UniCredit S.p. A. is an Italian global banking and financial services company. Its network spans 50 markets in 17 countries, with more than 8,500 branches and over 147,000 employees, its strategic position in Western and Eastern Europe gives the group one of the continent's highest market shares. UniCredit Group was the outcome of the 1998 merger of several Italian banking groups, which the majority one were Unicredito and Credito Italiano, hence the name Unicredito Italiano. Credito Italiano issued about 38.46% new shares to the owners of Unicredito, renamed itself to Unicredito Italiano. Other banks such as Banca dell'Umbria, Cassa di Risparmio di Carpi, Cassa di Risparmio di Trento e Rovereto, Cassa di Risparmio di Trieste joined the group in 1998–2000. A new subsidiary was created in December 1999, named after the original Credito Italiano. In 1999, UniCredito Italiano, as it was known, began its expansion in Eastern Europe with the acquisition of Polish company Bank Pekao. On 30 June 2002, UniCredit started its S3 project which merged 7 of their bank network: Rolo Banca, Banca CRT, Cariverona Banca, Cassa di Risparmio di Trento e Rovereto and Cassa di Risparmio di Trieste into Credito Italiano, Credito Italiano was renamed into UniCredit Banca.

UniCredit Private Banking and UniCredit Banca d'Impresa was spin off from it in 2003. In 2005, UniCredit merged with the German group HypoVereinsbank, itself formed in 1998 by the combination of two Bavarian banks: Bayerische Vereinsbank and Bayerische Hypotheken-und Wechsel-Bank. Integration with the HVB Group was reinforced by the merger with Bank Austria Creditanstalt in the year 2000 and enabled further growth for the UniCredit Group. Additionally, Bank Austria Creditanstalt was a major shareholder in Bank Medici AG. Bank Medici was Thema Fund's investment manager. In return for finding investors, Bank Medici collected fees of 4.6 million euros from Thema International Fund in 2007. Following the news that Bank Medici had invested US$2 billion with Bernard Madoff, officials in Vienna appointed a supervisor to run the private bank, raising questions about control of the sprawling group. On 30 June 2005 Banca dell'Umbria and Cassa di Risparmio di Carpi were absorbed into the parent company.

In 2006 the securities services business of UniCredit was sold to Société Générale for €579.3 million. In 2006, minority interests in the savings banks of Bra, Fossano and Savigliano were sold for about €149 million to Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna. In 2007, in combination with the Capitalia Group, the fourth-largest Italian banking group; the registered office of the bank was relocated from Genoa to 17 via Minghetti, Rome. In the same year, two more acquisitions were carried out: ATF Bank, which ranks fifth out of domestic banks in Kazakhstan with 154 branches, Ukrsotsbank, a universal bank in Ukraine. With these two banks the Group extended its operations in this area to 19 countries. However, in November 2012, Kazakh government sources declared UniCredit is in talks with Kazakh investors over the sale of a controlling stake in ATF Bank. In 2010, UniCredit S.p. A. absorbed its Italian banking subsidiaries: UniCredit Banca, Banca di Roma and Banco di Sicilia. In 2013 UniCredit Finance reported.

On March 14, 2014 UniCredit announced that it expected to cut around 8,500 jobs in the future, together with the announcement of a $15 billion loss in the 4th quarter of 2013 due to extensive cash-reserving for bad loans and writing down goodwill from acquisitions. UniCredit is one of the 6 European banks which are most exposed to potential problems in the emerging markets. In April 2015 UniCredit and Banco Santander reached an preliminary agreement to merge their asset-management businesses in a transaction valuing the combined entity at about €5.4 billion. The accord created a holding company called Pioneer Investments, 50 percent owned by UniCredit and 50 percent held by the U. S. buyout firms Warburg Pincus LLC and General Atlantic LLC. The holding firm owns Pioneer's U. S. business and controls combined operations of UniCredit's Pioneer, excluding its U. S. activities, Santander Asset Management. The two lenders hold each one third of the new combined business, while Warburg Pincus and General Atlantic owns the rest.

However, the deal was terminated on 27 July 2016. Pioneer was sold in December 2016 to Amundi for €3.545 billion. UniCredit received an extraordinary dividend of €315 million from Pioneer. From June 2015 to January 2017 UniCredit sold its NPLs, doubtful to collect to various investors, namely PRA Group Europe, a fund managed by Cerberus Capital Management, a US fund, AnaCap Financial Partners, Fortress Investment Group and PIMCO, B2 Kapital and B2Holding. In October 2015, UniCredit sold UniCredit Credit Management Bank, the subsidiary that specialized in managing NPLs to Fortress Investment Group and Prelios S.p. A.. A portfolio of €2.4 billion NPLs was included in the deal. On a year to year ba

William Gay (poet)

William Gay was a Scottish-born Australian poet. Gay was born at Bridge of Weir, in Renfrewshire, eldest child of William Gay and his wife Jane née Tagg. Gay senior was a religious man, an engraver of patterns for wallpaper and calico, his mother came from an educated family; the family moved not long afterwards to the town of Alexandria, where Gay was educated at a boarding school. At 14 he became a monitor at the school and winning a bursary went to the University of Glasgow, his father wanted him to be a minister, but the boy felt he could not conscientiously follow that profession and went to London hoping to make a living there. Destitution and illness followed and Gay had to go back to his people. Again he went to London but his strength was not sufficient and he had to go into hospital in Glasgow. Tuberculosis threatened, a sea voyage was tried and he arrived at Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1885. Gay obtained work as a purser's clerk on vessels of the Union Line for nearly two years, when illness again led to his living with some relatives at Hawke's Bay who nursed him back to comparative health.

