Garretson Beekman "Garry" Trudeau is an American cartoonist, best known for creating the Doonesbury comic strip. Trudeau is the creator and executive producer of the Amazon Studios political comedy series Alpha House. Trudeau was born in the son of Jean Douglas and Francis Berger Trudeau Jr.. He is the great-grandson of Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau, who created Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. Edward was succeeded by grandson Francis Jr.. The latter founded the Trudeau Institute at Saranac Lake, with which his son Garry retains a connection, his ancestry is French Canadian, Dutch and Swedish. Raised in Saranac Lake, Trudeau attended St. Paul's School, New Hampshire, he enrolled in Yale University in 1966. As an art major, Trudeau focused on painting, but soon discovered a greater interest in the graphic arts, he spent much of his time cartooning and writing for Yale's humor magazine The Yale Record serving as the magazine's editor-in-chief.
At the same time, Trudeau began contributing to the Yale Daily News, which led to the creation of Bull Tales, a comic strip parodying the exploits of Yale quarterback Brian Dowling. This strip was the progenitor of Doonesbury. While still an undergraduate at Yale, Trudeau published two collections of Bull Tales: Bull Tales and Michael J.. As a senior, Trudeau became a member of Key, he did postgraduate work at the Yale School of Art, earning a master of fine arts degree in graphic design in 1973. It was there that Trudeau first met photographer David Levinthal, with whom he would collaborate on Hitler Moves East, an influential "graphic chronicle" of the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Soon after Bull Tales began running in the Yale student newspaper, the strip caught the attention of the newly formed Universal Press Syndicate; the syndicate's editor, James F. Andrews, recruited Trudeau, changed the strip's name to Doonesbury, began distributing it following the cartoonist's graduation in 1970.
Today Doonesbury is syndicated to 1,000 daily and Sunday newspapers worldwide and is accessible online in association with The Washington Post. In 1975, Trudeau became the first comic strip artist to win a Pulitzer, traditionally awarded to editorial-page cartoonists, he was a Pulitzer finalist in 1990, 2004, 2005. Other awards include the National Cartoonist Society Newspaper Comic Strip Award in 1994, the Reuben Award in 1995. In 1993, Trudeau was made a fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. Wiley Miller, fellow comic-strip artist responsible for Non Sequitur, called him "far and away the most influential editorial cartoonist in the last 25 years". A regular graduation speaker, Trudeau has received 35 honorary degrees. In addition to his creating his strip, Trudeau has worked in both television, he was nominated for an Oscar in 1977 in the category of Animated Short Film for A Doonesbury Special, created for NBC in collaboration with John and Faith Hubley. The film went on to win the Cannes Film Festival Jury Special Prize in 1978.
In 1984, with composer Elizabeth Swados, he wrote the book and lyrics for the Broadway musical Doonesbury, for which he was nominated for two Drama Desk Awards. A cast album of the show, recorded for MCA, received a Grammy nomination. Trudeau again collaborated with Swados in 1984, this time on Rap Master Ronnie, a satirical review about the Reagan Administration that opened off-Broadway at the Village Gate. A filmed version, featuring Jon Cryer, the Smothers Brothers, Carol Kane, was broadcast on Cinemax in 1988. In 1988, Trudeau wrote and co-produced with director Robert Altman HBO's critically acclaimed Tanner'88, a satiric look at that year's presidential election campaign; the show won the gold medal for Best Television Series at the Cannes Television Festival, the British Academy Television Award for Best Foreign Program, Best Imported Program from the British Broadcasting Press Guild. It earned an Emmy Award, as well as four ACE Award nominations. In 2004, Trudeau reunited with Altman to write and co-produce a sequel mini-series, Tanner on Tanner, for the Sundance Channel.
