Cañon Pintado, meaning painted canyon, is an archaeological site of Native American rock art located in the East Four Mile Draw, 10.5 miles south of Rangely in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Led by Ute guides, the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition, Spanish missionaries in search of a route to California in 1776, passed through this region as they moved north and west into Utah; the first Europeans to the area, they named it Cañon Pintado, meaning "painted canyon". The rock art was made by people of the Fremont culture and the Ute. No one has been able to positively identify the significance of the paintings, they were made to mark significant events or for religious purposes; the Fremont people were described in a Rangely Museum brochure:The Fremont people built villages, farmed the valley areas and on high points located watchtowers. In hidden places on the cliffs are still found cisterns and granaries where they stored corn and seeds. Petroglyphs of corn stalks are at a number of these sites; the Utes hunted the area and used the valley until they were moved to a reservation in 1881.
There are many accessible rock art sites located just south of Rangely along Colorado Highway 139. However, there are thousands of well preserved sites in the immediate area, including numerous sites on County Road 23 and County Road 65. There is evidence; the markings may indicate the significance winter or summer solstice but more data is required to verify these results. Nearby are the following National Register of Historic Places listings in Rio Blanco County, all three are prehistoric Fremont culture sites:Prehistoric sites Collage Shelter Site - dated from 500 - 1499 AD. Carrot Men Pictograph Site - dated from 500 - 1499 AD. Fremont Lookout Fortification Site - dated from 0 - 1499 AD. List of prehistoric sites in Colorado
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, scratched, crushed, or rubbed. The phenomenon is not understood, but appears to be caused by the separation and reunification of electrical charges; the term comes from the Latin lumen. Triboluminescence can be observed when peeling adhesive tapes. Triboluminescence is used as a synonym for fractoluminescence. Triboluminescence differs from piezoluminescence in that a piezoluminescent material emits light when it is deformed, as opposed to broken; these are examples of mechanoluminescence, luminescence resulting from any mechanical action on a solid. The Uncompahgre Ute Indians from Central Colorado are one of the first documented groups of people in the world credited with the application of mechanoluminescence involving the use of quartz crystals to generate light; the Ute constructed special ceremonial rattles made from buffalo rawhide which they filled with clear quartz crystals collected from the mountains of Colorado and Utah.
When the rattles were shaken at night during ceremonies, the friction and mechanical stress of the quartz crystals impacting together produced flashes of light visible through the translucent buffalo hide. The first recorded observation is attributed to English scholar Francis Bacon when he recorded in his 1620 Novum Organum that "It is well known that all sugar, whether candied or plain, if it be hard, will sparkle when broken or scraped in the dark." The scientist Robert Boyle reported on some of his work on triboluminescence in 1663. In the late 1790s, sugar production began to produce more refined sugar crystals; these crystals were formed into a large solid cone for sale. This solid cone of sugar had to be broken into usable chunks using a device known as sugar nips. People began to notice. A important instance of triboluminescence occurred in Paris in 1675. Astronomer Jean-Felix Picard observed, his barometer consisted of a glass tube, filled with mercury. Whenever the mercury slid down the glass tube, the empty space above the mercury would glow.
While investigating this phenomenon, researchers discovered that static electricity could cause low-pressure air to glow. This discovery revealed the possibility of electric lighting. Materials scientists have not yet arrived at a full understanding of the effect, but the current theory of triboluminescence — based upon crystallographic and other experimental evidence — is that upon fracture of asymmetrical materials, charge is separated; when the charges recombine, the electrical discharge ionizes the surrounding air, causing a flash of light. Research further suggests that crystals which display triboluminescence must lack symmetry and be poor conductors. However, there are substances which break this rule, which do not possess asymmetry, yet display triboluminescence anyway, such as hexakisterbium iodide, it is thought. The biological phenomenon of triboluminescence is conditioned by recombination of free radicals during mechanical activation. A diamond may begin to glow; this happens to diamonds while a facet is being ground or the diamond is being sawn during the cutting process.
