Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
Nery Alberto Pumpido is an Argentinian football coach and former goalkeeper who played for the national team in two World Cups. After retirement, Pumpido moved into club management, his nephew Facundo Pumpido, is a professional footballer. Pumpido began his career at his home city side Unión de Santa Fe. After a brief stint for Vélez Sársfield, where his form saw him called up for the 1982 FIFA World Cup squad, he moved to Club Atlético River Plate to replace the departing national'keeper Ubaldo Fillol. Here, he became part of the side that won the Argentine Primera División as well as the Copa Libertadores for the first time in its history in 1986 under manager Héctor Veira. In 1988, he transferred to Spanish club Real Betis where, in 1989, he lost a finger during a training session when his wedding ring caught on a nail in the crossbar of the goal, he returned to Argentina to his first club, Union in 1991. His last season was at the Lanus Athletic Club in 1993, he retired from football. Although chosen by Argentinian coach César Luis Menotti as the third goalkeeper of the Argentinian national team in the 1982 World Cup, he did not play in the tournament.
Pumpido made his international debut against Paraguay the following year. He was the starting goalkeeper during Argentina's victorious 1986 World Cup campaign, playing in all seven games, conceding just five goals in 630 minutes of football, keeping three clean sheets. At the 1990 World Cup, Pumpido was at fault for Cameroon's winning goal, fumbling François Omam-Biyik's header into the net as the African nation shocked the defending champions at the tournament's opening game in Milan, winning by a goal to nil. Pumpido broke his leg in the eleventh minute of Argentina's second game against the USSR, he was replaced by substitute Sergio Goycochea. Goycochea became key to Argentina's run to the final, saving penalty shoot-out kicks in the quarter final win over Yugoslavia and the semi-final victory over hosts Italy. After retiring as a player, Pumpido went into management. After several seasons at Unión de Santa Fe he took over at Paraguayan side Olimpia, from the capital city of Asunción, winning the Copa Libertadores in 2002.
After resigning from Olimpia due to a lack of " support from the president", he became coach of UANL Tigres in Mexico, reaching the final of the 2003–04 Primera División de México championship. Between October 2005 and July 2006, Pumpido coached Argentinian Primera División club Newell's Old Boys, followed by brief stints at Mexican club side CD Veracruz and Saudi club Al-Shabab, before his return to Olimpia, Paraguay's most successful football club and winner of three Libertadores cups, as well as one Intercontinental cup. On 23 December 2011, he was hired as coach of the Argentinian club Godoy Cruz. On 3 September 2012, he returned Unión de Santa Fe for a second spell as manager. Nery Pumpido at National-Football-Teams.com Nery Pumpido – Managerial stats in the Argentine Primera at Fútbol XXI Futbol Factory profile at the Wayback Machine
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Hugo Orlando Gatti is a former Argentine professional football goalkeeper who played in the Argentine Primera División for 26 seasons and set a record of 765 league and 52 international appearances, totaling 817 games played. During his career, Gatti won three Primera División titles, two Copa Libertadores tournaments, one Intercontinental Cup, all with Boca Juniors, played professionally until the age of 44. Gatti, nicknamed El Loco was recognized for his charisma, his innovative playing style for his position and his eccentricity, he developed himself into a goalkeeper. He would leave the penalty area to function as an additional field player, join his teammates in defense – and many times in attack. Unlike most goalkeepers of his era, he made extensive use of his feet and chest to control or strike the ball, he was one of the pioneers of the achique, the goalkeeping technique of running out to challenge an oncoming opposing player. He was notable at facing penalty kicks, saving 26 of them throughout his career, tied for the most in Primera División with contemporary goalkeeper Ubaldo Fillol.