In 1996, Newsweek and the Washington Post speculated that Trudeau had written the novel Primary Colors, revealed to have been written by Joe Klein. In February 2000, working with Dotcomix, launched Duke2000, a web-based presidential campaign featuring a real-time, 3-D, streaming-animation version of Duke. Nearly 30 campaign videos were created for the site, Ambassador Duke was interviewed live by satellite on the Today Show, Larry King Live, The Charlie Rose Show, dozens of local TV and radio news shows. In 2013, Trudeau created, wrote and co-produced Alpha House, a political sitcom starring John Goodman that revolves around four Republican U. S. Senators who live together in a townhouse on Capitol Hill. Trudeau was inspired to write the show's pilot after reading a 2007 New York Times article about a real D. C. townhouse shared by New York Senator Chuck Schumer, Illinois Senator Dick Durbin of Illinois, California Representative George Miller, all Democrats. The pilot for Alpha House was produced by Amazon Studios and aired in early 2013.
Due to positive response, Amazon picked up the show to develop into a full series, streaming eleven episodes for its first season. On March 31, 2014, Amazon announced. Production began in July 2014, the entire second season became available for streaming on October 24, 2014. While writing Alpha House, Trudeau put the daily Doonesbury into rerun mode. On March 3, 2014 the "Classic Doonesbury" series began
Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man is a 1964 book by Marshall McLuhan, in which the author proposes that the media, not the content that they carry, should be the focus of study. He suggests that the medium affects the society in which it plays a role by the characteristics of the medium rather than the content; the book is considered a pioneering study in media theory. McLuhan pointed to the light bulb as an example. A light bulb does not have content in the way that a newspaper has articles or a television has programs, yet it is a medium that has a social effect, he describes the light bulb as a medium without any content. McLuhan states that "a light bulb creates an environment by its mere presence."More controversially, he postulated that content had little effect on society—in other words, it did not matter if television broadcasts children's shows or violent programming, to illustrate one example—the effect of television on society would be identical. He noted; the book is the source of the well-known phrase "The medium is the message".
It was a leading indicator of the upheaval of local cultures by globalized values. The book influenced academics and social theorists. In Part One, McLuhan discusses the differences between hot and cool media and the ways that one medium translates the content of another medium. "the content of a medium is always another medium." In Part Two, McLuhan analyzes each medium in a manner that exposes the form, rather than the content of each medium. In order, McLuhan covers The Spoken Word, The Written Word and Paper Routes, Clothing, Money, The Print, The Printed Word, Wheel and Airplane, The Photograph, The Press, Ads, Telegraph, The Typewriter, The Telephone, The Phonograph, Radio, Television and Automation. Throughout Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, McLuhan uses historical quotes and anecdotes to probe the ways in which new forms of media change the perceptions of societies, with specific focus on the effects of each medium as opposed to the content, transmitted by each medium. McLuhan identified two types of media: "hot" media and "cool" media.
This terminology does not refer to the temperature or emotional intensity, nor some kind of classification, but to the degree of participation. Cool media are those. Since many senses may be used, they foster involvement. Conversely, hot media are low in audience participation due to their high definition. Film, for example, is defined as a hot medium, since in the context of a dark movie theater, the viewer is captivated, one primary sense—visual—is filled in high definition. In contrast, television is a cool medium, since many other things may be going on and the viewer has to integrate all of the sounds and sights in the context. McLuhan uses interchangeably the words medium and technology. For McLuhan a medium is "any extension of ourselves", or more broadly, "any new technology". In addition to forms such as newspapers and radio, McLuhan includes the light bulb, cars and language in his definition of "media": all of these, as technologies, mediate our communication. McLuhan says that conventional pronouncements fail in studying media because they focus on content, which blinds them to the psychic and social effects that define the medium's true significance.
McLuhan observes that any medium "amplifies or accelerates existing processes", introduces a "change of scale or pace or shape or pattern into human association and action", resulting in "psychic, social consequences". This is the meaning of "the medium is the message". To demonstrate the flaws of the common belief that the message resides in how the medium is used, McLuhan uses the example of mechanization, pointing out that regardless of the product, the impact on workers and society is the same. In a further exemplification of the common unawareness of the real meaning of media, McLuhan says that people "describe the scratch but not the itch." As an example of "media experts" who follow this fundamentally flawed approach, McLuhan quotes a statement from "General" David Sarnoff, calling it the "voice of the current somnambulism." Each medium "adds itself on to what we are", realizing "amputations and extensions" to our senses and bodies, shaping them in a new technical form. As appealing as this remaking of ourselves may seem, it puts us in a "narcissistic hypnosis" that prevents us from seeing the real nature of the media.
