David Cyril Eric Swarbrick was an English folk musician and singer-songwriter. He has been described by Ashley Hutchings as "the most influential fiddle player bar none" and his style has been copied or developed by every British and many world folk violin players who have followed him, he was one of the most regarded musicians produced by the second British folk revival, contributing to some of the most important groups and projects of the 1960s, he became a much sought-after session musician, which led him throughout his career to work with many of the major figures in folk and folk rock music. A member of Fairport Convention from 1969, he is credited with assisting them to produce their seminal album Liege & Lief which initiated the British folk rock movement. This, his subsequent career, helped create greater interest in British traditional music and was influential within mainstream rock. After 1970 he emerged as Fairport Convention's leading figure and guided the band through a series of important albums until its disbandment in 1979.
He played in a series of smaller, acoustic units and engaged in solo projects. He maintained a massive output of recordings and a significant profile and made a major contribution to the interpretation of traditional British music. Born in 1941 in New Malden, now in Greater London, his family moved to Linton, near Grassington, North Yorkshire, where he learned to play the violin. In the late 1940s the family moved to Birmingham, where he attended Birmingham College of Art in the late 1950s, with the intention of becoming a printer. After winning a talent contest with his skiffle band playing guitar, he was introduced to Beryl and Roger Marriott, influential local folk musicians; the Marriotts took him under their wing and Beryl discovering that he had played the violin classically up until the skiffle craze encouraged him to switch back to the fiddle and he joined the Beryl Marriott Ceilidh Band. He joined the Ian Campbell Folk Group in 1960 and embarked on his recording career, playing on one single, three EPs and seven albums with the group over the next few years.
He contributed to the BBC Radio Ballads series on recordings with the three most important figures in the British folk movement of the time A. L. Lloyd, Ewan MacColl, MacColl's wife Peggy Seeger, as well as part of several collections to which the Ian Campbell Group contributed. From 1965 he began supporting him on his eponymous first album; the association was such a success that Second Album, gave them equal billing. They produced another four regarded recordings between 1967 and 1968, including Byker Hill, whose innovative arrangements of traditional songs made it one of the most influential folk albums of the decade. Swarbrick played on albums by Julie Felix, A. L. Lloyd and on the radio ballads, became the most regarded interpreter of traditional material on the violin and one of the most sought-after session musicians. In 1967, Swarbrick released his first solo album Rags and Airs, with guests Martin Carthy and Diz Disley, which has since become a benchmark for generations of folk fiddlers.
It was as a session musician that Swarbrick was called in by Joe Boyd, the manager of rising folk rock group Fairport Convention, in 1969, to undertake some overdubs on the Richard Thompson-penned track "Cajun Woman". Fairport had decided to play a traditional song "A Sailor's Life", which Swarbrick had recorded with Carthy in 1969, he was asked to contribute violin to the session; the result was an eleven-minute mini-epic that appeared on the 1969 album Unhalfbricking and which marked out a new direction for the band. Subsequently, Swarbrick was asked to join the group and was the first fiddler on the folk scene to electrify the violin. Martin Carthy recalled that Swarbrick had been indecisive about joining, telling Carthy: "I just played with this guy Richard and I want to play with him for the rest of my life." Together, now with Swarbrick co-writing with Richard Thompson "Crazy Man Michael", they created the groundbreaking album Liege & Lief. His energetic and unique fiddle style was essential to the new sound and direction of the band, most marked on the medley of four jigs and reels that Swarbrick arranged for the album and which were to become an essential part of every subsequent Fairport performance.
Before the album was released, key members of the band, founder Ashley Hutchings and singer and songwriter Sandy Denny left, Swarbrick stayed on with the band full-time, excited by the possibilities of performing traditional music in a rock context. His greater maturity, knowledge of folk song and personality meant that he soon emerged as the leading force in the band and continued to be so for the next decade, encouraging the band to bring in Dave Pegg, another graduate of the Ian Campbell Folk Group, on bass. However, Swarbrick was beginning to suffer the hearing problems that would dog the rest of his career; the first album of this new line-up, Full House, although not as commercially successful as Liege & Lief, sold well, remains regarded. Like Liege & Lief it contained interpretations of traditional tunes, including the epic "Sir Patrick Spens" and another instrumental arranged by Swarbrick, "Dirty Linen", but contained songs jointly penned by Swarbrick and guitarist Richard Thompson, including what would become their opening live song "Walk Awhile", the nine-minute long anti-war anthem "Sloth".
The partnership produced another three songs on Full House. However, the fruitful
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting is absent from policy and academic debate and is conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement."Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or to provide affordable housing. In many of the world's poorer countries, there are extensive slums or shanty towns built on the edges of major cities and consisting entirely of self-constructed housing built without the landowner's permission. While these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewerage system, drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, if there is electricity, it is stolen from a passing cable.