Diamonds may fluoresce red. Some other minerals, such as quartz, are triboluminescent. Ordinary Pressure-sensitive tape displays a glowing line where the end of the tape is being pulled away from the roll. In 1953, Soviet scientists observed; the mechanism of X-ray generation was studied further in 2008. Similar X-Ray emissions have been observed with metals; when sugar crystals are crushed, tiny electrical fields are created, separating positive and negative charges that create sparks while trying to reunite. Wint-O-Green Life Savers work well for creating such sparks, because wintergreen oil is fluorescent and converts ultraviolet light into blue light. Triboluminescence is a biological phenomenon observed in mechanical deformation and contact electrization of epidermal surface of osseous and soft tissues, at chewing food, at friction in joints of vertebrae, during sexual intercourse, during blood circulation. Fractoluminescence is used as a synonym for triboluminescence, it is the emission of light from the fracture of a crystal, but fracturing occurs with rubbing.
Depending upon the atomic and molecular composition of the crystal, when the crystal fractures a charge separation can occur making one side of the fractured crystal positively charged and the other side negatively charged. Like in triboluminescence, if the charge separation results in a large enough electric potential, a discharge across the gap and through the bath gas between the interfaces can occur; the potential at which this occurs depends upon the dielectric properties of the bath gas. The emission of electromagnetic radiation during plastic deformation and crack propagation in metals and rocks have been studied; the EMR emissions from metals and alloys have been explored and confirmed. Molotskii presented a dislocation mechanism for this type of EMR emissions. Sril
John Wesley Powell
John Wesley Powell was a U. S. soldier, explorer of the American West, professor at Illinois Wesleyan University, director of major scientific and cultural institutions. He is famous for the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers, including the first official U. S. government-sponsored passage through the Grand Canyon. Powell served as second director of the U. S. Geological Survey and proposed, for development of the arid West, policies that were prescient for his accurate evaluation of conditions, he became the first director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution during his service as director of the U. S. Geological Survey, where he supported linguistic and sociological research and publications. Powell was born in New York, in 1834, the son of Joseph and Mary Powell, his father, a poor itinerant preacher, had emigrated to the U. S. from Shrewsbury, England, in 1830. His family moved westward to Jackson, Ohio Walworth County, before settling in rural Boone County, Illinois.
As a young man he undertook a series of adventures through the Mississippi River valley. In 1855, he spent four months walking across Wisconsin. During 1856, he rowed the Mississippi from Minnesota, to the sea. In 1857, he rowed down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh to the Mississippi River, traveling north to reach St. Louis. In 1858 he rowed down the Illinois River up the Mississippi and the Des Moines River to central Iowa. At age 25, he was elected in 1859 to the Illinois Natural History Society. Powell studied at Illinois College, Illinois Institute, Oberlin College, over a period of seven years while teaching, but was unable to attain his degree. During his studies Powell acquired a knowledge of Ancient Latin. Powell had a deep interest in the natural sciences; this desire to learn about natural sciences was against the wishes of his father, yet Powell was still determined to do so. In 1860 when Powell was on a lecture tour he decided. Powell's loyalties remained with the cause of abolishing slavery.
On May 8, 1861, he enlisted at Illinois, as a private in the 20th Illinois Infantry. He was described as "age 27, height 5' 6-1/2" tall, light complected, gray eyes, auburn hair, occupation—teacher." He was elected sergeant-major of the regiment, when the 20th Illinois was mustered into the Federal service a month Powell was commissioned a second lieutenant. He enlisted in the Union Army as a cartographer and military engineer. During the Civil War, he served first with the 20th Illinois Volunteers. While stationed at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, he recruited an artillery company that became Battery "F" of the 2nd Illinois Light Artillery with Powell as captain. On November 28, 1861, Powell took. At the Battle of Shiloh, he lost most of his right arm when struck by a minie ball while in the process of giving the order to fire; the raw nerve endings in his arm would continue to cause him pain for the rest of his life. Despite the loss of an arm, he returned to the Army and was present at Champion Hill, Big Black River Bridge on the Big Black River and in the siege of Vicksburg.
Always the geologist he took to studying rocks while in the trenches at Vicksburg. He was made a major and commanded an artillery brigade with the 17th Army Corps during the Atlanta Campaign. After the fall of Atlanta he was transferred to George H. Thomas' army and participated in the battle of Nashville. At the end of the war he was made a brevet lieutenant colonel, but preferred to use the title of "Major". After leaving the Army, Powell took the post of professor of geology at Illinois Wesleyan University, he lectured at Illinois State Normal University for most of his career. Powell helped expand the collections of the Museum of the Illinois State Natural History Society, where he served as curator, he declined a permanent appointment in favor of exploration of the American West. After 1867, Powell led a series of expeditions into the Rocky Mountains and around the Green and Colorado rivers. One of these expeditions was with his wife, to collect specimens all over Colorado. Powell, William Byers, five other men were the first white men to climb Longs Peak in Colorado in 1868.