McLuhan says that a characteristic of every medium is that its content is always another medium. For an example in the new millennium, the Internet is a medium containing traces of various mediums which came before it—the printing press and the moving image; the impact of each medium is somewhat limited to the previous social condition, since it just adds itself to the ex
Amazing Heroes was a magazine about the comic book medium published by American company Fantagraphics Books from 1981 to 1992. Unlike its companion title, The Comics Journal, Amazing Heroes was a hobbyist magazine rather than an analytical journal. Amazing Heroes' first editor was Fantagraphics' head of promotion and circulation. Upon his departure after issue #6, Comics Journal editor Kim Thompson took over the reins; the magazine was published under the Fantagraphics imprint Zam, Inc. through issue #6. Beginning with # 7, the publishing imprint became Inc.. It remained under Redbeard through at least issue #61, but by issue #68 was being published by Fantagraphics Books, Inc; the magazine began as a monthly appeared twice a month for many years, went monthly again beginning in 1989. The magazine ran for folding with its July 1992 issue; the final issue was released as a double number Issue 203/204. In February 1993, Fantagraphics announced that the publisher Personality Comics had bought the rights to Amazing Heroes, planned to revive the magazine.
Nothing came of it, however, as Personality itself folded that year. Amazing Heroes' first thirteen issues were magazine-sized; the regular content included industry news, comics creator interviews, histories of comic book characters and reviews. Features included Hero Histories of various characters/features, previews of upcoming series, letters page. Other regular features were a column called "Doc's Bookshelf" by Dwight Decker, a question-and-answer feature called "Information Center," which ran from 1986–1989. There were regular special editions for previews of upcoming comics, "swimsuit editions" in which various comics artists drew pin-ups of characters in bikinis and similar beach apparel; the Amazing Heroes Preview Special appeared twice a year, presenting previews of all comics slated to appear over the next six months. These were extra-sized issues, were square-bound. Many issues of the AHPS contained joke entries; the editors fluctuated between publishing these as separately numbered specials and special issues of the regular series itself.
The Amazing Heroes Swimsuit Special debuted with a June 1990 edition. Amazing Heroes #200 contained an extended preview of Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics. From 1985 to 1987, the magazine presented The Jack Kirby Award for achievement in comic books, voted on by comic-book professionals and managed by Dave Olbrich, a Fantagraphics employee and publisher of Malibu Comics. Starting in 1988, the Kirby Award was discontinued and two new awards were created: the Eisner Award, managed by Olbrich, the Fantagraphics-managed Harvey Award. 1986: Eagle Award — Favourite Specialist Comics Publication 1987: Eagle Award — Favourite Specialist Comics Publication 1988: Eagle Award — Favourite Specialist Comics Publication 1992: Compuserve Comics and Animation Forum Award — Best Non-Fiction Work Bethke, Marilyn. "The New Kids on the Block," The Comics Journal #70, January 1982, pp. 110–111
Tundra Publishing was a Northampton, Massachusetts-based comic book publisher founded by Kevin Eastman in 1990. The company was founded to provide a venue for adventurous, creator-owned work by talented cartoonists and illustrators, its publications were noted in the trade for their high production values, including glossy paper stock, full-color printing, square binding. Tundra was one of the earlier creator-owned companies, before the formation of Image Comics and Dark Horse Comics' Legends imprint. Creators and projects involved with Tundra included Alan Moore and Bill Sienkiewicz's Big Numbers, Moore & Eddie Campbell's From Hell, Moore & Melinda Gebbie's Lost Girls, The Crow, Mike Allred's Madman and Dave McKean's Cages. Despite its ambitious start, Tundra never became a profitable enterprise, it closed its doors in 1993 after burning through $14 million in three years. Kitchen Sink Press acquired its holdings. While co-managing Mirage Studios and his partner Peter Laird spoke of the difficulties in maintaining creative control of their work.