During the Great Recession and increased housing foreclosures in the late 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western, developed nations. Besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés. In Spanish-speaking countries, squatters receive several names, such as okupas in Spain, Chile or Argentina, or paracaidistas in Mexico. Dutch sociologist Hans Pruijt separates types of squatters into five distinct categories: Deprivation-based – i.e. homeless people squatting for housing need An alternative housing strategy – e.g. people unprepared to wait on municipal lists to be housed take direct action Entrepreneurial – e.g. people breaking into buildings to service the need of a community for cheap bars, clubs etc. Conservational – i.e. preserving monuments because the authorities have let them decay Political – e.g. activists squatting buildings as protests or to make social centres In many countries, squatting is in itself a crime.
Property law and the state have traditionally favored the property owner. However, in many cases where squatters had de facto ownership, laws have been changed to legitimize their status. Squatters claim rights over the spaces they have squatted by virtue of occupation, rather than ownership. Anarchist Colin Ward comments: "Squatting is the oldest mode of tenure in the world, we are all descended from squatters; this is as true of the Queen with her 176,000 acres as it is of the 54 percent of householders in Britain who are owner-occupiers. They are all the ultimate recipients of stolen land, for to regard our planet as a commodity offends every conceivable principle of natural rights."Others have a different view. UK police official Sue Williams, for example, has stated that "Squatting is linked to Anti-Social Behaviour and can cause a great deal of nuisance and distress to local residents. In some cases there may be criminal activities involved." The public attitude toward squatting varies, depending on legal aspects, socioeconomic conditions, the type of housing occupied by squatters.
In particular, while squatting of municipal buildings may be treated leniently, squatting of private property leads to strong negative reaction on the part of the public and authorities. Squatting, when done in a positive and progressive manner, can be viewed as a way to reduce crime and vandalism to vacant properties, depending on the squatter's ability and willingness to conform to certain socioeconomic norms of the community in which they reside. Moreover, squatters can contribute to the maintenance or upgrading of sites that would otherwise be left unattended, the neglect of which would create abandoned and decaying neighborhoods within certain sections of moderately to urbanized cities or boroughs, one such example being New York City's Lower Manhattan from the 1970s to the post-9/11 era of the New Millennium. Adverse possession is a method of acquiring title to property through possession for a statutory period under certain conditions. Countries where this principle exists include the United States, based on common law.
However, some non-common law jurisdictions have laws similar to adverse possession. For example, Louisiana has a legal doctrine called acquisitive prescription, derived from French law. There are large squatter communities such as Kibera in Nairobi. An estimated 1,000 people live in the Grande Hotel Beira in Mozambique; the Zabbaleen settlement and the City of the Dead are both well-known squatter communities in Cairo. In South Africa, squatters tend to live in informal settlements or squatter camps on the outskirts of the larger cities but not always near townships. In the mid-1990s, an estimated 7.7 million South Africans lived in informal settlements: a fifth of the country's population. The number has grown in the post-apartheid era. Many buildings in the inner city of Johannesburg have been occupied by squatters. Property owners or government authorities can evict squatters after following certain legal procedures including requesting a court order. In Durban, the city council ro
Richie Unterberger is an American author and journalist whose focus is popular music and travel writing. Unterberger attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he wrote for the university newspaper The Daily Pennsylvanian and in the early 1980's was a deejay on the Penn radio station, WXPN-FM. Just prior to graduating in late 1982, he started reviewing records for Op magazine, which marked the start of his career as a freelance writer. From 1985 to 1991, Unterberger was an editor for Option. Since 1993, he has been a prolific contributor to AllMusic, the on-line database of music biographies and album reviews, for which he has written thousands of entries, many of his on-line contributions have been printed in the AllMusic guide series. Unterberger contributes to various local and national publications, including Mojo, Record Collector, Rolling Stone, Oxford American, No Depression, he has written liner notes for dozens of CD reissues from labels like Rhino, Collectors' Choice, Sundazed.
Unterberger's books draw extensively on first-hand interviews with their associates. Unterberger has given numerous talks on music and popular culture at public libraries in San Francisco and San Mateo County, California, he is a speaker at area bookstores, including The Booksmith in the Haight Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. Unterberger has written on travel, including The Rough Guide to Seattle, is co-author of The Rough Guide to Shopping with a Conscience, a book about ethical products and related topics, he has traveled to more than thirty countries and is an advocate of independent travel and alternative culture. His nephew, Andrew wrote for Stylusmagazine.com, in 2007 was part of the winning team on VH1's World Series of Pop Culture. He has been featured contributor on a number of music or sports blogs, his books include: 1998: Unknown Legends of Roll. Profiles of 60 underappreciated cult rock artists of all styles and eras 1999: The Rough Guide to Music USA. A guidebook to the evolution of regional popular music throughout America in the twentieth century 2000: Urban Spacemen & Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of'60s Rock.
Another look at underappreciated cult rock artists 2002: Turn! Turn! Turn!: The'60s Folk-Rock Revolution. The first part of a history of folk rock 2003: Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock; the second part of a history of folk rock 2006: The Unreleased Beatles: Music and Film. An illustrated 400-page guide to music that the Beatles recorded but did not release, as well as musical footage of the group that has not been made commercially available 2009: White Light/White Heat: The Velvet Underground Day-by-Day 2009: The Rough Guide to Jimi Hendrix. 2011: Won't Get Fooled Again: The Who from Lifehouse to Quadrophenia 2002 interview with Unterberger Richie Unterberger's Unknown Legends at www.richieunterberger.com Profile at Rough Guides // Allmusic.com // IMDb Article about Richie Unterberger in the SF Weekly The WELL interviews on Turn! Turn! Turn! // Eight Miles High // The Unreleased Beatles Book review: Fleetwood Mac: The Complete Illustrated History by Richie Unterberger / Rocker Magazine
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
Joe Boyd is an American record producer and writer. He owned Witchseason production company and Hannibal Records. Boyd has worked on recordings of Pink Floyd, Fairport Convention, Sandy Denny, Richard Thompson, Nick Drake, The Incredible String Band, R. E. M. Vashti Bunyan and Beverley Martyn, Maria Muldaur, Kate & Anna McGarrigle, Billy Bragg, 10,000 Maniacs and Muzsikás. Boyd was born in Boston and raised in Princeton, New Jersey, he attended Pomfret School in Connecticut. He first became involved in music promoting blues artists while a student at Harvard University. After graduating, Boyd worked as a production and tour manager for music impresario George Wein, which took Boyd to Europe to organise concerts with Muddy Waters, Coleman Hawkins, Stan Getz and Sister Rosetta Tharpe. Boyd was responsible for the sound at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival, when Bob Dylan played a controversial set backed by electric musicians. In 1964, Boyd paid his first visit to Britain, returning the following year to establish an overseas office of Elektra Records.
In 1966, Boyd and John "Hoppy" Hopkins opened the UFO Club, a famous but short-lived UK Underground club in London's Tottenham Court Road. He worked with UFO regulars Pink Floyd, produced their first single, "Arnold Layne" and recordings by Soft Machine. Boyd worked extensively with audio engineer John Wood at Sound Techniques studio in Chelsea. In this studio and Wood made a succession of celebrated albums with British folk and folk rock artists, including the Incredible String Band, Martin Carthy, Nick Drake, John Martyn, Fairport Convention and Richard Thompson; some of these were produced by Witchseason. Boyd returned to the United States at the end of 1970 to work as a music producer for Warner Bros. with special input into films, where he collaborated with Stanley Kubrick on the sound track release of A Clockwork Orange. Boyd contributed to the soundtrack of Deliverance, directed by John Boorman, where he supervised the recording of "Dueling Banjos", which became a hit single for Eric Weissberg.
Boyd produced and co-directed the film documentary Jimi Hendrix. In the States, Boyd produced albums by Kate & Anna McGarrigle. Boyd subsequently founded the Hannibal Records label in 1980, which released albums by Richard Thompson and many recordings of world music, including Hungarian band Muzsikás. Boyd produced R. E. M.'s third album Fables of records by Billy Bragg and 10,000 Maniacs. Boyd was executive producer for the 1988 feature film Scandal, starring John Hurt and Bridget Fonda about the Profumo Affair in UK politics in 1963. Boyd left Hannibal/Ryko in 2001 and his autobiography, White Bicycles - Making Music in the 1960s, was published in 2006 by Serpent's Tail in the UK. In 2008, Boyd was a judge for the 7th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists. 1966The Incredible String Band Lord of the Dance Alasdair Clayre What's Shakin' – 3 tracks by Eric Clapton and the Powerhouse A Cold Wind Blows Various artists: Cyril Tawney, Matt McGinn, Johnny Handle and Alasdair Clayre1967The Power of the True Love Knot The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion Rags Reels and Airs "Arnold Layne" / "Candy and a Currant Bun" "Granny Takes a Trip" "She's Gone", "I Should've Known" recordings for projected single by Soft Machine, Sound Techniques, London released on Triple Echo, 1977, Turns On Volume 1 1968Tonite Let's All Make Love in London Very Urgent "If I Had a Ribbon Bow" / "If" "If" / "Chelsea Morning" Fairport Convention The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter Wee Tam and the Big Huge Kalpana – instrumental and dance music of India 1969What We Did On Our Holidays "Si Tu Dois Partir" / "Genesis Hall" Unhalfbricking Five Leaves Left Liege & Lief Kip of the Serenes "Big Ted" / "All Writ Down" Changing Horses 1970Desertshore Just Another Diamond Day Stormbringer!
U Full House Fotheringay I Looked Up Be Glad for the Song Has No Ending Pottery Pie Brotherhood of Breath 1971Bryter Layter Smiling Men with Bad Reputations Call Me Diamond / Lady Wonder The Road to Ruin Heavy Petting 1973Maria Muldaur Midnight at the Oasis b/w Any Old Time Dueling Banjos b/w Reuben's Train Jimi Hendrix – soundtrack 1974Waitress in a Donut Shop Muleskinner 1975Kate & Anna McGarrigle Geoff Muldaur Is Having a Wonderful Time 1976Junco Partner Live at the L. A. Troubadour Sweet Harmony Reggae Got Soul 1977Dancer with Bruised Knees 1978Rise Up Like the Sun Julie Covington (
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li