In 1869, he set out to explore the Grand Canyon. Gathering nine men, four boats and food for 10 months, he set out from Green River, Wyoming, on May 24. Passing through dangerous rapids, the group passed down the Green River to its confluence with the Colorado River, near present-day Moab and completed the journey on August 30, 1869. Members of the first Powell expedition: John Wesley Powell, trip organizer and leader, major in the Civil War. Bradley, lieutenant in the Civil War, expedition chronicler. From which of these features shall we select a name? We decide to call it Glen C
Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation
The Ute Indian Tribe of the Uinta and Ouray Reservation is a Federally Recognized Tribe of Indians in northeastern Utah. Three bands of Utes comprise the Ute Indian Tribe: the Whiteriver Band, the Uncompahgre Band and the Uintah Band; the Tribe has a membership of more than three thousand individuals, with over half living on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. The Ute Indian Tribe operates its own tribal government and oversees 1.3 million acres of trust land which contains significant oil and gas deposits. The Northern Ute tribe, moved to the Uintah Ouray Reservation, is composed of a number of bands; the tribes at the reservation include the following groups: Uintah tribe, larger than its historical band since the U. S. government classified the following bands as Uintah when they were relocated to the reservation:The San Pitch Utes of central Utah lived in the Sanpete Valley, Sevier River Valley, along the San Pitch River. Uintah livied in northeastern Utah from Utah Lake to the Uintah Basin of the Tavaputs Plateau near the Grand-Colorado River-system.
The Timpanogos lived in the Wasatch Range around Mount Timpanogos, along the southern and eastern shores of Utah Lake of the Utah Valley, in Heber Valley, Uinta Basin and Sanpete Valley. The Seuvarits band was from the Moab area. White River UtesThe Yampa from the Yampa River Valley area and the Parianuche, who lived in the Colorado River valley of western Colorado and eastern Utah; the two bands are now called the White River Utes. The Sabuagana were of the same relative area as the Parianuche; the Tabeguache called the Uncompahgre, lived in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre River valleys of Colorado and Utah. Utes have lived in the Great Basin region for over 10,000 years. From 3000 BCE to around 500 BCE, they lived along the Gila River in Arizona. People of the Fremont culture lived to the north in western Colorado, but when drought struck in the 13th century, they joined the Utes in San Luis Valley, Colorado. Utes were one of the first tribes to obtain horses from escaped Spanish stock. Spanish explorers traveled through Ute land in 1776.
They were followed by an ever-increasing number of non-Natives. The Colorado Gold Rush of the 1850s flooded Ute lands with prospectors. Mormons fought the Utes from the 1840s to 1870s. In the 1860s the US federal government created the Uintah Reservation. Utah Utes, including the Timpanogos or Timpanog tribe from Central Utah, settled there in 1864, were joined in 1882 by eight bands of Northern Utes; the US government tried to force the Utes to farm, despite the lack of water and unfavorable growing conditions on their reservation. Irrigation projects of the early 20th century put water in non-tribal hands. Ute children were forced to attend Indian boarding schools in the 1880s and half of the Ute children at the Albuquerque Indian School died; the Tribal Business Committee is the governing council of the Tribe and is located in Fort Duchesne, Utah. The Uinta and Ouray Indian Reservation is the second-largest Indian Reservation in the US – covering over 4,500,000 acres of land. Tribal owned lands only cover 1.2 million acres of surface land and 40,000 acres of mineral-owned land within the 4 million acres reservation area.
