Ungulata are any members of a diverse group of large mammals with hooves. These include odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, even-toed ungulates such as cattle, giraffes, camels and hippopotamuses, as well as sub-ungulates such as elephants. Most terrestrial ungulates use the tips of their toes hoofed, to sustain their whole body weight while moving; the term means "being hoofed" or "hoofed animal". As a descriptive term, "ungulate" excludes cetaceans, as they do not possess most of the typical morphological characteristics of ungulates, but recent discoveries indicate that they are descended from early artiodactyls. Ungulates are herbivorous, many employ specialized gut-bacteria to allow them to digest cellulose. Ungulata, which used to be considered an order, has been split into the following: Perissodactyla, Tubulidentata, Sirenia and Cetacea. However, in 2009 morphological and molecular work has found that aardvarks, sea cows, elephants are more related to sengis and golden moles than to the perissodactyls and artiodactyls, form Afrotheria.

Elephants, sea cows, hyraxes are grouped together in the clade Paenungulata, while the aardvark has been considered as either a close relative to them or a close relative to sengis in the clade Afroinsectiphilia. This is a striking example of convergent evolution. There is now some dispute as to whether this smaller Ungulata is a cladistic group, or a phenetic group or folk taxon; some studies have indeed found the mesaxonian ungulates and paraxonian ungulates to form a monophyletic lineage related to either the Ferae in the clade Fereuungulata or to the bats. Other studies found the two orders not that related, as some place the perissodactyls as close relatives to bats and Ferae in Pegasoferae and others place the artiodactyls as close relatives to bats. Below is a simplified taxonomy with the extant families, in order of the relationships. Keep in mind that there are still some grey areas of conflict, such as the case with relationship of the pecoran families and the baleen whale families.

See each family for the relationships of the species as well as the controversies in their respective article. Ungulata Perissodactyla Hippomorpha Equidae: Horses and zebras Ceratomorpha Tapiridae: Tapirs Rhinocerotidae: Rhinoceroses Artiodactyla Tylopoda Camelidae: Camels and Llamas Artiofabula Suina Tayassuidae: Peccaries Suidae: Pigs Cetruminantia Ruminantia Tragulidae: Chevrotains Cervoidea Antilocapridae: Pronghorn Giraffidae: Giraffes and okapi Cervidae: Deer Moschidae: Musk deer Bovidae: Oxen and antelopes Whippomorpha Hippopotamidae: Hippopotamuses Cetacea Mysticeti Balaenidae: Bowhead and right whales Cetotheriidae: Pygmy right whale Eschrichtiidae: Gray Whale Balaenopteridae: Rorquals Odontoceti Physeteroidea Physeteridae: Sperm whale Kogiidae: Lesser sperm whales Platanistoidea Platanistidae: Indian river dolphins Ziphioidea Ziphiidae: Beaked whales Lipotoidea Lipotidae: Baiji Inioidea Iniidae: Amazonian river dolphins Pontoporiidae: La Plata dolphin Delphinoidea Monodontidae: Beluga and narwhal Phocoenidae: Porpoises Delphinidae: Oceanic dolphins Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of the ungulate families.

Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla include the majority of large land mammals. These two groups first appeared during the late Paleocene spreading to a wide variety of species on numerous continents, have developed in parallel since that time; some scientists believed that modern ungulates are descended from an evolutionary grade of mammals known as the condylarths. The enigmatic dinoceratans were among the first large herbivorous mammals, although their exact relationship with other mammals is still debated with one of the theories being that they might just be distant relatives to living ungulates. In Australia, the marsupial Chaeropus developed hooves, convergent those of artiodactyls. Perissodactyls are said to have evolved from the Phenacodontidae, sheep-sized animals that were showing signs of anatomical features that their descendants would inherit. By the start of the Eocene, 55 million years ago, they had diversified and spread out to occupy several continents. Horses and tapirs both evolved in North America.

Of the 15 families, only three survive. These families were diverse in form and size; the largest perissodactyl, an Asian rhinoceros called Paraceratherium, reached 15 tonnes, more than twice the weight of an elephant. It has been found in a cladistic st

Leicester Square Theatre

The Leicester Square Theatre is a 400-seat theatre near Leicester Square, in the City of Westminster, London. It was known as Notre Dame Hall, Cavern in the Town and The Venue; the theatre hosts stand-up comedy, music and comedies. The building originated as the Notre Dame Hall in 1953, replacing an earlier building, destroyed by World War II bombing, part of the rebuild of the adjacent Notre Dame de France church, the hall was used as a French cultural centre for a time, it became a popular music venue in the 1960s under the name Cavern in the Town hosting beat music group The Small Faces. It was renamed Notre Dame Hall in the 1970s and presented The Rolling Stones and The Who, but specialised in punk music, hosting such acts as The Sex Pistols. In 1979, The Clash previewed material from London Calling here shortly before recording the album. In 2001, it was named The Venue; the theatre's famous productions have included the world premiere of the Boy George musical Taboo, which played a successful run in 2002 before transferring to Broadway, Round the Horne After this, the theatre was named Leicester Square Theatre.

American comedian Joan Rivers made her acting debut in August 2008 with her play Joan Rivers: A Work in Progress by a Life in Progress, which played a total of 75 performances to celebrate her birthday. A musical based on the comic strip Alex, by Charles Peattie and Russell Taylor, starring Robert Bathurst, finished the year 2008. and An Evening with Joan Collins ran from 2011 to 2015. Bill Bailey, Roseanne Barr, Sandra Bernhard, Jo Brand, Bill Burr, Julian Clary, Greg Davies, Macy Gray, Richard Herring, Russell Howard, Reginald D Hunter, Stewart Lee, Demetri Martin, Jerry Sadowitz, Miranda Sings, Tom Stade, Doug Stanhope, Ricky Tomlinson, Todrick Hall, Tim Vine have performed at the Leicester Square Theatre. In January 2016, Grassroots Shakespeare London was announced as the theatre's first resident company and the only resident Shakespeare company in the West End. Following on from their sold out Othello starring James Alexandrou, the company will be participating in the global Shakespeare 400 celebrations with their production of Twelfth Night starring Ellie Nunn and John Pickard.

The theatre is managed by artistic director Martin Witts. Official website

Paul Hansen (tenor)

Paul Hansen was a Danish opera singer and actor. Hansen started his opera career as a tenor but increased his range to take on baritone roles. In 1917 Hansen, now working in Berlin, branched into silent movies and in 1919 took on the romantic lead in The Mistress of the World. Hansen's initial occupation was as a copper-engraver but he harboured desires to become an opera singer, he studied in Copenhagen at the Royal Chamber under the tutelage of baritone Albert Hoeberg and the tenor Hermann Spiro. Hansen made his operatic stage debut in Copenhagen at the Royal Danish Theatre in 1908 as a tenor, when he appeared as Sverkel in the romantic opera Liden Kirsten, he travelled to Berlin, where he studied under both Louise Reuss-Belce and Lilli Lehmann. He extended his vocal range during his time in Berlin and by 1919 he was able to take on both tenor and baritone roles. During his career he mastered 150 roles using both singer tended to prefer operettas; as a young tenor he was popular in heroic leads and appeared in several classical Wagner interpretations, including the title roles in Lohengrin, Tannhäuser and Parsifal and as Walther von Stolzing in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.

Hansen performed the roles of Don José in Bizet's Carmen and the hunter Konrad in the romantic opera Hans Heiling by Heinrich Marschner. As a baritone he took on the title character in Verdi's Rigoletto. In 1925, with his film career behind him, Hansen took on the role as Director of the State Theatre of Thuringia, based in Gera, he held the role until 1930 appearing on stage after this period. When his singing career ended, he returned to Copenhagen, he moved to Helsinki where he died in 1967 at the age of 81. In 1917 Hansen appeared in his film debut, Cavalleria Rusticana, based on the opera of the same name, his co-star on Cavalleria Rusticana was mezzo-soprano Emma Vilmar. The two became a couple and were married, his early cinema appearances were translations of popular operas. From 1919 Hansen began appearing in cinema dramas, that year he starred in the silent film The Woman at the Crossroads, directed by Georg Jacoby; the next year he was chosen to appear as the American love interest to Mia May's heroine in the latter episodes of the eight part epic The Mistress of the World.

In 1922, Hansen returned to filmic opera, with an interpretation of Rudolf Lothar's libretto Tiefland. Hansen's final film was Gräfin Donelli in 1924, in which he performed the male lead alongside Henny Porten. Cavalleria Rusticana Der Freischütz Weisses Gold The Woman at the Crossroads Wenn ein Mädchen hübsch ist Die Herrin der Welt, Parts V-VII Zigeunerblut Der Spielmann Junge Mama Die Jagd nach dem Tode Das Geheimnis der sieben Ringe Lucifer short Die Dame in Grau Die Flibustier Tania, the Woman in Chains Tiefland Inge Larsen Countess Donelli Paul Hansen on IMDb