, "Note that the brightest hue of the three is red, the color of water, dew, is blue, that leaves Louie, leaves are green." A few random combinations appear such as orange and yellow. Another combination that shows up from time to time is Huey in blue, Dewey in green, Louie in red. In-story, this inconsistency is explained away as a result of the ducklings borrowing each other's clothes. In Donald Duck and Uncle Scrooge comics the trio have been known to dress in their usual outfits, but rather than have their usual colors they all wear black, rendering them visually identical, leaving their hat color available if they care to be distinguished.
One story in Donald Duck comics was based around Donald spending so much time trying to tell his three nephews apart that he developed a heightened sense of sight. Clarence Nash, Donald's voice actor, gave the voices to the boys in the cartoon shorts, making them just as unintelligible as Donald's. Huey and Louie were all voiced by Russi Taylor in DuckTales. In Quack Pack, they were voiced by Jeannie Elias, Pamela Segall, Elizabeth Daily, respectively. Tony Anselmo voiced the characters in Down and Out with Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse Works and Disney's House of Mouse, but Russi Taylor still voices the trio in other projects, such as the video games Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers and Mickey's Speedway USA, t
Gladstone Gander is a Walt Disney fictional character created in 1948 by comic artist and writer Carl Barks. He is an anthropomorphic male goose who possesses exceptional good luck that grants him anything he desires as well as protecting him from any harm; this is in contrast to his cousin Donald Duck, characterized for having bad luck. Gladstone is a rival of Donald for the affection of Daisy Duck. Gladstone dresses in a debonair way in a suit, he has a wavy hairstyle, depicted either as white or blonde. In the story "Luck of the North" he is described as having a brassy voice. Gladstone Gander first appeared in "Wintertime Wager" in Walt Disney's Comics and Stories #88, written and drawn by Carl Barks. In that story he arrives at Donald Duck's house during a freezing cold Christmas Day to remind him of a wager Donald made the previous summer. Donald loses the wager but Gladstone on loses a wager of his own, brought to light by Daisy Duck, thus Donald's house is returned to him. Barks developed Gladstone's personality and demeanor after his first appearance and used him quite frequently—in 24 stories between 1948 and 1953, the first five years of his existence.
In his first three appearances in 1948, he was portrayed as the mirror image of Donald: an obstinate braggart just a little bit more arrogant, but didn't yet have his characteristic luck. In his next two appearances, "Rival Beachcombers" and "The Goldilocks Gambit", Gladstone is portrayed as lazy and irritable, gullible; the breakthrough of his lucky streak occurs in 1949, within the adventure story "Race to the South Seas!". In that story Donald and Huey and Louie set sails on a rescue mission from Duckburg to a remote Pacific island on which Scrooge McDuck is believed to have stranded, in an attempt gain their uncle's favor. For the same reason Gladstone is in hot pursuit as well but because he was "born lucky" as Donald explains to his nephews, without lifting a finger, is having a much easier time than them, his and Donald's rivalry over Daisy is established in "Donald's Love Letters", "Wild About Flowers", "Knightly Rivals", as potential heirs to Scrooge's fortune in "Some Heir Over the Rainbow".
After that, Barks felt unable to develop the character further, finding him unsympathetic, began using him less frequently. But by Gladstone had found a steady place in the Duck universe as one of the main established characters, he was first used by an artist other than Barks in 1951: "Presents For All" by Del Connell and Bob Moore. He appears as a main character in the Big Little Book series book "Luck of the Ducks". Gladstone's good luck defies probability and provides him with anything that would be to his benefit or enjoyment; this could range from finding wallets and other valuables on the sidewalk to pieces of a ripped apart treasure map floating together in river to form it whole again. His good luck protects him form any harm. At times he might not know that a situation will work out in his favor in a stage and by often feeling confused or at times thinking his luck has abandoned him. There have been various explanations for Gladstone’s good luck over the years by various writers and artists.