Eastman decided to address this problem by using his own personal knowledge and connections to help other creators. With Laird's blessing, Eastman started Tundra Publishing in 1990, to realize personal and other projects. Rick Veitch has written that: One of the plans was for Tundra to act as an exoskeleton for an existing self-publisher. Moreover, as Eastman said in a 2007 interview with Benjamin Ong Pang Kean, Tundra provided a forum for Marvel and DC creators to work on projects that they could not otherwise realize: Basically, I'd meet them at conventions and they'd said they're stuck doing Spider-Man, they had a wife and a kid at home, they had to make ends meet, but if they had a chance, they said they'd do this and I'd hear this repeatedly. So, I went back to those artists because I said I'd give them the chance. I asked them, they could pick their dream projects that they'd wanna do and I would provide the funding so that they could survive and they didn't have to do Spider-Man for a year and I'll fund the projects and I just wanted to make my money back from the profits to keep my company going.
As part of Eastman's designs for Tundra were to produce personal projects of an adult nature, this saw Tundra fitting in the dubious middle-ground, as their intended product sat somewhat awkwardly between the comic shop and the book shop. Eastman says that he "thought that the audience was a lot larger than it was," citing his personal assumption that readers would "grow up through X-Men and discover The Sandman and Dark Knight and Watchmen and beyond." The new inroads of comics and graphic novels into bookshops worked against Tundra at the time. Tundra dealt in new properties, which required "building from the ground up," and was "a lot more work" than Eastman had anticipated, growing far too for comfort, requiring considerable injections of time and money, rather than being profitable. Tundra received multiple award nominations during its first and second years, including Harvey Awards and Eisner Awards, but despite critical acclaim the company was not making money on its titles. Speaking in 1992/93, Eastman was optimistic that the company had "finally reached the point where slowed up enough... to be giving individual projects the time and attention they require."
Shortly thereafter, in the spring of 1993, Tundra was bought out by Kitchen Sink Press, closing its doors after just three years, losing Eastman between $9 and $14 million. Notable works released by Tundra include: Cages by Dave McKean, issues #1-3 — issues #4-6 published by Kitchen Sink Press Cobalt 60 by Mark Bodé and Larry Todd — continuation of Vaughn Bodé's series from the 1960s ComicsTrips: A Journal of Travels through Africa and Southeast Asia by Peter Kuper Doghead by Al Columbia — Columbia's first solo comic book Graffiti Kitchen by Eddie Campbell The Jam: Urban Adventure by Bernie Mireault Madman Adventures by Mike Allred The Maximortal by Rick Veitch — published under his own King Hell imprint Rain by Rolf Stark and Marlene Stevens Tantalizing Stories by Mark Martin and Jim Woodring — children's comic where most of Woodring's early Frank stories appeared Trailer Trash by Roy Tompkins Understanding Comics by Scott McCloud Tundra had been prepared to take over publication of Alan Moore's troubled Big Numbers series before it was aborted.
In 1991 a British arm of the company, Tundra UK, opened in London. Led by Dave Elliott, an editor at Deadline and a founder of Atomeka Press, the UK branch worked with creators on board with Tundra in the US as well as developing new projects. Tundra UK published comics from 1992–1993.
Art Spiegelman is an American cartoonist and comics advocate best known for his graphic novel Maus. His work as co-editor on the comics magazines Arcade and Raw has been influential, from 1992 he spent a decade as contributing artist for The New Yorker, he is the father of writer Nadja Spiegelman. Spiegelman began his career with the Topps bubblegum card company in the mid-1960s, his main financial support for two decades, he gained prominence in the underground comix scene in the 1970s with short and autobiographical work. A selection of these strips appeared in the collection Breakdowns in 1977, after which Spiegelman turned focus to the book-length Maus, about his relationship with his father, a Holocaust survivor; the postmodern book depicts Germans as cats, Jews as mice, ethnic Poles as pigs, took 13 years to create until its completion in 1991. It won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1992 and has gained a reputation as a pivotal work, responsible for bringing scholarly attention to the comics medium.