In 1888 he went to Melbourne and obtained a mastership at Scotch College but teaching was beyond his strength. In 1891 he was in the Austin hospital, in 1893 went to live at Bendigo, his first volume Sonnets and Other Verses, published in 1894, was followed by two other volumes Sonnets and Christ on Olympus and Other Poems in 1896. A small selection appeared in 1910 and The Complete Poetical Works of William Gay in 1911. A prose essay Walt Whitman: His Relation to Science and Philosophy was issued in 1895. Gay edited "The Commonwealth & the Empire" with Mary Sampson. Gay died on 22 December 1897. Gay was said to have had some resemblance to Tennyson; when an invalid at Bendigo one of his little volumes yielded him a profit of £40 and another was more successful. This could only have happened with the help of friends. Gay was fortunate that so many discerning and kindly people were able to help him and care for him until his death, because he was worthy of care, his sonnets rank with the best that have been done in Australia, in a few poems such as "The Crazy World" he has written poetry expressing simple and unstrained emotion.

His life was short and marred by ill-health borne with courage. Although the amount of Gay's work was small, it holds an honoured place in the history of Australian poetry. Sonnets and Other Verses Sonnets Christ on Olympus and Other Poems Poems of William Gay The Complete Poetical Works of William Gay, and Gold: Poems and Lyrics Joseph Jones,'Gay, William', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 8, MUP, 1981, pp 633–634. Retrieved 31 October 2008 Serle, Percival. "Gay, William". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 31 October 2008; the Complete Poetical Works of William Gay at the University of Sydney


Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. This includes strep throat, skin infections, H. pylori infection, Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin can be taken by mouth as a liquid. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Severe allergic reactions are rare. Liver problems have been reported, it may cause harm. It is in works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria. Clarithromycin was developed in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1990, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Clarithromycin is available as a generic medication; the wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.13 and $0.79 per dose. In the United States it is moderately expensive at $50–100 for a course of treatment, it is chemically known as 6-O-methylerythromycin. Clarithromycin is used to treat a number of bacterial infections including pneumonia, Helicobacter pylori, as an alternative to penicillin in strep throat.

Other uses include cat scratch disease and other infections due to bartonella, cryptosporidiosis, as a second line agent in Lyme disease and toxoplasmosis. It may be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in those who cannot take penicillin, it is effective against upper and lower respiratory tract infections and soft tissue infections and helicobacter pylori infections associated with duodenal ulcers. Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenesAerobic Gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus parainfluenzae Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalisHelicobacter Helicobacter pyloriMycobacteria Mycobacterium avium complex consisting of: Mycobacterium avium avium Mycobacterium intracellulareOther bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumoniaeSafety and effectiveness of clarithromycin in treating clinical infections due to the following bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials:Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus Viridans group streptococciAerobic Gram-negative bacteria Bordetella pertussis Legionella pneumophila Pasteurella multocidaAnaerobic Gram-positive bacteria Clostridium perfringens Peptococcus Niger Cutibacterium acnesAnaerobic Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella melaninogenica Clarithromycin should not be taken by people who are allergic to other macrolides or inactive ingredients in the tablets, including microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmelose sodium, magnesium stearate, povidone Clarithromycin should not be used by people with a history of cholestatic jaundice and/or liver dysfunction associated with prior clarithromycin use.

Clarithromycin should not be used in the setting of hypokalaemia Use of clarithromycin with the following medications: cisapride, astemizole, ergotamine, ranolazine or dihydroergotamine is not recommended. It should not be used with colchicine in people with liver impairment. Concomitant use with cholesterol medications such as simvastatin. Hypersensitivity to clarithromycin or any component of the product, erythromycin, or any macrolide antibiotics. QT ventricular cardiac arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes; the most common side effects are gastrointestinal: diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting. It can cause headaches and abnormal liver function tests. Allergic reactions include anaphylaxis. Less common side effects include extreme irritability, dizziness/motion sickness, alteration in senses of smell and taste, including a metallic taste. Dry mouth, panic attacks, nightmares have been reported, albeit less frequently. In February 2018, the FDA issued a Safety Communication warning with respect to an increased risk for heart problems or death with the use of clarithromycin, has recommended that alternative antibiotics be considered in those with heart disease.

Clarithromycin can lead to a prolonged QT interval. In patients with long QT syndrome, cardiac disease, or patients taking other QT-prolonging medications, this can increase risk for life-threatening arrhythmias. In one trial, the use of short-term clarithromycin treatment was correlated with an increased incidence of deaths classified as sudden cardiac deaths in stable coronary heart disease patients not using statins; some case reports suspect it of causing liver disease. Clarithromycin has been known to cause jaundice and kidney problems, including kidney failure. Common adverse effects of clarithromycin in the central nervous system include headaches, it can cause ototoxicity and mania. A risk of oral candidiasis and vaginal candidiasis, due to the elimination of the yeast's natural bacterial competitors by the antibiotic, has been noted. Clarithromycin should not be used in pregnant women except in situations where no alternative therapy is appropriate. Clarithromycin can cause potential hazard to the fetus hence should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

For lactating mothers it is not known. Clarithromycin inhibits a liver enzyme, CYP3A4, involved in the metabolism of many other prescribed drugs. Taking clarithromycin with other medications that are metabolized by CYP3A4 may lead to unexpected increases or decreases in drug levels. A few of the common interactions are listed below. Clari