Founded in 1861, it is located in Carbon, Grand, Uintah and Wasatch Counties in Utah. Raising stock and oil and gas leases are important; the tribe is a member of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes. The Ute language is a Proto-Numic language within the Uto-Aztecan language family; the language is still spoken. In 1984, the tribe declared the Ute language to be the official language of their reservation, the Ute Language and Traditions Committee provides language education materials. D'Azevedo, Warren L. Volume Editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Ute Indian Tape Recordings Collection; the Ute. Ute Indian Tribe Website
Manitou Springs, Colorado
Manitou Springs is a home rule municipality located in El Paso County, United States. The town was founded for its natural mineral springs; the downtown area continues to be of interest to travelers in the summer, as the downtown area consists of many one-story, small shops and pubs, as well as a creekside city park with a children's playground made from unusual materials. Among other services, shops cater to tourist interests such as clothing, candy and outdoor recreation; the main road through the center of town was one of the direct paths to the base of Pikes Peak. Barr Trail, which winds its way up Pikes Peak, is accessible from town; the subdivision Crystal Hills was added to the municipality in the 1960s. The city population was 4,992 at the 2010 United States Census. Students are served by Manitou Springs High School. General William Jackson Palmer and Dr. William Abraham Bell founded Manitou Springs in 1872, intending the town to be a "scenic health resort". Dr Bell's home, Briarhurst Manor, is open to the public as a fine dining restaurant, listed on the National Register of Historic places.
In 1876, the town was incorporated. "Manitou Springs has been the quintessential tourist town since the 1870s, when visitors discovered the healing waters the Ute Indians had been drinking for years. Many of the town's mineral springs still function today and the water is free." In 1980, the Manitou Springs Historic District was formed by the Historic Preservation Committee to manage development and preservation within the town. It is National Register of Historic Places listing and one of the country's largest National Historic Districts. In June 2012, the entire city was evacuated due to the Waldo Canyon fire burning nearby. Portions of western Colorado Springs were evacuated. Manitou Springs did not suffer any fire damage, the city was under evacuation orders from only 1:30 a.m. Monday, when the order was lifted and residents were allowed back home. There was no fire damage visible from Manitou Springs, all businesses were reopened. On the afternoon of August 9, 2013, the city was inundated by a flash flood entering the northern edges of the city via roadways and natural channels as it descended from the flooded out US Hwy 24.
Traffic was stopped in both directions as the highway barriers formed a river drifting several occupied cars down a runoff ditch. The strong current made a path down Manitou Avenue from Cavern Gulch as well as Canon Avenue meandering turbulently through streets, homes and spillways damaging 20 homes, 8 of them significantly; the flood water threatened buildings and parking lots situated along Fountain Creek and closed a portion of Manitou Avenue which re-opened that evening. Manitou Springs is a local government and a home rule city located within the Colorado Springs metropolitan area. Manitou Springs is managed by six city council members; the mayor is elected to a two-year term. Council members are elected to 4 year, terms. Three council members are "at large" members and three members represent one of the 3 wards in Manitou Springs. Manitou Springs residents may attend the following meetings or working sessions held each month at the Council Chambers at 606 Manitou Avenue; the Manitou Springs City Boards and Commissions include: Business Improvement District sponsors events and promotions to encourage tourism and business within Manitou Springs.
It was formed to "improve the cleanliness and marketability of the Downtown Historic District." Fountain Creek Restoration Committee Historic Preservation Commission manages development and preservation of the Historic District. Housing Advisory Board iManitou including the Chamber of Commerce, Office of Economic Development and Visitors Bureau. Metro Parking District, which operates parking lots. Mineral Springs Foundation was organized to "restore and publicize the natural mineral springs". Open Space Advisory Committee was formed to acquire open space. Park and Recreation Advisory Board is charged with the enhancement and promotion of the local parks and trails. Parking Authority Board Planning Commission, with the objective of "guiding and accomplishing a coordinated, well adjusted and harmonious development of the City and its environs." Urban Renewal Authority Board to oversee the "redevelopment of the east end of Manitou Avenue." Situated directly along U. S. Route 24 just west of Old Colorado City and Cave of the Winds, the town is bordered by Mt. Manitou to the west, Red Mountain to the south, Englemann Canyon and west.
It is near Garden of the Gods, with the same red stone as Red Mountain, is at the base of Pikes Peak. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,980 people, 2,452 households, 1,255 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,642.6 people per square mile. There were 2,654 housing units at an average density of 875.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.98% White, 3.65% Hispanic or Latino, 0.50% African American, 1.06% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.94% from other races, 2.27% from two or more races. There were 2,452 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.8% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.73.
