SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Unified Task Force

The Unified Task Force was a United States-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force which operated in Somalia from 5 December 1992 until 4 May 1993. A United States initiative, UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country. After the killing of 24 Pakistani peacekeepers in early June, the Security Council changed UNOSOM II's mandate issuing the Resolution 837, which established that UNOSOM troops could use "all necessary measures" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia, exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992. However, the complete intransigence of the local faction leaders operating in Somalia and their rivalries with each other meant that UNOSOM I could not be performed.

The mission never reached its mandated strength. Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to worsen. Factions were splintering into smaller factions, splintered again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another; some elements were opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies and private, were subject to threats and extortion. By November, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to defy the Security Council formally and demand the withdrawal of peacekeepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments. In the face of mounting public pressure and frustration, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented several options to the Security Council. Diplomatic avenues having proved fruitless, he recommended that a significant show of force was required to bring the armed groups to heel.

Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations allows for "action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security." Boutros-Ghali believed the time had come for moving on from peacekeeping. However, Boutros-Ghali felt that such action would be difficult to apply under the mandate for UNOSOM. Moreover, he realised that solving Somalia’s problems would require such a large deployment that the UN Secretariat did not have the skills to command and control it. Accordingly, he recommended that a large intervention force be constituted under the command of member states but authorised by the Security Council to carry out operations in Somalia; the goal of this deployment was "to prepare the way for a return to peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building". Following this recommendation, on 3 December 1992 the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 794, authorizing the use of "all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia".

The Security Council urged the Secretary-General and member states to make arrangements for "the unified command and control" of the military forces that would be involved. UNITAF has been considered part of a larger state building initiative in Somalia, serving as the military arm to secure the distribution of humanitarian aid. However, UNITAF cannot be considered a state building initiative due to its ‘specific and palliative aims, which it nonetheless exercised forcefully’; the primary objective of UNITAF was security rather than larger institution building initiatives. The vast bulk of UNITAF's total personnel strength was provided by the United States. Other countries that contributed to UNITAF were Australia, Belgium, Canada, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Italy, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zimbabwe; the U. S. Central Command established Joint Task Force Somalia to perform Operation Restore Hope; the I Marine Expeditionary Force staff made up the core of the JTF headquarters..

The CJTF commanded Marine forces from I MEF and Army forces from the 10th Mountain Division, as well as Air Force and Navy personnel and units. There were special operations forces components, in addition to the forces provided by countries contributing to the US-led, combined coalition; the national contingents were co-ordinated and overseen by U. S. Central Command, the relationship between CentCom and the contributing nations varied. There were a few confrontations over the mandates employed by some contingents. For example, the Italian contingent was accused of bribing local militias to maintain peace, whilst the French Foreign Legion troops were accused of over-vigorous use of force in disarming militiamen; the Canadian contingent of the operation was known by the Canadian operation name Operation Deliverance. Prior to Resolution 794, the United States had approached the UN and offered a significant troop contribution to Somalia, with the caveat that these personnel would not be commanded by the UN.

Resolution 794 did not identify the U. S. as being responsible for the future task force, but mentioned "the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary-General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 concerning the establishment of an operation

Monte Carlo or Bust!

Monte Carlo or Bust! is a 1969 British/French/Italian co-production comedy film known by its American title, Those Daring Young Men in Their Jaunty Jalopies. The story is based on the Monte Carlo Rally – first raced in 1911 – and the film recalls this general era, set in the 1920s. A lavish all-star film, it is the story of an epic car rally across Europe that involves a lot of eccentric characters from all over the world who will stop at nothing to win; the film is a sequel to the 1965 hit Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines. Terry-Thomas appeared as Sir Cuthbert Ware-Armitage, the dastardly son of the Sir Percy Ware-Armitage, which Thomas had played in the earlier film; some others of the cast from the first film returned, including Eric Sykes. Like the earlier film, it was written by Ken Annakin and Jack Davies and directed by Annakin, with music by Ron Goodwin; the title tune is performed by Jimmy Durante. The credits sequence animation was the work of Ronald Searle, featured in Annakin's earlier Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines.

Tony Curtis and Susan Hampshire played other contestants in the race. The film was intended to be called Rome or Bust; the American distributors Paramount Pictures re-titled it Those Daring Young Men in Their Jaunty Jalopies to tie it to Annakin's 1965 film. In the 1920s, the Monte Carlo Rally attracts competitors from all over the world. Rivals from Britain, Italy and Germany find that their greatest competition comes from the United States in the form of Chester Schofield, who had won half of an automobile factory in a poker game with the late father of baronet Sir Cuthbert Ware-Armitage. Ware-Armitage has entered the race in a winner-take-all to exact revenge and win back the lost half of the company; the international cast of characters appear to mirror their national foibles. British Army officers Maj. Digby Dawlish and Lieut. Kit Barrington, who have entered to preserve the honour of the British Empire, drive an outlandish vehicle festooned with odd inventions. Italian policemen Angelo Pincelli and Marcello Agosti seem to be more interested in chasing three French women, led by Doctor Marie-Claude.

