The undead are beings in mythology, legend, or fiction that are deceased but behave as if they were alive. A common example of an undead being is a corpse reanimated by supernatural forces, by the application of either the deceased's own life force or that of another being; the undead may corporeal like vampires and zombies. The undead are featured in the belief systems of most cultures, appear in many works of fantasy and horror fiction; the term is occasionally used for putative non-supernatural cases of re-animation, from early experiments like Robert E. Cornish's to future sciences such as chemical brain preservation and cryonics. Bram Stoker considered using the title, The Un-Dead, for his novel Dracula, use of the term in the novel is responsible for the modern sense of the word; the word does appear in English before Stoker but with the more literal sense of "alive" or "not dead", for which citations can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary. In one passage, Nosferatu is given as an "Eastern European" synonym for "un-dead".

Stoker's use of the term "undead" refers only to vampires. Most it is now taken to refer to supernatural beings which had at one point been alive and continue to display some aspects of life after death, but the usage is variable. In Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, Van Helsing describes the Un-Dead as the following: ‘Before we do any-thing, let me tell you this, it is out of the lore and experience of the ancients and of all those who have studied the powers of the UnDead. When they become such, there comes with the change the curse of immortality, they cannot die, but must go on age after age adding new victims and multiply-ing the evils of the world. For all that die from the preying of the Undead become themselves Undead, prey on their kind, and so the circle goes on widening, like as the ripples from a stone thrown in the water... But of the most blessed of all, when this now UnDead be made to rest as true dead the soul of the poor lady whom we love shall again be free. Instead of working wickedness by night and growing more debased in the assimilating of it by day, she shall take her place with the other Angels.

So that, my friend, it will be a blessed hand for her. Other notable 19th-century stories about the avenging undead included Ambrose Bierce's The Death of Halpin Frayser, various Gothic Romanticism tales by Edgar Allan Poe. Though their works could not be properly considered zombie fiction, the supernatural tales of Bierce and Poe would prove influential on writers such as H. P. Lovecraft, by Lovecraft's own admission. Banshee Ghost, Phantom, or Spectre Grim reaper Poltergeist Shadow person Wraith Draugr Ghoul Jiangshi Lich Mummy Revenant Skeleton Vampire Wight Zombie Afterlife Death Ghost story Ghouls in popular culture Grógaldr Immortality Jiangshi fiction Necromancy Philosophical zombie Resurrection True death Vampire fiction Völuspá Werewolf fiction Zombie

Arthur Hardgrave

Arthur Hardgrave was a New Zealand rugby league player who represented New Zealand. A fullback, Hardgrave played for Taranaki against Auckland in 1908, 1909 and again in 1911 when he kicked three goals, he moved to Auckland and played for Manukau Rovers at club level and represented Auckland provincially. On his debut for Manukau he scored a try and kicked a goal in a 19 to 5 loss to a strong Ponsonby side. Scoring records were patchy for the Manukau team with the newspapers failing to send out reporters to matches in Onehunga and therefore it is unknown how many points Hardgrave scored for Manukau beyond the 2 tries, 1 conversion and 2 penalties he was credited with during the 1912 season; the Manukau senior team collapsed during the 1913 season and in the 1914 season Hardgrave joined the newly formed Otahuhu senior team. In 1912, Hardgrave was selected for the New Zealand national side. No test matches were played on the tour but Hardgrave became the 74th player to represent New Zealand. Following the tour, Hardgrave was part of the Auckland side that defeated New South Wales 10–3 in a return match at Victoria Park.

In 1914 Hardgrave was a member of the New Zealand. The test match was lost Hardgrave never reappeared for New Zealand afterwards, he played against the Lions for Auckland

Lê Thần Tông

Lê Thần Tông was the Vietnamese sixth emperor of Revival Lê dynasty. Lê Thần Tông has a birth name Lê Duy Kỳ, he was born in 1607 and reigned from 1619-1643 following Lê Kính Tông, was interrupted by the reign of Lê Chân Tông 1643-1649 reigned again 1649-1662 and was succeeded by Lê Huyền Tông. He was a figurehead king under lords Trịnh Tùng, who ruled 1570-1623 Trịnh Tráng who ruled 1623-57, Trịnh Tạc who ruled 1657-82. At this time the country was still engaged in military campaigns against Champa. Consorts and their respective issues: Moreover, 4 foster children: Princess Lê Thị Ngọc Duyên, second crown prince Lê Duy Tào, prince Lê Duy Lương and Các Hắc Sinh. Inside, Các Hắc Sinh or Willem Carel Hartsinck was the Dutch tradesman who deputized the Dutch East India Company in Far East. Nguyễn, Phút Tản. A Modern History of Viet-nam. Khai-Trí. Pp. 134–135. Tucker, Spencer. Vietnam. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-0966-3