Gatti was voted Player of the Year of Argentina in 1982, was ranked as the third best Argentine goalkeeper of the 20th Century in a poll by the IFFHS. Born in Carlos Tejedor, Province of Buenos Aires, Gatti was the youngest of siblings. During his youth he was adept at playing as a striker, which according to himself was the best way of knowing how forwards tend to think and behave. In 1960, at the age of 16, he attended a C. A. River Plate match and saw Amadeo Carrizo play, who would become one of his role models as a goalkeeper, he started playing for Atlanta in the Argentine sixth division. His Primera División debut came in 1962 against Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata. Gatti played 38 matches for Atlanta, after that he was acquired by River Plate, he played 77 matches for River between 1964 and 1968, alternating as the first choice goalkeeper with Amadeo Carrizo, until he was transferred to Gimnasia y Esgrima, for which he appeared in 244 league matches between 1969 and 1974. In 1975, he joined Unión de Santa Fe, which put on an impressive season with coach Juan Carlos Lorenzo.
Although Gatti was famous prior to his arrival to Boca Juniors, it was in that club where he became legendary, it is Boca Juniors the club he is most associated with. Gatti played a total 381 league matches and 47 Copa Libertadores matches for the Xeneizes from 1976 until his retirement in 1988, he is the goalkeeper with the most appearances in Boca Juniors history and the second overall player behind Roberto Mouzo, who played in 396 league matches. His debut with Boca occurred on 15 February 1976. In 1976, he won the double of the Copa Libertadores. In the Copa Libertadores final, he saved; the following year, Boca won the Copa Libertadores again, beat Borussia Mönchengladbach in the final of the Intercontinental Cup. He won his third Metropolitano in 1981; the 1980s were a difficult time for Boca, Gatti had periods of inactivity during those years. His last match was on 11 September 1988, a day in which an error by him cost him and Boca the result, he was made a reserve after that, he would never play an official match again.
On 24 January 1984, a friendly match between Boca Juniors and Gimnasia y Esgrima was played as a tribute to him. With the Argentine national team, Gatti won 18 caps. Between 1967 and 1977, his international debut was on 13 August 1967 against Paraguay. He was part of the 1966 World Cup squad, but did not play as the first choice keeper was Antonio Roma. Argentina did not qualify for the 1970, for the 1974 tournament, he was not selected to the squad, he was a starter during many friendlies prior to the 1978 World Cup under coach Cesar Menotti, but Gatti was left out of the finals squad in favour of Ubaldo Fillol. His last international match was on 5 June 1977. Gatti has continued to be involved in football since his retirement as a player, writing columns and opinions that have been controversial at times; as of 2010 he collaborates with several media. Notably "Punto Pelota" now "El Chiringuito de Jugones", and as of 2012 he collaborates in several football shows in Argentina. Boca JuniorsPrimera División: 1976 Metropolitano, 1976 Nacional, 1981 Metropolitano, Copa Libertadores: 1977, 1978 Intercontinental Cup: 1977 Player of the Year of Argentina: 1982 Hugo Orlando Gatti's biography – informexeneize.com "Hugo Orlando Gatti: El achique de Dios" – mediapunta.es Hugo Gatti – palmares, photo gallery, wallpapers at the Wayback Machine Futbol Factory profile at the Wayback Machine
Leopoldo Jacinto Luque is a former Argentine football striker. In a career spanning he played for Unión de Santa Fe, Rosario Central, River Plate, Racing Club de Avellaneda and Chacarita Juniors. On 22 February 1976, Luque scored all 5 goals in a game in which his club, River Plate, defeated San Lorenzo de Almagro 5–1. With Argentina he was 1978 World Champion, scoring four goals in the tournament, including a spectacular long distance volley against France during the first round. During that tournament, a brother died in a traffic accident on the day, he seriously injured his left elbow in the match against France, the second game of that championship, forcing him to miss two matches. He was back including the final against Holland. Today, Luque is sports secretary of Mendoza Province. In February 2007 he suffered a heart attack from. Scores and results list Argentina's goal tally first. River PlatePrimera División: 1975 Nacional, 1977 Metropolitano, 1979 Metropolitano, 1979 Nacional, 1980 Metropolitano ArgentinaFIFA World Cup: 1978 Copa América Top Scorer: 1975 Leopoldo Luque – FIFA competition record Leopoldo Luque at National-Football-Teams.com Super Futbol profile at the Wayback Machine Futbol Factory profile at the Wayback Machine Leopoldo Luque – Liga MX stats at MedioTiempo.com
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
FIFA eligibility rules
As the governing body of association football, FIFA is responsible for maintaining and implementing the rules that determine whether an association football player is eligible to represent a particular country in recognised international competitions and friendly matches. In the 20th century, FIFA allowed a player to represent any national team, as long as the player held citizenship of that country. In 2004, in reaction to the growing trend towards naturalisation of foreign players in some countries, FIFA implemented a significant new ruling that requires a player to demonstrate a "clear connection" to any country they wish to represent. FIFA has used its authority to overturn results of competitive international matches that feature ineligible players. FIFA's eligibility rules demand that in men's competitions, only men are eligible to play, that in women's competitions, only women are eligible to play, it was possible for players to play for different national teams. For example, Alfredo Di Stéfano played for Spain.