The German entry from overbearing Willi Schickel and Otto Schwartz turn out to be convicts, driving with stolen gems on board. As the race begins, the contestants find that not only are they in a 1,500-mile battle with each other, but dangerous roads and the elements including a massive avalanche, are just as formidable. Chester and his new co-driver, Betty end up duelling with Cuthbert. Various misfortunes plague each of the contestants, with Cuthbert, poised to win, being disqualified for cheating, the British Army team blowing up, the Germans being arrested and Chester falling asleep at the wheel. In the end, the Italians are declared the winners and share their winnings with the French women's team to help people injured in the snowslide. Chester does cross the finish line, albeit because Betty and some others have pushed his car. In alphabetical order Bourvil as Monsieur Dupont Lando Buzzanca as Marcelo Agosti Walter Chiari as Angelo Pincilli Peter Cook as Major Digby Dawlish Tony Curtis as Chester Schofield Mireille Darc as Marie-Claude Marie Dubois as Pascale Ulf Fransson as French peasant Gert Fröbe as Willi Schickel/Horst Muller Susan Hampshire as Betty Jack Hawkins as Count Levinovitch Nicoletta Machiavelli as Dominique Dudley Moore as Lt. Kit Barrington Peer Schmidt as Otto Schwartz Eric Sykes as Perkins Terry-Thomas as Sir Cuthbert Ware-Armitage and with Jacques Duby as motorcycle policeman Hattie Jacques as lady journalist Derren Nesbitt as Waleska Nicholas Phipps as Golfer William Rushton as John O'Groats race official Michael Trubshawe as German rally official Richard Wattis as golf club secretary Walter Williams as German customs official Ken Annakin had a huge success with Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines.

In September 1965 he announced he would make a follow up to that film set in the early days of automobile racing. Its working title was All That Jazz, he wrote the script with whom he had collaborated on Those Magnificent Men. He wanted to re-use some of the old cast, including Terry Thomas, Gert Frobe and Alberto Sordi, plus one American James Garner. Annaking estimated. In March 1968 Annakin announced; the cast would include Terry Thomas, Gert Frobe, Eric Sykes, Walter Chiari, Alberto Sordi. Finance was provided by Paramount and filming would take over six months in Rome, Monte Carlo and the Italian and French Alps. "I love the international flavor of it," said Annakin. Besides the studio work at the Dino De Laurentiis Cinematografica Studios and Lazio, principal photography took place from 31 March–May 1968 at a large number of locations: England, France, Monte Carlo, Monte Gelato Falls, Treja River, Italy and Åre, Jämtlands län, Sweden. Most of the exotic locations were from the second-unit directors while studio process shots inserted the lead actors into the scenes.

Annakin had difficulties working with his American screen idol, Tony Curtis, considered him, "brittle, self-centered and a bully". Curtis, enjoyed his time in Rome, one of the primary filming locations and became romantically linked to his co-star, Susan Hampshire. An excerpt from composer Ron Good

Walter E. Foran

Walter Edge "Moose" Foran was an American Republican Party politician from New Jersey, who served in both houses of the New Jersey Legislature. He followed in the footsteps of Arthur F. Foran, who served in the New Jersey Senate. Foran was born in New Jersey, the fourth of five sons to Elizabeth and Arthur F. Foran, his eldest sibling, Dick Foran, would go on to be a B-movie actor. Walter Edge Foran was named in honor of his father's political mentor. Arthur F. Foran had served as Mayor of Flemington before working as an aide to Edge Governor of New Jersey, in 1917. By the time of Walter Foran's birth in May 1919, Edge had been elected to the United States Senate. After graduating from Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, Foran attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he served in the Army field artillery in World War II. Foran served as the Hunterdon County Republican Chairman from 1961 to 1970, he was elected to the New Jersey State Assembly in 1969 and served as a member of the Joint Appropriations Committee becoming Minority Leader.

He was elected to the New Jersey Senate in 1977, taking the seat of Anne Clark Martindell, a Democrat who resigned to serve in a series of positions in the Carter administration including United States Ambassador to New Zealand. He won a special election to fill the remainder of Martindell's term as well as the general election for a full four-year term in the 14th legislative district. After redistricting, he was re-elected to the Senate in 1981 and 1983 representing the 23rd district. Foran was considered an "old school statesman" and "an imposing figure", who had "a congenial and persuasive manner and a quick mind." In the Senate Foran was the ranking Republican on the Revenue and Appropriations Committee. After his death, a special election to fill his seat was won by Dick Zimmer serving in the Assembly. On the Cook College campus of Rutgers University, Walter E. Foran Hall was dedicated on October 30, 1995, it is a 154,000-square-foot complex housing the Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment, the Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, the Chang Science Library.

Foran was an early champion of agricultural biotechnology and was instrumental in the founding of the center. A resident of Flemington, Foran died of lung cancer at Hunterdon Medical Center at the age of 67 on December 8, 1986. Walter Edge Foran entry from The Political Graveyard Collection Guides: Senator Walter Edge Foran, New Jersey Division of Archives & Records Management