Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.
A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 1.8 metres in length for American Bison and up to 2.8 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from 400 kilograms to 900 kg and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms.
European bison tend to be heavier than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a male herd, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.
This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An ear
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds, other extinct species of dinosaurs, pterosaurs. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty, they are among the characteristics. Although feathers cover most of the bird's bodies, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin, they aid in flight, thermal insulation, waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in protection. Plumology is the name for the science, associated with the study of feathers. Feathers are among the most complex integumentary appendages found in vertebrates and are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins; the β-keratins in feathers and claws — and the claws and shells of reptiles — are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into β-pleated sheets, which are further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair and hoof.
The exact signals that induce the growth of feathers on the skin are not known, but it has been found that the transcription factor cDermo-1 induces the growth of feathers on skin and scales on the leg. There are two basic types of feather: vaned feathers which cover the exterior of the body, down feathers which are underneath the vaned feathers; the pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers. Called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers arise from tracts and cover the entire body. A third rarer type of feather, the filoplume, is hairlike and are associated with contour feathers and are entirely hidden by them, with one or two filoplumes attached and sprouting from near the same point of the skin as each contour feather, at least on a bird's head and trunk. In some passerines, filoplumes arise exposed beyond the contour feathers on the neck; the remiges, or flight feathers of the wing, rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail are the most important feathers for flight. A typical vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis.
Fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs. These barbules have minute hooks called barbicels for cross-attachment. Down feathers are fluffy because they lack barbicels, so the barbules float free of each other, allowing the down to trap air and provide excellent thermal insulation. At the base of the feather, the rachis expands to form the hollow tubular calamus which inserts into a follicle in the skin; the basal part of the calamus is without vanes. This part is embedded within the skin follicle and has an opening at the base and a small opening on the side. Hatchling birds of some species have a special kind of natal down feathers which are pushed out when the normal feathers emerge. Flight feathers are stiffened so as to work against the air in the downstroke but yield in other directions, it has been observed that the orientation pattern of β-keratin fibers in the feathers of flying birds differs from that in flightless birds: the fibers are better aligned along the shaft axis direction towards the tip, the lateral walls of rachis region show structure of crossed fibers.
Feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. They may be plucked to line the nest and provide insulation to the eggs and young; the individual feathers in the wings and tail play important roles in controlling flight. Some species have a crest of feathers on their heads. Although feathers are light, a bird's plumage weighs two or three times more than its skeleton, since many bones are hollow and contain air sacs. Color patterns serve as camouflage against predators for birds in their habitats, serve as camouflage for predators looking for a meal; as with fish, the top and bottom colors may be different, in order to provide camouflage during flight. Striking differences in feather patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are important in selection of mating pairs. In some cases there are differences in the UV reflectivity of feathers across sexes though no differences in color are noted in the visible range; the wing feathers of male club-winged manakins Machaeropterus deliciosus have special structures that are used to produce sounds by stridulation.
Some birds have a supply of powder down feathers which grow continuously, with small particles breaking off from the ends of the barbules. These particles produce a powder that sifts through the feathers on the bird's body and acts as a waterproofing agent and a feather conditioner. Powder down has evolved independently in several taxa and can be found in down as well as in pennaceous feathers, they may be scattered in plumage as in the pigeons and parrots or in localized patches on the breast, belly, or flanks, as in herons and frogmouths. Herons use their bill to break the powder down feathers and to spread them, while cockatoos may use their head as a powder puff to apply the powder. Waterproofing can be lost by exposure to emulsifying agents due to human pollution. Feathers can become waterlogged, causing the bird to sink, it is very difficult to clean and rescue birds whose feathers have been fouled by oil spills. The feathers of cormorants soak up water and help to reduce buoyancy, thereby allowing the birds to swim submerged.
Bristles are stiff. Rictal bristles are found around bill, they may serve a similar purpose to e
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
In Anishinaabe aadizookaan among the Ojibwe, Nanabozho known as Nanabush is a spirit, figures prominently in their storytelling, including the story of the world's creation. Nanabozho is the Ojibwe trickster culture hero. Among the eastern Algonquian peoples located north of the Abenaki areas, a similar character to Nanabozho existed called Tcakabesh in the Algonquin language, Chikapash among the eastern James Bay Crees, Chaakaapaas by the Naskapi, Tshakapesh in the Innu language and Tcikapec in Atikamekw language, changing to various animal forms to various human forms and to various mythical animals such as the Great Porcupine, or Big Skunk, he conquered or diminished these mythical animals to smaller size after killing or changing them with his trickery or shapeshifting. Among the Meskwaki, Wīsakehā serves a similar role, as does Wisakedjak among northern Algonquian peoples and for the Saulteaux in the Great Plains; the Abenaki-influenced Algonquin had a similar figure called Kanòjigàbe.
The Nanabozho name varies in the Ojibwe language depending on whether it is presented with a first-person prefix n-, third-person prefix w-, or null-person prefix m-. In addition, depending on the story and the narrator's role in telling the story, the name may be presented in its regular nominative form or in its vocative form. Due to the way the two o sounds, they are each realized as oo. In some dialects, zh is realized as z; these variations allow for associating the name with the word for "rabbit". Due to the placement of word stress, determined by metrical rules that define a characteristic iambic metrical foot, in which a weak syllable is followed by a strong syllable, in some dialects the weak syllable may be reduced to a schwa, which may be recorded as either i or e. In addition, though the Fiero double-vowel system uses zh, the same sound in other orthographies can be realized as j in the Algonquin system or š in the Saulteaux-Cree system. To this mix, depending on if the transcriber used French or English, the Anishinaabe name may be transcribed to fit the phonetic patterns of one of the two said languages.
Nanabozho is one of four sons from what Europeans will interpret as spirits of directions. He has a human mother, E-bangishimog, a spirit father. Nanabozho most appears in the shape of a rabbit and is characterized as a trickster. In his rabbit form, he is called Chi-waabooz, he was sent to Earth by Gitche Manitou to teach the Ojibwe. One of his first tasks was to name all the animals. Nanabozho is considered to be the founder of Midewiwin, he is the inventor of fishing and hieroglyphs. This historical figure is a co-creator of the world. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem, The Song of Hiawatha is an outsider retelling of several Nanabozho stories based on research conducted by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Like the transcription variations found among "Nanabozho," Mishaabooz is transcribed into French as Michabous and represented in English as Michabou. Additional name variations include: "Winneboujou, Wenabozho, Waynaboozhoo, Nanaboozhoo, Nanabushu, Nanapush, Nenabozho, Manabush, Manibozho, Minabozho, Manibush, Manabozo, Manabusch, Manabus, Nanaboojoo, Nanaboso, Nenabuc, Amenapush, Ne-Naw-bo-zhoo, Kwi-wi-sens Nenaw-bo-zhoo Michabo, Michabous, Mishabo, Misabos, Messou" Aayaase Glooscap Naniboujou Club Lodge Sleeping Giant Winneboujou, Wisconsin Wisakedjak Memegweshi Benton-Banai, Edward.
The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications, 1988. Chamberlain, A. F. "Nanibozhu amongst the Otchipwe and other Algonkian tribes," Journal of American Folklore 4: 193-213. Johnston, Basil. Ojibway Heritage. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976. Barnouw, Victor. Wisconsin Chippewa Tales. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. Webkamigad, Howard. Ottawa Stories from the Springs. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2015. "Manabosho's Hieroglyphics" recorded by Seth Eastman at Northern Illinois University "Nanabozo" in The Canadian Encyclopedia "Nanabozho" in Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 1907. Reproduced in Handbook of Indians of Canada, 1913. How Nanabush Created the World Nanabush and the Giant Beaver The Legend of'Nanabozho' Nanabozho Native American: North Gods: Algonquin Nanabozho, Access genealogy
The thunderbird is a legendary creature in certain North American indigenous peoples' history and culture. It is considered a supernatural being of strength, it is important, depicted, in the art and oral histories of many Pacific Northwest Coast cultures, but is found in various forms among some peoples of the American Southwest, East Coast of the United States, Great Lakes, Great Plains. In Algonquian mythology, the thunderbird controls the upper world while the underworld is controlled by the underwater panther or Great Horned Serpent; the thunderbird throws lightning at the underworld creatures and creates thunder by flapping its wings. Thunderbirds in this tradition are depicted as having an X-shaped appearance; this varies from a simple X to recognizable birds. The X-shaped thunderbird is used to depict the thunderbird with its wings alongside its body and the head facing forwards instead of in profile; the Menominee of Northern Wisconsin tell of a great mountain that floats in the western sky on which dwell the thunderbirds.
They control the hail and delight in fighting and deeds of greatness. They are the enemies of the great horned snakes - the Misikinubik - and have prevented these from overrunning the earth and devouring mankind, they are messengers of the Great Sun himself. The Ojibwe version of the myth states that the thunderbirds were created by Nanabozho for the purpose of fighting the underwater spirits, they were used to punish humans who broke moral rules. The thunderbirds arrived with the other birds in the springtime. In the fall they migrated south after the ending of the underwater spirits' most dangerous season. Winnebago tradition states that a man who has a vision of a thunderbird during a solitary fast will become a war chief. Media related to Thunderbird at Wikimedia Commons
The Horned Serpent appears in the mythologies of many Native Americans. Details vary among tribes, with many of the stories associating the mystical figure with water, rain and thunder. Horned Serpents were major components of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex of North American prehistory. Horned serpents appear in European and Near Eastern mythology. Horned serpents appear in the oral history of numerous Native American cultures in the Southeastern Woodlands and Great Lakes. Muscogee Creek traditions include a Horned Serpent and a Tie-Snake, estakwvnayv in the Muscogee Creek language; these are sometimes interpreted as being the same creature and sometimes different—similar, but the Horned Serpent is larger than the Tie-Snake. To the Muscogee people, the Horned Serpent is a type of underwater serpent covered with iridescent, crystalline scales and a single, large crystal in its forehead. Both the scales and crystals are prized for their powers of divination; the horns, called chitto gab-by, were used in medicine.
Jackson Lewis, a Muscogee Creek informant to John R. Swanton, said, "This snake lives in the water has horns like the stag, it is not a bad snake.... It does not harm human beings but seems to have a magnetic power over game." In stories, the Horned Serpent enjoyed eating Rhus glabra. Alabama people call the Horned Serpent, tcinto såktco or "crawfish snake", which they divide into four classifications based on its horns' colors, which can be blue, white, or yellow. Yuchi people made effigies of the Horned Serpent as as 1905. An effigy was fashioned from painted blue, with the antlers painted yellow; the Yuchi Big Turtle Dance honors the Horned Serpent's spirit, related to storms, lightning and rainbows. Among Cherokee people, a Horned Serpent is called an uktena. Anthropologist James Mooney, describes the creature: Those who know say the Uktena is a great snake, as large around as a tree trunk, with horns on its head, a bright blazing crest like a diamond on its forehead, scales glowing like sparks of fire.
It has rings or spots of color along its whole length, can not be wounded except by shooting in the seventh spot from the head, because under this spot are its heart and its life. The blazing diamond is called Ulun'suti—"Transparent"—and he who can win it may become the greatest wonder worker of the tribe, but it is worth a man's life to attempt it, for whoever is seen by the Uktena is so dazed by the bright light that he runs toward the snake instead of trying to escape. As if this were not enough, the breath of the Uktena is so pestilential, that no living creature can survive should they inhale the tiniest bit of the foul air expelled by the Uktena. To see the Uktena asleep is death, not to the hunter himself, but to his family. According to Sioux belief, the Unhcegila are dangerous reptilian water monsters that lived in ancient times, they were of various shapes. In the end the Thunderbirds destroyed them, except for small species like lizards; this belief may have been inspired by finds of dinosaur fossils in Sioux tribal territory.
The Thunderbird may have been inspired by finds of pterosaur skeletons. Awanyu—Tewa Misi-kinepikw —Cree Msi-kinepikwa —Shawnee Misi-ginebig —Oji-Cree Mishi-ginebig —Ojibwe Pita-skog —Abenaki Sinti lapitta—Choctaw Unktehi or Unktehila—Dakota Olobit—Natchez Uktena—aniyunwiya The ram-horned serpent is a well-attested cult image of north-west Europe before and during the Roman period, it appears three times on the Gundestrup cauldron, in Romano-Celtic Gaul was associated with the horned or antlered god Cernunnos, in whose company it is depicted. This pairing is found as early as the fourth century BC in Northern Italy, where a huge antlered figure with torcs and a serpent was carved on the rocks in Val Camonica. A bronze image at Étang-sur-Arroux and a stone sculpture at Sommerécourt depict Cernunnos' body encircled by two horned snakes that feed from bowls of fruit and corn-mash in the god's lap. At Sommerécourt is a sculpture of a goddess holding a cornucopia and a pomegranate, with a horned serpent eating from a bowl of food.
At Yzeures-sur-Creuse a carved youth has a ram-horned snake twined around his legs, with its head at his stomach. At Cirencester, Cernunnos' legs are two snakes which rear up on each side of his head and are eating fruit or corn. According to Miranda Green, the snakes reflect the peaceful nature of the god, associated with nature and fruitfulness, accentuate his association with regeneration. Other deities accompanied by ram-horned serpents include "Celtic Mars" and "Celtic Mercury"; the horned snake, conventional snakes, appear together with the solar wheel as attributes of the sun or sky god. The description of Unktehi or Unktena is, more similar to that of a Lindorm in Northern Europe in Southern Scandinavia, most of all as described in folklore in Eastern Denmark. There, too, it is a water creature of huge dimensions, while in Southern Sweden it is a huge snake, the sight of, deadly; this latter characteristic is reminiscent of the basilisk. In Mesopotamian mythology Ningishzida, is sometimes depicted as a serpent with horns.
In other depictions, he is accompanied by bashmu, horned serpents. Ningishzida shares "great serpent", with several other Mesopotamian gods. Avanyu Coi Coi-Vilu Chinese dragon Feathered Serpent Kukulcan Lindworm Moñái Nāga Quetzalcoatl Sidewinder rattlesnake of the American Southwest, a living "horned serpent" Kitchi-at'Husis and Weewilmekq Tciptckaam Horned deity