Spiegelman and Mouly edited eleven issues of Raw from 1980 to 1991. The oversized comics and graphics magazine helped introduce talents who became prominent in alternative comics, such as Charles Burns, Chris Ware, Ben Katchor, introduced several foreign cartoonists to the English-speaking comics world. Beginning in the 1990s, the couple worked for The New Yorker, which Spiegelman left to work on In the Shadow of No Towers, about his reaction to the September 11 attacks in New York in 2001. Spiegelman advocates for greater comics literacy; as an editor, a teacher at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, a lecturer, Spiegelman has promoted better understanding of comics and has mentored younger cartoonists. Art Spiegelman's parents were Andzia Spiegelman, his father was born Zeev Spiegelman, with the Hebrew name Zeev ben Avraham. Władysław was his Polish name, Władek was a diminutive of this name, he was known as Wilhelm under the German occupation, upon immigration to the United States he took the name William.
His mother was born Andzia Zylberberg, with the Hebrew name Hannah. She took the name Anna upon her immigration to the US. In Spiegelman's Maus, from which the couple are best known, Spiegelman used the spellings "Vladek" and "Anja", which he believed would be easier for Americans to pronounce; the surname Spiegelman is German for "mirror man". In 1937, the Spiegelmans had one other son, who died before Art was born at the age of five or six. During the Holocaust, Spiegelman's parents sent Rysio to stay with an aunt with whom they believed he would be safe. In 1943, the aunt poisoned herself, along with Rysio and two other young family members in her care, so that the Nazis could not take them to the extermination camps. After the war, the Spiegelmans, unable to accept that Rysio was dead, searched orphanages all over Europe in the hope of finding him. Spiegelman talked of having a sort of sibling rivalry with his "ghost brother"—he felt unable to compete with an "ideal" brother who "never threw tantrums or got in any kind of trouble".
Of 85 Spiegelman relatives alive at the beginning of World War II, only 13 are known to have survived the Holocaust. Spiegelman was born Itzhak Avraham ben Zeev in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 15, 1948, he immigrated with his parents to the US in 1951. Upon immigration his name was registered as Arthur Isadore, but he had his given name changed to Art; the family settled in Norristown and relocated to Rego Park in Queens, New York City, in 1957. He imitated the style of his favorite comic books, such as Mad. At Russell Sage Junior High School, where he was an honors student, he produced the Mad-inspired fanzine Blasé, he was earning money from his drawing by the time he reached high school and sold artwork to the original Long Island Press and other outlets. His talent was such that he caught the eyes of United Features Syndicate, who offered him the chance to produce a syndicated comic strip. Dedicated to the idea of art as expression, he turned down this commercial opportunity, he attended the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan beginning in 1963.
He met Woody Gelman, the art director of Topps Chewing Gum Company, who encouraged Spiegelman to apply to Topps after graduating high school. At 15 Spiegelman received payment for his work from a Rego Park newspaper. After he graduated in 1965, Spiegelman's parents urged him to pursue the financial security of a career such as dentistry, but he chose instead to enroll at Harpur College to study art and philosophy. While there, he got a freelance art job at Topps, which provided him with an income for the next two decades. Spiegelman attended Harpur College from 1965 until 1968, where he worked as staff cartoonist for the college newspaper and edited a college humor magazine. After a summer internship when he was 18, Topps hired him for Gelman's Product Development Department as a creative consultant making trading cards and related products in 1966, such as the Wacky Packages series of parodic trading cards begun in 1967. Spiegelman began selling self-published underground comix on street corners in 1966.
