Ouray County, Colorado
Ouray County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,436; the county seat is Ouray. Because of its rugged mountain topography, Ouray County is known as the Switzerland of America. Ouray County was formed out of San Juan County on 18 January 1877, the first county designated by the newly formed Colorado State Legislature, it was named for a distinguished Ute Indian chief. Ouray was designated county seat on 8 March 1877. On 19 February 1881, Dolores County was formed out of Ouray County. On 27 February 1883, Ouray County was split into San Miguel County and what is Ouray County; the portion that became San Miguel County retained the name Ouray County when the Colorado General Assembly renamed Ouray County as Uncompaghre County. Four days on 2 March 1883, the General Assembly changed its mind and changed the name of Uncompaghre County back to Ouray County; the Ouray County Courthouse was constructed in Ouray in 1888 and is located on the National Register of Historic Places.
Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area of Colorado formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters. The new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties; the SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 542 square miles, of which 542 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The highest mountain in Ouray County is Mount Sneffels at 14,150 feet above sea level. Many high peaks of more than 13,300 feet exist. Other prominent features in Ouray County include Pleasant Valley. Montrose County - north Gunnison County - northeast Hinsdale County - southeast San Juan County - south San Miguel County - southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 3,742 people, 1,576 households, 1,123 families residing in the county.
The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 2,146 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.34% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. 4.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,576 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.50% under the age of 18, 4.10% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 34.10% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,019, the median income for a family was $49,776. Males had a median income of $35,141 versus $26,176 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,335. About 6.00% of families and 7.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.00% of those under age 18 and 2.90% of those age 65 or over. Ouray County, named Switzerland of America, is home to many parks and hiking trails; the Ridgway State Park is located due north of Ridgway on the Ridgway Reservoir and includes a marina and camping facilities as well as an extensive trail system. Within and surrounding the county are the Uncompahgre National Forest, Mount Sneffels Wilderness, the Uncompahgre Wilderness. Leading through the county is the Bear Creek National Recreation Trail. Well known for its view of the San Juan Mountains and Cimarron Range, scenic highways such as the Alpine Loop National Scenic Back Country Byway and San Juan Skyway National Scenic Byway exist.
The Great Parks Bicycle Route and Western Express Bicycle Route go through Ouray County. The Elks Lodge of Ouray County is only one of a few surviving American locations for a bowling alley facility - a more famous one being Milwaukee, Wisconsin's Holler House - that uses human-operated pinsetting units to set the tenpins for bowling on its pair of vintage wood bowling lanes. Ouray County has two home rule municipalities, three census-designated places, four unincorporated communities; the home rule municipalities are the city of Ouray and town of Ridgway the most populous settlements in the county. Loghill Village is the next largest development and is a residential affluent, community in comparison to the rest of the county. Along with Loghill and Colona serve as census-designated places within Ouray County; the unincorporated communities within the county are Camp Bird, Dallas and Eldredge. All the communities, with the exception of Ridgway and Ouray, serve as residential communities, though Loghill Village maintains a small tourism sector.
Colona and Dallas are located in the northern reaches of the county along U. S. Highway 550, though Eldredge and Dallas are located within the valleys of the San Juan Mountains while Colona is in the short stretch of the Uncompahgre Valley within Ouray County. Portland is placed down valley of Ouray. Camp Bird and Thistled
Delta County, Colorado
Delta County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,952; the county seat is Delta. Delta County was created by the Colorado legislature on February 11, 1883, out of portions of central Gunnison County; the county was named from a delta of arable land at the mouth of the Uncompahgre River, where it flows into the Gunnison River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,149 square miles, of which 1,142 square miles is land and 6.5 square miles is water. Gunnison County – east Montrose County – south Mesa County – northwest Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Grand Mesa National Forest Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area Gunnison Gorge Wilderness Crawford State Park Sweitzer Lake State Park American Discovery Trail Crag Crest National Recreation Trail Old Spanish National Historic Trail Grand Mesa Scenic and Historic Byway West Elk Loop Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 27,834 people, 11,058 households, 7,939 families residing in the county.
The population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 12,374 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.29% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 0.76% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.25% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races. 11.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,058 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 100.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,785, the median income for a family was $37,748. Males had a median income of $31,348 versus $19,916 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,152. About 8.50% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.00% of those under age 18 and 9.60% of those age 65 or over. Delta Cedaredge Crawford Hotchkiss Orchard City Paonia Austin Cory Eckert Lazear Delta is a powerfully Republican county. No Democratic presidential candidate has reached forty percent of Delta County’s vote since Lyndon Johnson carried the county in 1964, since 1920 Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 is the only other Democrat to gain a majority, although Roosevelt did win a plurality against Alf Landon in 1936; the local papers are the Merchant Herald. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Delta County, Colorado Delta County Libraries Delta County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Delta Real Time Weather
Unaweep Canyon is a geologically unique canyon that cuts across the Uncompahgre Plateau, Mesa County, in western Colorado. It is unique because two creeks, East Creek and West Creek, flow out of opposite ends of the canyon, separated by the imperceptible Unaweep Divide. State Highway 141 runs inside Unaweep Canyon between Whitewater and Gateway, one segment of the Colorado-designated Unaweep/Tabeguache Scenic Byway; the Unaweep Divide, elevation 7,008 ft, is near mile marker 135 on SH 141. There are multiple explanations for the origin of Unaweep Canyon. In the late 19th century, members of the Hayden Survey recognized the oddity of a canyon with two outlets, suggested it was carved by the ancestral Colorado or Gunnison river. Many others have suggested it was carved by either the Gunnison or Colorado Rivers, but evidence for gravel deposits characteristic of these rivers was elusive, the existence of the divide remains difficult to explain. Several have suggested that Plio-Pleistocene uplift caused diversion of the river and abandonment of the canyon.
But rates of river incision exceed those of tectonic uplift, making this unlikely. The many apparent glacial-like features of the canyon's inner gorge have led some to suggest a Pleistocene glacial origin for the canyon, but the low elevation of the canyon, lack of Pleistocene glacial deposits, make this problematic. More documentation of gravels characteristic of the Gunnison River and located at the western mouth of Unaweep Canyon provide evidence for occupation of the canyon by an ancestral Gunnison River Hence, the ancestral Gunnison River may have carved the canyon. However, another hypothesis holds that the ancestral Gunnison River did not carve the canyon, but exhumed a pre-existing canyon; this hypothesis of an ancient age for the inner gorge of Unaweep Canyon comes from dating of sediments recovered in a core through the canyon fill. This core proved the existence of a thick sediment fill in the canyon, an idea first proposed in the 1970s on the basis of a geophysical study. Related to the proposed ancient age for the canyon is the hypothesis that the canyon was glaciated during the Late Paleozoic 300 million years ago.
The hypotheses of a Paleozoic age and glacial origin for the canyon, remain debated, like many other hypotheses for the origin of this scenic canyon. Unaweep Canyon cuts across the Uncompahgre Plateau
The Gunnison River is a tributary of the Colorado River, 164 miles long, in the Southwestern state of Colorado. It is the largest tributary of the Colorado River in Colorado, with a mean flow of 2,570 cu ft/s; the Gunnison River is formed by the confluence of Taylor and East rivers at Almont in eastern Gunnison County. Just past the town of Gunnison, the river begins to swell into the expanse of Blue Mesa Reservoir, a 36-mile-long reservoir formed by Blue Mesa Dam, where it receives the Lake Fork of the Gunnison. Just downstream it is dammed again to form Morrow Point Reservoir just downstream of that dam for the final time to form Crystal Reservoir; the reservoirs produce hydroelectric power and supply water for the surrounding areas for both municipal and irrigation use. The reservoirs are the upper part of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison, one of the longest and deepest gorges in the world. Below Crystal Dam it begins to roar through massive cataracts and flows through the deepest part of the gorge.