In Barks' story “Luck of the North” Gladstone proclaims: “I was born under a lucky star, everything I do will bring me good fortune.” This is read from a horoscope book he owns which has a map showing his lucky star conniving with the planet Neptunus. In many of the Italian comic books stories Gladstone is bestowed with his luck because Fortuna, the goddess of fortune, is in love with him. In Don Rosa's story "The Sign of the Triple Distelfink", he added the fact that Gladstone was born on the day of his mother Daphne's birthday in 1920, under the protection sign of the Triple Distelfink, thus inheriting his mother's luck. In some stories he uses good luck charms like lucky horseshoes or rabbits foots. However, for all his luck Gladstone has no achievements to be proud of and no true ambitions, as he is incapable of long-term planning; this is all because of that he doesn't have to make the slightest of efforts to get what he wants, as his good luck will just give it to him in the end. He often do not learn any life lessons from any misfortunes he could experience.
This leads him to be lazy. All of this is in stark contrast to his relative Scrooge McDuck, capable of taking advantage of opportunities but works hard to create situations favorable for him. Instead, Gladstone shows pride in his effortlessness and expresses great anxiety if he would betray those ideals; this is something first explored in more detail in Carl Barks's story "Gladstone's Terrible Secret". Comic artist and writer Don Rosa has commented has this on the character: "Gladstone is unwilling to make the slightest effort to gain something that his luck cannot give him, when things go wrong, he resigns certain that around the next corner a w
Donald Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Productions. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill and feet, he wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous and temperamental personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002, he has appeared in more films than any other Disney character, is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre. Donald Duck rose to fame with his comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donald's first appearance was in 1934 in The Wise Little Hen, but it was his second appearance in Orphan's Benefit which introduced him as a temperamental comic foil to Mickey Mouse. Throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards.
In the 1930s, he appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series in 1937 starting with Don Donald. These films introduced Donald's love interest Daisy Duck and included his three nephews Huey and Louie. After the 1956 film Chips Ahoy, Donald appeared in educational films before returning to theatrical animation in Mickey's Christmas Carol, his most recent appearance in a theatrical film was 1999's Fantasia 2000. Donald has appeared in direct-to-video features such as Mickey, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, video games such as QuackShot. Beyond animation, Donald is known for his appearances in comics. Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for expanding the "Donald Duck universe", the world in which Donald lives, creating many additional characters such as Donald's rich uncle Scrooge McDuck. Donald has been a popular character in Europe in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co was the most popular comics publication from the 1950s to 2009.
Donald is very popular in Italy, where he is major character in many comics in which his juvenile version Paperino Paperotto and his superhero alter-ego Paperinik were created. The origins of Donald Duck's name may have been inspired by Australian cricket legend Donald Bradman. In 1932 Bradman and the Australian team were touring North America and he made the news after being dismissed for a duck against New York West Indians. Walt Disney was in the process of creating a friend for Mickey Mouse when he read about Bradman's dismissal in the papers and decided to name the new character "Donald Duck". Voice performer Clarence Nash auditioned for Walt Disney Studios when he learned that Disney was looking for people to create animal sounds for his cartoons. Disney was impressed with Nash's duck imitation and chose him to voice the new character. Besides, during that period Mickey Mouse had lost some of his edge since becoming a role model towards children, so Disney wanted to create a character to portray some of the more negative character traits that could no longer be bestowed on Mickey.
Disney came up with Donald's iconic attributes including his sailor suit. While Dick Huemer and Art Babbit were first to animate Donald, Dick Lundy is credited for developing him as a character; the character is noted for his distinctive, only intelligible voice, developed by Donald's original performer, Clarence Nash. The voice actor produces sounds by forcing air through the mouth using the muscles of the cheek, rather than from the lungs as in typical speech. Nash reputedly developed the voice as that of a "nervous baby goat" before Walt Disney interpreted it as sounding like a duck. Donald's two dominant personality traits are his fiery-temper and his upbeat attitude to life. Many Donald shorts start with Donald in a happy mood, without a care in the world until something comes along and spoils his day, his rage is a great cause of suffering in his life. On multiple occasions, it has caused him to lose competitions. There are times when he fights to keep his temper in check, he sometimes succeeds in doing so temporarily, but he always returns to his normal angry self in the end.
Donald's vicious nature has its advantages, however. While at times it is a hindrance, a handicap, it has helped him in times of need; when faced with a threat of some kind, for example, Pete's attempts to intimidate him, he is scared, but his fear is replaced by anger. As a result, instead of running away, he fights—with ghosts, mountain goats, giant kites, the forces of nature. More than not, when he fights, he comes out on top. Donald is something of a prankster, as a result, he can sometimes come across as a bit of a bully in the way he sometimes treats Chip n' Dale and Huey and Louie, his nephews; as the animator Fred Spencer has put it: The Duck gets a big kick out of imposing on other people or annoying them, but he loses his temper when the tables are turned. In other words, he can dish it out. However, with a few exceptions, there is any harm in Donald's pranks, he never intends to hurt anyone, whenever his pranks go too far, he is always apologetic. In Truant Officer Donald, for example, when he is tricked into believing he has accidentally killed Huey and Louie, he shows great regret, blaming himself.
Ebenezer Scrooge is the protagonist of Charles Dickens' 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol. At the beginning of the novella, Scrooge is a cold-hearted miser. Dickens describes him thus: "The cold within him froze his old features, nipped his pointed nose, shrivelled his cheek, stiffened his gait. Towards the end of the novella, Scrooge is transformed by ghosts into a better person who changed his ways to become more friendly and less miserly, his last name has come into the English language as a byword for miserliness and misanthropy. The tale of his redemption by the three Ghosts of Christmas has become a defining tale of the Christmas holiday in the English-speaking world. Ebenezer Scrooge is arguably both one of the most famous characters created by Dickens and one of the most famous in English literature. Scrooge's catchphrase, "Bah! Humbug!" is used to express disgust with many modern Christmas traditions. Several theories have been put forward as to. Ebenezer Scroggie, a banker from Edinburgh who won a catering contract for King George IV's visit to Scotland.
He was buried in Canongate Kirkyard, with a gravestone, now lost. The theory is that Dickens noticed the gravestone that described Scroggie as being a "meal man" but misread it as "mean man"; this theory has been described as "a probable Dickens hoax" for which "o one could find any corroborating evidence". It has been suggested that he chose the name Ebenezer to reflect the help given to Scrooge to change his life; the surname may be from the now obscure English verb scrouge, meaning "squeeze" or "press". One school of thought is that Dickens based Scrooge's views on the poor on those of demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus. Another is that the minor character Gabriel Grub from The Pickwick Papers was worked up into a more mature characterization. Jemmy Wood, owner of the Gloucester Old Bank and Britain's first millionaire, was nationally renowned for his stinginess, may have been another; the man whom Dickens mentions in his letters and who resembles the character portrayed by Dickens's illustrator, John Leech, was a noted British eccentric and miser named John Elwes.
Kelly writes that Scrooge may have been influenced by Dickens's conflicting feelings for his father, whom he both loved and demonised. This psychological conflict may be responsible for the two radically different Scrooges in the tale—one a cold and greedy semi-recluse, the other a benevolent, sociable man. Robert Douglas-Fairhurst, the professor of English literature, considers that in the opening part of the book covering young Scrooge's lonely and unhappy childhood, his aspiration for money to avoid poverty "is something of a self-parody of Dickens's fears about himself". Scrooge could be based on two misers: the eccentric John Elwes, MP, or Jemmy Wood, the owner of the Gloucester Old Bank, known as "The Gloucester Miser". According to the sociologist Frank W. Elwell, Scrooge's views on the poor are a reflection of those of the demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus, while the miser's questions "Are there no prisons?... And the Union workhouses?... The treadmill and the Poor Law are in full vigour, then?" are a reflection of a sarcastic question raised by the reactionary philosopher Thomas Carlyle, "Are there not treadmills, gibbets.
Peter Ackroyd, Dickens's biographer, sees similarities between Scrooge and the elder Martin Chuzzlewit character, although the miser is "a more fantastic image" than the Chuzzlewit patriarch. Douglas-Fairhurst sees that the minor character Gabriel Grub from The Pickwick Papers was an influence when creating Scrooge; the story of A Christmas Carol starts on Christmas Eve 1843 with Scrooge at his money-lending business. He hates Christmas as a "humbug" and subjects his clerk, Bob Cratchit, to gruelling hours and low pay of only 15 shillings on a normal week, he shows his cold-heartedness toward others by refusing to make a monetary donation for the good of the poor, claiming that the prisons and workhouses are sufficient, if not they are better off dead, thereby "decreasing the surplus population." While he is preparing to go to bed, he is visited by the ghost of his business partner, Jacob Marley, who had died seven years earlier on Christmas Eve. Like Scrooge, Marley had spent his life hoarding his wealth and exploiting the poor, and, as a result, is damned to walk the Earth for eternity bound in the chains of his own greed.
Marley warns Scrooge that he risks meeting the same fate and that as a final chance at redemption he will be visited by three spirits of Christmas: Past and Yet-to-Come. The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge to see his time as a schoolboy and young man, during the late 18th and early 19th centuries; these visions reveal that Scrooge was a lonely child whose unloving father sent him away to a boarding school. His one solace was his beloved sister, who begged their father to allow Scrooge to return home, he at last relented. Fan died after having given birth to one child, a
Daniel Jan "Daan" Jippes is a cartoonist, who has worked with Disney comics. In the 1980s and 1990s he drew many covers for Gladstone Publishing's Disney magazines. In the 1990s he redrew for Egmont old Junior Woodchucks stories from the 1970s written by Carl Barks and drawn by John Carey, Kay Wright and Tony Strobl. Daan Jippes started his comics career in the Netherlands, where his work was published in the comics magazine Pep in the late 1960s and early 1970s, he rose to national recognition with his comics album Bernard Voorzichtig: Twee Voor Thee. In the mid seventies he started working for the Dutch Donald Duck magazine, where his interpretation of the ducks and Mickey Mouse drew the attention of the Disney Studios in Burbank, California. Subsequently he was worked for the Disney company. Aside from his work at Disney, he worked as a storyboard supervisor on Amblimation's Balto and provided covers in Disney style for the comic books of Gladstone Publishing. Back in the Netherlands, in 2006 Jippes started a new album series, based on the detective stories by Havank, drawn in a Marcinelle style similar to Franquin.
Two albums have been published. In 2013 Jippes stated in an interview: "that project's dead in the water. Though I've finished writing a third story I lack the time and funding to start drawing and coloring those 44-plus pages." Roger Ash. "A Gander at Gladstone." Back Issue! No. 23 pp. 35–41. Geoffrey Blum. "Gladstone Profile: Daan Jippes." Walt Disney's Comics and Stories No. 607. Daan Jippes. "A Clean Case of Brainstorming." Carl Barks Library Set IX, p. 481. Fred Milton. "Doing It the Barks Way." Barks Collector No. 10. Daan Jippes at the INDUCKS Daan Jippes on IMDb Daan Jippes at the Lambiek Comiclopedia Comic House portfolio of Daan Jippes
Donald Duck (American comic book)
Donald Duck is an American comic book magazine starring the Disney character Donald Duck and published by various publishers since 1952. The first issue was released in November 1952, but the numeration started with #26 because the previous Four Color issues titled "Donald Duck", released between October 1942 and September 1952, were retroactively treated as part of the series: the numbering was the result of a mistake, as Four Color #422 was the 28th Four Color issue titled "Donald Duck". From 2003 to 2011, the comic was renamed Friends; when IDW took over publishing the title in May 2015 they restarted from #1, but retained the'legacy' numbering as a secondary number. Dell Comics, from issue #26 to issue #84 Gold Key Comics, from issue #85 to issue #211 Whitman Publishing, from issue #212 to issue #245 Gladstone Publishing, from issue #246 to issue #307 Gemstone Publishing, from issue #308 to issue #346. Studios, from issue #347 to issue #367. Disney comics in the USA Other notable Disney comic titles in the USA: Mickey Mouse Walt Disney's Comics and Stories Uncle Scrooge Uncle Scrooge Adventures Donald Duck Adventures Donald Duck at the INDUCKS Donald Duck on Disney Comics Worldwide Cover of all issues of Donald Duck on outducks.org