SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Uniform Crime Reports

The Uniform Crime Reporting program compiles official data on crime in the United States, published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. UCR is "a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of nearly 18,000 city and college, state and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention". Crime statistics are compiled from UCR data and published annually by the FBI in the Crime in the United States series; the FBI does not collect the data itself. Rather, law enforcement agencies across the United States provide the data to the FBI, which compiles the Reports; the Uniform Crime Reporting program began in 1929, since has become an important source of crime information for law enforcement, policymakers and the media. The UCR Program consists of four parts: Traditional Summary Reporting System and the National Incident-Based Reporting System – Offense and arrest data Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Program Hate Crime Statistics Program – hate crimes Cargo Theft Reporting Program – cargo theftThe FBI publishes annual data from these collections in Crime in the United States, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, Hate Crime Statistics.

The UCR Program was based upon work by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Social Science Research Council throughout the 1920s to create a uniform national set of crime statistics, reliable for analysis. In 1927, the IACP created the Committee on Uniform Crime Reporting to determine statistics for national comparisons; the committee determined seven crimes fundamental to comparing crime rates: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault and motor vehicle theft. The early program was managed by the IACP, prior to FBI involvement, done through a monthly report; the first report in January 1930 reported data from 400 cities throughout 43 states, covering more than 20 million individuals twenty percent of the total U. S. population. On June 11, 1930, through IACP lobbying, the United States Congress passed legislation enacting 28 U. S. C. § 534, which granted the office of the Attorney General the ability to "acquire, collect and preserve identification, criminal identification and other records" with the ability to appoint officials to oversee this duty, including the subordinate members of the Bureau of Investigation.

The Attorney General, in turn, designated the FBI to serve as the national clearinghouse for the data collected, the FBI assumed responsibility for managing the UCR Program in September 1930. The July 1930 issue of the IACP crime report announced the FBI's takeover of the program. While the IACP discontinued oversight of the program, they continued to advise the FBI to better the UCR. Since 1935, the FBI served as a data clearinghouse; the UCR remained the primary tool for analysis of data for the next half century. Throughout the 1980s, a series of National UCR Conferences were with members from the IACP, Department of Justice, including the FBI, newly formed Bureau of Justice Statistics; the purpose was to determine necessary system revisions and implement them. The result of these conferences was the release of a Blueprint for the Future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program release in May 1985, detailing the necessary revisions; the report proposed splitting reported data into two separate categories, the eight serious crimes and 21 less reported crimes.

In 2003, FBI UCR data were compiled from more than 16,000 agencies, representing 93 percent of the population in 46 states and the District of Columbia. While nationally reporting is not mandated, many states have instituted laws requiring law enforcement within those states to provide UCR data; each month, law enforcement agencies report the number of known index crimes in their jurisdiction to the FBI. This includes crimes reported to the police by the general public, but may include crimes that police officers discover, known through other sources. Law enforcement agencies report the number of crime cases cleared. For reporting purposes, criminal offenses are divided into two major groups: Part I offenses and Part II offenses. In Part I, the UCR indexes reported incidents of index crimes which are broken into two categories: violent and property crimes. Aggravated assault, forcible rape and robbery are classified as violent while arson, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft are classified as property crimes.

These are reported via the document named Return A – Monthly Return of Offenses Known to the Police. Part 1 crimes are collectively known as Index crimes, this name is used because the crimes are considered quite serious, tend to be reported more reliably than others, the reports are taken directly by the police and not a separate agency which aggregates the data and does not contribute to the UCR. In Part II, the following categories are tracked: simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, public drunkenness, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism and weapons offenses. Two property reports are included in addition to the "Return A"; the first is the Property Stolen by Classification re

Nicolás Melamed Ribaudo

Nicolás Melamed Ribaudo known as Nico, is a Spanish footballer who plays for RCD Espanyol as a central midfielder. Born in Castelldefels, Catalonia, Nico joined RCD Espanyol's youth setup in 2013, after representing UE Cornellà and FP Atlètic Vilafranca, he made his senior debut with the reserves on 17 February 2019, starting in a 1–1 Segunda División B away draw against SD Ejea. Nico renewed his contract with the Pericos on 29 April 2019, signing until 2023, he scored his first senior goal on 5 May 2019, netting his team's second in a 2–0 away defeat of former side Cornellà. Nico made his professional debut on 15 August 2019, coming on as a second-half substitute for Matías Vargas in a 3–0 home defeat of FC Luzern, for the season's UEFA Europa League. Nico Melamed at BDFutbol Nico Melamed at Soccerway

161st Street–Yankee Stadium station

161st Street–Yankee Stadium is a New York City Subway station complex shared by the elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line and the underground IND Concourse Line. Located at the intersection of 161st Street and River Avenue in the Highbridge and Concourse neighborhoods of the Bronx, it is served by the: 4 train at all times D train at all times except rush hours in the peak direction B train during rush hoursThe combined passenger count for 161st Street–Yankee Stadium station in 2017 was 8,596,506, making it the busiest station in the Bronx and 39th overall; this is one of only two station complexes in the Bronx. When the IND portion was built in 1933, paper tickets were used to transfer between the two lines; the station is ADA-accessible, with elevators available to all platforms. This station is located adjacent to Yankee Stadium, provides service to many Bronx County courts, government facilities, shopping districts which are a short walk to the east; the station is three blocks away from the MTA's Metro-North Yankees–East 153rd Street station, which provides service to Yankee Stadium.

The 2002 artwork here is called Wall-Slide by Vito Acconci, which consists of sections of the station walls "sliding" out of place, sometimes out of the station. Wall-Slide forms seating on the IND platforms, reveals a mosaic work, Room of Tranquility by Helene Brandt, on the IRT mezzanine. 161st Street–Yankee Stadium is a local station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line that has three tracks and two side platforms. The station has extra exit stairs to handle stadium crowds at the southern end of each platform, which make the platforms at this station much longer than traditional IRT platforms; these stairs lead to a separate mezzanine and fare control that were built to serve the old Yankee Stadium located across 161st Street, they continue to serve the new Yankee Stadium on events. The former IRT Ninth Avenue Line connected with the IRT Jerome Avenue Line just north of this station, near 162nd Street. A stub of the Ninth Avenue Line connecting trackway still is visible today. On each side of River Avenue, there are two street stairs to the medians of 161st Street.

There are two stairs to the southwest corner and one to the southeast corner. The northeast corner has the ADA-accessible transfer passageway. 161st Street–Yankee Stadium is a local station on the IND Concourse Line that has three tracks and two side platforms. It is the southernmost station on the IND Concourse Line within the Bronx; the full-time mezzanine to the west is at 161st River Avenue with four street staircases. The part-time entrance to the east is at Walton Avenue and has two street staircases and a passageway to 161st Street. Before the renovation, there was a full length mezzanine, with Transit Bureau Offices located to one side. After the renovation, the NYPD area was expanded, public areas inside fare control were sealed, thus dividing the mezzanine into two separate areas. A few staircases to the platforms were sealed and removed. Nycsubway.org – IRT Woodlawn Line: 161st Street-Yankee Stadium nycsubway.org – IND Concourse Line: 161st Street-Yankee Stadium nycsubway.org — Wall-Slide/Room of Tranquility Artwork by Acconci and Brandt Station Reporter — Yankee Stadium Complex The Subway Nut — 161st Street–Yankee Stadium Pictures MTA's Arts For Transit — 161st Street–Yankee Stadium