At the outlet of the canyon it receives the North Fork River downstream near Delta, Colorado, is joined by the Uncompahgre River. It winds through desert canyonlands, where it receives Kannah Creek, before it empties out of the Dominguez Canyon into the Colorado in Grand Junction, some years rivaling the Colorado River for equal volume; the Gunnison River ranges in width from 3 to 50 feet in depth. The river's powerful current and many rapids make upstream travel nearly impossible, it is navigable for small craft by larger boats below the Black Canyon. Parts of the Black Canyon are non-navigable to any sorts of craft because of giant cataracts. Navigation through the entire canyon is dangerous and for experienced boaters only; the first non-native to see and record information of the Gunnison River was Juan Maria de Rivera, who came to the banks of the river just below its confluence with the Uncompahgre River in 1761 and 1765. It was again seen in 1776 by Silvestre Vélez de Escalante. At the time the Spanish name for the river was Rio de San Javier, the Native American name was Tomichi.
Escalante noted that Rivera thought it was "the great Rio del Tizon", the long used Spanish name for the lower Colorado River. Through the mid-1800s, the river was variously named the Eagle, Eagle Tail, South Fork of the Grand and Grand River. Exploration reports and published maps in the 1850s and 1860s most referred to the river as the Grand River. In subsequent years, the river was renamed for U. S. Army Captain John W. Gunnison of the Topographic Engineers, ambushed and killed by Pahvant Utes while mapping a trail west in Utah Territory in 1853; the lower section of the Gunnison River is designated as gold medal water and wild trout water. The designation begins 200 yards below the Crystal Dam and stretches through the Gunnison Gorge to the confluence of the North Fork and Gunnison rivers. Part of the river's water is diverted to irrigate the Uncompahgre Valley via the 5-mile-long Gunnison Tunnel, built between 1905 and 1909; the Blue Mesa Dam, Morrow Point Dam, Crystal Dam are part of the Colorado River Storage Project, were built between the 1960s and the 1970s.
List of rivers of Colorado List of tributaries of the Colorado River "Black Canyon National Park, Colorado". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-05. "Gunnison River Information and Fishing Report". Cimarron Creek. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-05-07
San Miguel County, Colorado
San Miguel County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,359; the county seat is Telluride. The county is named for the San Miguel River. San Miguel County was given the Spanish language name for "Saint Michael" due to the nearby San Miguel River. On 27 February 1883, Ouray County was split to form San Miguel County; the San Miguel County portion was to retain the name Ouray County with the new portion called Uncompahgre County. Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area of Colorado formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters; the new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. The SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike.
In 1875, the Smuggler gold vein was discovered near Telluride. The Smuggler-Union and Liberty Bell mines combined produced over a hundred tons of gold by 1920, third in the state of Colorado. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,289 square miles, of which 1,287 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Montrose County - north Ouray County - east San Juan County - southeast Dolores County - south San Juan County, Utah - west Lizard Head Wilderness Mount Sneffels Wilderness Old Spanish National Historic Trail Telluride National Historic District Uncompahgre National Forest Great Parks Bicycle Route San Juan Skyway National Scenic Byway Unaweep/Tabeguache Scenic and Historic Byway Western Express Bicycle Route As of the census of 2000, there were 6,594 people, 3,015 households, 1,423 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 5,197 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.57% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 0.85% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.37% from other races, 1.11% from two or more races.
8.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,015 households out of which 22.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.30% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.80% were non-families. 32.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.60% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 43.30% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 3.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 120.80 males. For every 100 females age eighteen 18 and over, there were 126.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,514, the median income for a family was $60,417. Males had a median income of $35,922 versus $30,278 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,329.
About 6.60% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.10% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Mountain Village Norwood Ophir Placerville Sawpit Telluride Tomboy Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in San Miguel County, Colorado San Miguel County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in