He had cartoons published in underground publications such as the East Village Other and traveled to San Francisco for a few months in 1967, where the underground comix scene was just beginning to burgeon. In late winter 1968 Spiegelman suffered a brief but intense nervous breakdown, which cut his
Neil Richard MacKinnon Gaiman is an English author of short fiction, comic books, graphic novels, audio theatre, films. His works include the comic book series The Sandman and novels Stardust, American Gods and The Graveyard Book, he has won numerous awards, including the Hugo and Bram Stoker awards, as well as the Newbery and Carnegie medals. He is the first author to win both the Newbery and the Carnegie medals for the same work, The Graveyard Book. In 2013, The Ocean at the End of the Lane was voted Book of the Year in the British National Book Awards. Gaiman's family is of other Eastern European Jewish origins, his father, David Bernard Gaiman, worked in the same chain of stores. He has two younger sisters and Lizzy. After living for a period in the nearby town of Portchester, where Neil was born in 1960, the Gaimans moved in 1965 to the West Sussex town of East Grinstead, where his parents studied Dianetics at the Scientology centre in the town, his other sister, Lizzy Calcioli, has said, "Most of our social activities were involved with Scientology or our Jewish family.
It would get confusing when people would ask my religion as a kid. I'd say,'I'm a Jewish Scientologist.'" Gaiman says that he is not a Scientologist, that like Judaism, Scientology is his family's religion. About his personal views, Gaiman has stated, "I think. I would not beat the drum for the existence of God in this universe. I don't know, I think there's a 50/50 chance, it doesn't matter to me."Gaiman was able to read at the age of four. He said, "I was a reader. I loved reading. Reading things gave me pleasure. I was good at most subjects in school, not because I had any particular aptitude in them, but because on the first day of school they'd hand out schoolbooks, I'd read them—which would mean that I'd know what was coming up, because I'd read it." When he was about ten years old, he read his way through the works of Dennis Wheatley, where The Ka of Gifford Hillary and The Haunting of Toby Jugg made an impact on him. One work that made a particular impression on him was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings from his school library, although it only had the first two volumes of the novel.
He took them out and read them. He would win the school English prize and the school reading prize, enabling him to acquire the third volume. For his seventh birthday, Gaiman received, he recalled that "I admired his use of parenthetical statements to the reader, where he would just talk to you... I'd think,'Oh, my gosh, so cool! I want to do that! When I become an author, I want to be able to do things in parentheses.' I liked the power of putting things in brackets." Narnia introduced him to literary awards the 1956 Carnegie Medal won by the concluding volume. When Gaiman won the 2010 Medal himself, the press reported him recalling, "it had to be the most important literary award there was" and observing, "if you can make yourself aged seven happy, you're doing well – it's like writing a letter to yourself aged seven." Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was another childhood favourite, "a favourite forever. Alice was default reading to the point where I knew it by heart." He enjoyed Batman comics as a child.
Gaiman was educated at several Church of England schools, including Fonthill School in East Grinstead, Ardingly College, Whitgift School in Croydon. His father's position as a public relations official of the Church of Scientology was the cause of the seven-year-old Gaiman being blocked from entering a boys' school, forcing him to remain at the school that he had been attending, he lived in East Grinstead for many years, from 1965 to 1980 and again from 1984 to 1987. He met his first wife, Mary McGrath, while she was studying Scientology and living in a house in East Grinstead, owned by his father; the couple were married in 1985 after having Michael. As a child and a teenager, Gaiman read the works of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis Carroll, Mary Shelley, Rudyard Kipling, Edgar Allan Poe, Michael Moorcock, Alan Moore, Steve Ditko, Will Eisner, Ursula K. Le Guin, Harlan Ellison, Lord Dunsany and G. K. Chesterton; when he was 19–20 years old, he contacted his favourite science fiction writer, R. A. Lafferty, whom he discovered when he was nine, asked for advice on becoming an author along with a Lafferty pastiche he had written.
The writer sent Gaiman an informative letter back, along with literary advice. Gaiman has said Roger Zelazny was the author who influenced him the most, with this influence seen in Gaiman's literary style and the topics he writes about. Other authors Gaiman says "furnished the inside of my mind and set me to writing" include Moorcock, Samuel R. Delany, Angela Carter, Lafferty and Le Guin. Neil Gaiman has taken inspiration from the folk tales tradition, citing Otta F Swire's book on the legends of the Isle of Skye as his inspiration for The Truth Is a Cave in the Black Mountains. In the early 1980s, Gaiman pursued journalism, conducting interviews and writing book reviews, as a means to learn about the world and to make connections that he hoped would assist h
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr