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Undara Volcanic National Park

Undara Volcanic is a national park in North Queensland, Australia. It is notable for its lava tubes and gem fossicking. Minerals found there include topaz, peridot, garnet and gold; the park contains the remains of the Earth’s longest flow of lava originating from a single volcanic crater.. The lava flow is about 160 km long; the park is remote, accessible from the regional centres of Townsville or Cairns. The area is situated within the McBride volcanic province and contains 164 volcanoes and cones; the lava tubes are regarded amongst the longest on the planet. The word Undara means a long way; the volcanic activity that formed the tubes occurred 189,000 years ago and the volcano Undara expelled massive amounts of lava onto the surrounding Atherton Tableland. In total it was estimated that over 23 billion cubic metres of lava was released covering an area of 1550 km2. Bayliss Cave is the remains of a lava tube, once over 100 kilometres in length; the cave itself is over 1,300 metres in length, 22 metres wide.

It is described as a "bad air cave" with measured carbon dioxide levels as high as 5.9%. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Undara Volcanic National Park was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction". Protected areas of Queensland OSU "Volcano World" page on the Undara Volcano Media related to Undara Volcanic National Park at Wikimedia Commons

Worcester County Horticultural Society

The Worcester County Horticultural Society is a non-profit American horticultural society based out of Boylston, whose stated mission as of 2014 is to "inspire the use and appreciation of horticulture to improve lives, enrich communities and strengthen commitment to the natural world," building upon its founding mission to "advanc the science and encourag and improv the practice of orticulture". Formally established in 1842, it describes itself as the third-oldest horticultural society in the United States after the Pennsylvania and the Massachusetts societies. Today the society's work predominantly focuses in organizing and operating Tower Hill Botanic Garden, as well as supporting the Cary Award, an award program for excellence in New England cultivation practices; the Society was informally founded on September 19, 1840 when several local doctors and businessmen met in Worcester "for the purposes of mutual improvement in the theoretical and practical branches of Horticulture," and in the subsequent weeks organized an exhibition of fine specimens of orchard and garden plants from cultivators in Central Massachusetts.

The organization's founders shaped it in homage to the Royal Horticultural Society in London, expressing hope in their earliest reports that their "little Society, which has thus far so bravely followed in the footsteps of the great Association of London, like our other institutions, continue to flourish." The Society was formally established by an act of the Massachusetts General Court on March 3, 1842. The group continued to host exhibitions annually and by 1850 had a large enough membership and funds to purchase a plot of land and construct its first formal headquarters, "Horticultural Hall" on Front Street in Worcester. Continuing to expand throughout the 19th century and early 20th century, the Society built another larger facility with library and auditorium space in 1928. In 1983 the board of trustees made a motion to found a botanical garden in Worcester County and by the end of 1985 this was filled with the purchase of the Tower Hill Farm which serves as the Society's main project and headquarters today.

Though the Society moved from its Worcester headquarters in 1986, it remains active in the community, having spearheaded efforts in the Worcester Tree Initiative by providing more than 30,000 trees to replace those lost in efforts to eradicate the Asian long-horned beetle. Operations of the Worcester County Horticultural Society are overseen by a Board of Trustees. Trustees meet at regular intervals throughout the year, as well as on committees that support the staff of Tower Hill Botanic Garden. Daily operations of the garden are led by a CEO, staff managers. Official website — Tower Hill Botanic Garden The Cary Award — presented collaboratively with Massachusetts Horticultural Society, New England Nursery Association, & Massachusetts Landscape and Nursery Association. Transactions of the Worcester County Horticultural Society — complete collection of 1847—2006 annual reports


Chemoimmunotherapy is chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy. Chemotherapy uses different drugs to slow the growth of cancer cells. A common chemoimmunotherapy regimen is CHOP combined with rituximab for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - Definition of chemoimmunotherapy Cancer therapy has evolved to strategically integrate distinct treatment modalities in order to optimize the chance of cure. Surgery and radiation therapy are used to achieve locoregional control, whereas systemic therapies are used to control diffuse disease or disease that has spread beyond the primary site. Combination of different therapies in cancer has become a trend, not just between different types of therapies multiple drugs with complementary mechanisms, and these combinations do have a better effect on five-year survival rate and delaying tumor relapse. In the early 1900s, the famous German chemist Paul Ehrlich set about developing drugs to treat infectious diseases, he was the one who coined the term “chemotherapy” and defined it as the use of chemicals to treat disease, he was the first person to document the effectiveness of animal models to screen a series of chemicals for their potential activity against diseases, an accomplishment that had major ramifications for cancer drug development.