In the city, the populat
Native American Church
The Native American Church known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote. The religion originated in the U. S. State of Oklahoma in the late nineteenth century after peyote was introduced to the southern Great Plains from Mexico. Today it is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans in the United States and Mexico, with an estimated 250,000 adherents as of the late twentieth century. Many denominations of mainstream Christianity made attempts to convert Native Americans to Christianity in their country; these efforts were successful for many Native American tribes reflect Christian creed, including the Native American Church. Although conversion to Christianity was a slow process, the tenets of the Native American Church were accepted. Formed in the state of Oklahoma, the Native American Church is monotheistic, believing in a supreme being, called the Great Spirit.
The tenets of the Native American Church regard "peyote" as a sacred and holy sacrament and use it as a means to communicate with the Great Spirit. Followers of the Native American Church have differing ceremonies and ways of practicing their religion. For example, among the Teton, the Cross Fire group uses the Bible for sermons, which are rejected by the Half Moon followers, though they each teach a similar Christian morality. Ceremonies last all night, beginning Saturday evening and ending early Sunday morning. Scripture reading, prayer and drumming are included. In general, the Native American Church believes in the Great Spirit. Ceremonies are held in a tipi and require a priest, pastor, or elder to conduct the service; the conductor is referred to as the Roadman. The Roadman is assisted by a Fireman, whose task is to care for the holy fireplace, being sure that it burns all night; the Roadman may use a prayer staff, a beaded and feathered gourd, a small drum and his eagle feather as a means for conducting services.
The Roadman's wife or other female relative prepares four sacramental foods and the "second breakfast" that are part of the church services. Her part takes place early, between 4:30 and 5:00 in the morning; the four sacramental foods are water, shredded beef or "sweet meat", corn mush, some version of berry. To counterbalance the bitterness of the peyote consumed during the services, the sweet foods were added later; the second breakfast is like any other breakfast. It includes boiled eggs, hash brown potatoes and juice; this meal is served just prior to the closing of the church services. Church services are not regular Sunday occurrences but are held in accordance with special requests by a family for celebrating a birthday, or for a memorial or funeral service. Services begin at sundown on either a Friday or Saturday end at sunrise. Thus, a participant "sits up" all night, giving up a full night's rest as part of a small sacrifice to the Great and Holy Spirit and his Son; the church services culminate in a feast for the whole community the following day.
Because peyote is a stimulant, all of the participating members are wide awake, so they, attend the feast. The need for sleep is felt in the late afternoon after the feast. Gifts are given to the Roadman and all his helpers by the sponsoring family at the feast to show deep appreciation for all his hard work.”Common reasons for holding a service include: the desire to cure illness, birthday celebrations, Christian holidays, school graduations, other significant life events. As the United States government became more involved in the control of drugs, the Native American Church faced possible legal issues regarding their use of the substance; the Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 called the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, was passed to provide legal protection for the Church's use of peyote. The controversy over peyote resulted in its legal classification as a controlled drug. Thus, only card-carrying members of the Native American Church are allowed to transport and use peyote for religious purposes.
The Neo-American Church tried to claim LSD and marijuana as sacraments, seeking protection similar to that afforded to peyote use by the Native American Church. The courts ruled against them. Quanah Parker is the individual most associated with the early history of Peyotism and the Native American Church. Other prominent figures in its development include Chevato, Jim Aton, John Wilson, Jonathan Koshiway; these people, many others, played important roles in the introduction and adoption of the Native American Church. Eagle-bone whistle Employment Division v. Smith Freedom of religion in the United States#Situation of Native Americans Freedom of thought Hair drop, Native American Church regalia Indigenous peoples of the Americas The red road Hayward, Robert; the Thirteenth Step: Ancient Solutions to the Contemporary Problems of Alcoholism and Addiction using the Timeless Wisdom of The Native American Church Ceremony. Native Son Publishers Inc. 2011. ISBN 0983638403. -- Describes the Native American Church Ceremony.