Di Stefano's Real Madrid teammate Ferenc Puskás played for Spain after amassing 85 caps for Hungary earlier in his career. A third high-profile instance of a player switching international football nationalities is Jose Altafini, who played for Brazil in the 1958 FIFA World Cup and for Italy in the subsequent 1962 FIFA World Cup. Other 20th-century examples of players representing two or three separate countries are: Joe Gaetjens – László Kubala – Raimundo Orsi – Luis Monti – Michel Platini – José Santamaría – Alberto Spencer – This does not include the hundreds of players whose teams were affected by changes to geopolitical borders e.g. East Germany/Germany, Soviet Union/Ukraine, Yugoslavia/Croatia. Furthermore, some international players have played for another FIFA-recognised country in unofficial international matches, i.e. fixtures not recognised by FIFA as full internationals. This category includes Daniel Brailovsky who played for Uruguay youth teams, was featured in camps for Argentina and years officially represented Israel.
These caps are not recognised due to a dispute between FIFA and the Colombian Football Federation at the time. In January 2004, a new ruling came into effect that permitted a player to represent one country at youth international level and another at senior international level, provided that the player applied before their 21st birthday; the first player to do so was Antar Yahia, who played for the France under-18s before representing Algeria in qualifiers for the 2004 Olympic Games. More recent examples include Sone Aluko, who has caps for the England under-19s and Nigeria, Andrew Driver, a former England under-21 representative, committed to the Scotland national team. In March 2004, FIFA amended its wider policy on international eligibility; this was reported to be in response to a growing trend in some countries, such as Qatar and Togo, to naturalise players born and raised in Brazil that have no apparent ancestral links to their new country of citizenship. An emergency FIFA committee ruling judged that players must be able to demonstrate a "clear connection" to a country that they had not been born in but wished to represent.
This ruling explicitly stated that, in such scenarios, the player must have at least one parent or grandparent, born in that country, or the player must have been resident in that country for at least two years. In November 2007, FIFA President Sepp Blatter told the BBC: "If we don't stop this farce, if we don't take care about the invaders from Brazil towards Europe and Africa in the 2014 or the 2018 World Cup, out of the 32 teams you will have 16 full of Brazilian players."The residency requirement for players lacking birth or ancestral connections with a specific country was extended from two to five years in May 2008 at FIFA's Congress as part of Blatter's efforts to preserve the integrity of competitions involving national teams. The relevant current FIFA statute, Article 7: Acquisition of a new nationality, states: Any player... who assumes a new nationality and who has not played international football shall be eligible to play for the new representative team only if he fulfils one of the following conditions: a) He was born on the territory of the relevant association.
Under the criteria it is possible for a player to have a choice of representing several national teams. It is not uncommon for national team managers and scouts to attempt to persuade players to change their FIFA nationality. Gareth Bale was asked about a possibility to play for England, being of English descent through his grandmother, but opted to represent Wales, his country of birth. In June 2009, FIFA Congress passed a motion that removed the age limit for players who had alre