During world war II, a national drug development program appeared as Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center. And good examples in curing acute childhood leukemia and advanced Hodgkin's disease encouraged people to screen more chemicals that have anti-tumor activities. Provided a diversity of anti-tumor chemicals, people started to use cocktail of different drugs and found it would have a better outcome. At beginning, people didn't think about cancer cell could be killed by chemicals, let alone cancer-specific therapies; as for immunotherapy, it early mentioned by James Allison, now at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. Allison found that CTLA-4 puts the brakes on T cells, preventing them from launching full-out immune attacks, he wondered whether blocking the blocker – the CTLA-4 molecule – would set the immune system free to destroy cancer. But at that time, people would take it as a peculiar idea, no one supported him, but he kept justified his rationale in mice.

Clinical trials reported anti-CTLA-4 antibody can increase patients with metastatic melanoma lived 4 more months, anti-PD-1 antibody show anti-tumor effect in clinical trials. Using host immune system to fight with cancer become a more and more prevalent idea in therapy. Furthermore, crosstalk between progressing tumors and the host immune system results in multiple superimposed mechanisms of additional regulation and immune escape that serve to keep the immune response to tumors shut down. A variety of immune cells that promote tumor growth and inhibit tumor-associated immune responses, including CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, CD4+interleukin-17-producing T helper cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages. Additional features of the tumor microenvironment further silence the anti-tumor immune response, including high levels of suppressive intratumoral cytokines, the constitutive or induced expression of immune checkpoint molecules by the tumor cells, various other phenotypic alterations that lead to immune escape.

Chemotherapy can promote tumor immunity in two major ways: through its intended therapeutic effect of killing cancer cells by immunogenic cell death, through ancillary and unappreciated effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. However, many standard and high-dose chemotherapy regimens can be immunosuppressive, by either frankly inducing lymphopenia or contributing to lymphocyte dysfunction, it is clear that strategically integrating immune-based therapies with standard cancer treatment modalities, in particular chemotherapy drugs, has the potential to reengineer the overall host milieu and the local tumor microenvironment to disrupt pathways of immune tolerance and suppression. There are several good examples; the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the CD20 B-cell antigen, has therapeutic activity in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma5.

People proved that the addition of rituximab to the CHOP regimen increases the complete-response rate and prolongs event-free and overall survival in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, without a clinically significant increase in toxicity. For metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2, chemoimmunotherapy has a better effect. HER2 gene, encodes the growth factor receptor HER2, is overexpressed in 25 to 30 percent of breast cancers, increasing the aggressiveness of the tumor. Trastuzumab is a recombinant monoclonal antibody against HER2, clinical trials showed that the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy was associated with a longer time to disease progression, a higher rate of objective response, a longer duration of response, a lower rate of death at 1 year, longer survival, a 20 percent reduction in the risk of death, which proves trastuzumab increases the clinical benefit of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2

Edwin Irizarry Mora

Edwin Irizarry Mora is an economist and pro-independence leader in Puerto Rico. He was the Puerto Rican Independence Party candidate for governor of the U. S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in the 2008 election. In 2004, he ran for Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico in Washington, D. C.. He is a professor at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, he holds a Bachelor of Business Administration with a major in Accounting and Economics from the Mayaguez campus of the University of Puerto Rico, Master of Economic Planning of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus and Ph. D. in Development Studies from the Institute of Development Studies in the University of Sussex in England. He has been a professor at the Graduate School of Planning of the UPR and since 1989 has served as professor of economics at the Site of the UPR Mayaguez, an institution in which he holds the post of professor and has directed the Department of Economics, he was President of the Association of Economists of Puerto Rico and has been a member of the Association of Caribbean Economists, of the Association of Caribbean Studies of the Inter-American Planning Society and the Puerto Rican Planning.