Stewart, Omer C. Peyote Religion: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. Listing of Native American Churches American Ethnography – The use of Peyote by the Carrizo and Lipan Apache tribes "Native American Church, Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Swan, Daniel C.. "Native American Church". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Cowger, Thomas W.. "Pan-I
Ouray (Ute leader)
Ouray was a Native American chief of the Tabeguache band of the Ute tribe located in western Colorado. Because of his leadership ability, Ouray was acknowledged by the United States government as a chief of the Ute and he traveled to Washington, D. C. to negotiate for the welfare of the Utes. Raised in the culturally diverse town of Taos, Ouray learned to speak many languages that helped him in the negotiations, which were complicated by the manipulation of his grief over his five-year-old son lost during an attack by the Sioux. Ouray met with Presidents Lincoln and Hayes and was called the man of peace because he sought to make treaties with settlers and the government. Following the Meeker Massacre of 1879, he traveled in 1880 to Washington, D. C.. He tried to secure a treaty for the Uncompahgre Ute. Ouray was born in 1833 near the Taos Pueblo in Nuevo México, now in the state of New Mexico, his father, Guera Murah called Salvador, was a Jicarilla Apache adopted into the Ute, his mother was Uncompahgre Ute.
His parents had another son named Quench, his mother died soon after. His father remarried and his stepmother left Ouray and his brother to live on a ranch with a Spanish-speaking couple around 1843 or 1845, his father returned to Colorado and became a leader of the Tabeguache Ute band and the boys remained in Taos. Ouray was raised in the Catholic faith. Living in a culturally diverse location, he learned Ute and Apache languages, sign language and English, which he found helpful in life in negotiating with whites and Native Americans, he spent much of his youth working for Mexican sheepherders. He hauled wood and packed mules that were bound for the Santa Fe Trail. In 1850, Ouray and his brother left Taos to join their father. Ouray was the band's best rider and fighter, he became an enforcer and sub-chief of the band, he fought both the Sioux while living among the Tabeguache. In 1860, Ouray became chief of the band at the age of 27; that year, he engaged in a "fact-finding tour" to determine the number of whites that were settling in the Uncompahgre and Gunnison River valleys and was alarmed by the number of miners and settlers on ancestral lands of the Utes.
He understood, that fighting the whites would not turn back the tide of emigrants. Instead, he believed that the solution was to engage in treaty negotiations to protect their interests. Ouray was known as the "White man's friend," and his services were indispensable to the government in negotiating with his tribe, who kept in good faith all treaties that were made by him, he protected their interests as far as possible, set them the example of living a civilized life. Although Ouray sought reconciliation between different peoples, with the belief that war with the whites meant the demise of the Ute tribe, more militant Utes, considered him a coward for his propensity to negotiate. Disturbed by the treaties that Ouray entered into, his brother-in-law Sapovanero tried to kill him with an axe during his near-daily visit to the Los Piños Indian Agency in 1874. Colorado Territory was established on February 28, 1861. In 1862, he convinced Utes to negotiate with the government to enter into a treaty to ensure the protection of hereditary lands of the Tabeguache.
Kit Carson had noticed in 1862 that prospectors were mining and settling in areas, traditional hunting grounds for the Utes and game was becoming scarce. Carson helped him draft a treaty. Ouray was part of the delegation and was the translator in a meeting with the new Territorial Governor John Evans, after which he traveled to Washington, D. C. to meet with President Abraham Lincoln. Ouray negotiated with the U. S. government for the Treaty of Conejos, which reduced their lands to 50% of what it had been, losing all lands east of the Continental Divide that included healing waters at Manitou Springs and the sacred land on Pikes Peak. It guaranteed; the Utes agreed that they would allow military forts to be built on the land. As an encouragement to take up farming, they were given sheep, $10,000 in goods and provisions over ten years; the government did not provide the goods, provisions, or livestock mentioned in the treaty, since game was scarce many Ute continued to hunt on ancestral Ute lands until they were removed to reservations in 1800 and 1881.
Around 1866, there were some Native Americans who had stolen livestock and otherwise upset new settlers. Following an uprising by Chief Kaniatse, Colonel Kit Carson negotiated a treaty with the Ouray and other Ute leaders in 1867. In the meantime, the government became interested in obtaining some more Ute land. Since the government had not lived up to its agreement to provide provisions for the winter months, Ouray was reluctant to give to government more land. Many Native Americans, were "in dire straits" and he agreed to be part of a delegation. In 1868, Nicaagat, with Kit Carson were among a delegation to negotiate a treaty that would result in the creation of a reservation for the Ute, served by an Indian Agencies at White River and near Montrose with a school, blacksmith shop and warehouse, they lost a little land in the treaty, but Ouray hoped that having a government presence would mean that their l