He graduated as Professional Planner. He has been an advisor to several public and private institutions, cooperatives and nonprofit organizations at the community level, he has specialized in issues of economic development planning, economy of Puerto Rico, the critique of privatization and economic aspects of the environment and natural resource management. He has participated in public life, occupying several positions in the Puerto Rican Independence Party, including the Secretariat and the Secretariat for Economic Affairs, besides being adviser to the PIP in the Senate of Puerto Rico, he is the author of "Economy of Puerto Rico: Trends and Prospects", published by Thomson Learning, a book, used as a text in the current Economic and Social Development of Puerto Rico and other courses on the Puerto Rican economy. The book is based on his doctoral thesis unprecedented Wealth Distribution in the Puerto Rican Model of Development and his experience as a scholar and teacher of courses on the Puerto Rican economy.

In 2013, the University of Puerto Rico published his book "Energy sources: community struggles and the environment in Puerto Rico." His intellectual work includes the drafting of over 50 works, among professional articles, technical reports and economic studies and planning. In 2017, he collaborated with a group of colleagues from the University of Puerto Rico in the anthology "Essays for a new economy: Economic Development of Puerto Rico," published by Editorial Callejón. Throughout his more than 20 years of participation in public affairs, he has given hundreds of lectures and talks in Puerto Rico, as well as in several other Latin American and Caribbean countries, in the United States and England. University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez people

Beinn Bhreac (Glen Derry)

Beinn Bhreac is a twin-peaked Scottish mountain located above Glen Derry in the Cairngorm Mountains 11 kilometres north-west of Braemar. Beinn Bhreac is a remote mountain located at the southern end of a featureless, boggy moorland plateau called the Moine Bhealaidh; the eastern peak is 4 metres higher than the western peak. It is approached from the Linn of Dee to the south and is combined with the neighbouring Munro Beinn a' Chaorainn. From its summit there are extensive views to the surrounding giants of the Cairngorm Mountains including Ben MacDui, Great Britain's second highest mountain. At 931 metres Beinn Bhreac is ranked as the 249th highest mountain in Scotland; the mountain has two peaks, the eastern one of, 4 metres higher than the western peak and therefore the summit. The mountain is bounded by Dubh Ghleann to the Glen Derry to the West. Both of these sides are rocky in places. Moderately inclined slopes on its south-western side lead down towards Derry Lodge; the boggy moorland plateau called the Moine Bhealaidh extends to the north-west from Beinn Bhreac and links it with the neighbouring peak of Beinn a' Chaorainn.

The view from the summit gives a fine panorama and takes in all the Cairngorm giants including Ben MacDui to the west and Beinn a' Bhuird to the east. A popular route of ascent for Beinn Bhreac is from the Linn of Dee National Trust for Scotland car park, 8 kilometres west of Braemar; the route follows the estate road along Glen Lui for 5 kilometres to Derry Lodge: bicycles can be used on this stretch of the route and secured in the woodland around Derry Lodge for collection on the return journey. The route goes north up Glen Derry for 2 kilometres before ascending the south-western flanks of Beinn Bhreac. From the bealach between Meall an Lundain and Beinn Bhreac it is a steep climb to the summit. An approach from the Aviemore side of the Cairngorms is feasible, starting at the Cairn Gorm ski centre, but this involves crossing or bypassing Cairn Gorm, Loch Avon, Beinn Mheadhoin and Beinn a' Chaorainn before reaching the mountain and is a long, hard walk. Beinn Bhreac is a remote mountain and is therefore climbed in combination with its neighbouring Munro Beinn a' Chaorainn, located 4 kilometres to the north across the Moine Bhealaidh plateau.

The Munros, Donald Bennet ISBN 0-907521-13-4

Carl Thorp

Carl Thorp was an American artist who became known for Impressionist landscapes of California, sometimes referred to as California Scene Painting, as well as New York City and New Orleans Cityscapes. He was born in Lubbock, Texas on November 14, 1912. According to a friend, Carl knew, but his father was not amused by Carl’s interest and only bought him black and white oil paints. This was his father’s attempt to discourage Carl. At the age of 16 Carl left home heading for California. There he studied at the San Diego State College, the Academy of Fine Arts under Maurice Braun and Alfred Mitchell. In the 1950s he organized art schools throughout California and was the Director at the Art center on Lombard street2 and oil painting instructor at Peninsula Arts & Crafts, School of Fine Arts in the mid-1950s. In the late 1950s Thorp moved to Louisiana where he lived part-time for most of his career and died. According to the Biloxi Daily Herald March 22, 1970, Carl had a studio at 809 Bourbon St. in New Orleans.

Carl traveled up the coast to New York, Massachusetts and many of his paintings contain subject matter from these locals