Unilever is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London and Rotterdam, Netherlands. Its products include food, energy drink, ice cream and beverages, cleaning agents, beauty products, personal care products. Unilever is one of the oldest multinational companies. Unilever owns over 400 brands, with a turnover in 2017 of 53.7 billion euros, thirteen brands with sales of over one billion euros: Axe/Lynx, Omo, Heartbrand ice creams, Hellmann's, Lipton, Magnum, Rexona/Degree and Surf. It is a dual-listed company consisting of Unilever N. V. based in Rotterdam, Unilever plc, based in London. The two companies operate with a common board of directors. Unilever is organised into four main divisions – Foods, Home Care, Beauty & Personal Care, it has research and development facilities in China, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. Unilever was founded on September 2, 1929, by the merger of the Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie and the British soapmaker Lever Brothers.
During the second half of the 20th century, the company diversified from being a maker of products made of oils and fats, expanded its operations worldwide. It has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including Lipton, Brooke Bond, Chesebrough-Ponds, Best Foods, Ben & Jerry's, Alberto-Culver, Dollar Shave Club and Pukka Herbs. Unilever divested its specialty chemicals businesses to ICI in 1997. In the 2010s, under the leadership of Paul Polman, the company shifted its focus towards health and beauty brands and away from food brands showing slow growth. Unilever plc has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Unilever N. V. is a constituent of the AEX index. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. In September 1929, Unilever was formed by a merger of the operations of Dutch Margarine Unie and British soapmaker Lever Brothers, with the name of the resulting company a portmanteau of the name of both companies. In the 1930s, business grew and new ventures were launched in Africa and Latin America.
The Nazi occupation of Europe during the Second World War meant that Unilever was unable to reinvest its capital into Europe, so it instead acquired new businesses in the UK and the US. In 1943, it acquired T. J. Lipton, a majority stake in Frosted Foods and Batchelors Peas, one of the largest vegetables canners in the UK. In 1944, Pepsodent was acquired. After 1945 Unilever's once successful American businesses began to decline; as a result, Unilever began to operate a "hands-off" policy towards the subsidiaries and left American management to its own devices. Sunsilk was first launched in the UK in 1954. Dove was first launched in the US in 1957. Unilever took full ownership of Frosted Foods in 1957; the US-based Good Humor ice cream business was acquired in 1961. By the mid-1960s laundry soap and edible fats still contributed around half of Unilever's corporate profits. However, a stagnant market for yellow fats and increasing competition in detergents and soaps from Procter & Gamble forced Unilever to diversify.
In 1971, Unilever acquired the British-based Lipton Ltd from Allied Suppliers. In 1978, National Starch was acquired for $487 million, marking the largest foreign-acquisition of a US company at that point. By the end of the 1970s through acquisitions, Unilever had gained 30 percent of the Western European ice cream market. In 1982, Unilever management decided to reposition itself from an unwieldy conglomerate to a more concentrated FMCG company. In 1984, Unilever acquired Brooke Bond for £390 million in the company's first successful hostile takeover. In 1986 Unilever strengthened its position in the world skin care market by acquiring Chesebrough-Ponds, the maker of Ragú, Pond's, Aqua-Net and Vaseline in another hostile takeover. In 1989, Unilever bought Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Fabergé, Elizabeth Arden, but the latter was sold to FFI Fragrances. In 1993, Unilever acquired Breyers from Kraft, which made the company the largest ice cream manufacturer in the United States. In 1996, Unilever merged Elida Gibbs and Lever Brothers in its UK operations.
It purchased Helene Curtis expanding its presence in the United States shampoo and deodorant market. The purchase brought Unilever the Suave and Finesse hair-care product brands and Degree deodorant brand. In 1997, Unilever sold its speciality chemicals division, including National Starch & Chemical, Quest and Crosfield to Imperial Chemical Industries for £4.9 billion. Unilever established a sustainable agriculture programme in 1998. Unilever closed out the 20th century with the acquisition of boutique mustard retailer Maille. In April 2000, Unilever bought Slim Fast for £ 1.63 billion. That year, the company acquired Bestfoods for £13.4 billion. The Bestfoods acquisition increased Unilever's scale in foods in America, added brands including Knorr, Marmite and Hellmann's to its portfolio. In exchange for European regulatory approval of the deal, Unilever divested itself of Oxo, Lesieur, McDonnells, Bla Band Royco and Batchelors. In 2001, Unilever split into two divisions: one for foods and one for personal care.
Margalita "Maka" Chakhnashvili-Ranzinger is a Georgian former tennis player. Chakhnashvili-Ranzinger won five doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. On 30 July 2007, she reached her best singles ranking of world No. 134. On 15 June 2009, she peaked at No. 149 in the doubles rankings. She achieved a 30–27 record for Georgia in Fed Cup competitions. Chakhnashvili-Ranzinger was given a wild card to represent Georgia at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the women's doubles draw, she lost in the first round. Margalita Chakhnashvili at the Women's Tennis Association Margalita Chakhnashvili at the International Tennis Federation Margalita Chakhnashvili at the Fed Cup
The West Bottoms is an industrial area to the west of downtown Kansas City, Missouri. Located in Kansas City and Kansas City, Kansas it sits at the confluence of the Missouri River and the Kansas River; the area is one of the oldest areas of the cities. While the West Bottoms is still home to several industrial buildings today, its antique shops and haunted houses are popular. Additionally, there are several art galleries and restaurants located in the West Bottoms, a few companies have offices in the area; the Kansas River, which runs nearby, is used for rowing and kayaking. Kansas City's first Union Depot was located here, it was home to the Kansas City Live Stock Exchange and Kansas City Stockyards prompting the huge annual American Royal livestock show at Kemper Arena, the site of the 1976 Republican National Convention. Additionally, The West Bottoms was home to large industrial district which produced plows and tractors starting in the 1870's. Many of the factory buildings still stand; some prominent examples are The Oliver Building, The Nichols and Shepard Building and The John Deere Building.
The low-lying area has been prone to floods including the Great Flood of 1951 and the Great Flood of 1993. Jim Pendergast founded the political machine here, furthered by Tom Pendergast. Tom Pendergast was an early supporter and promoter of Harry S. Truman in Jackson County and Missouri politics. Truman would become President as Vice-President under Franklin D. Roosevelt, upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Jim started operations at the "Climax" Saloon on St. Louis Avenue named for a winning race horse he had bet on. During World War II Darby Steel Corporation built most of the Landing craft tanks that were used in various amphibious invasions; the plant built one craft a day and floated them more than 1,000 miles down the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, prompting their "Prairie Ships" nickname. Darby's plant at the mouth of the Kansas River could hold eight 135í LCTs and 16 LCMs in various stages of construction. Many Serbians found work in the meat packing houses in the area.
The Serbs founded St. George Serbian Orthodox Church on April 18, 1906; the community purchased two houses on North 1st Street. One was converted to the other used as a parish home; the parish stayed in the West Bottoms until 1925 when they built a new church on Bethany Street still in Kansas City, Kansas. Today, the parish is located in Lenexa, having built their third location in 2006. Map of Jim Pendergast Climax Saloon Livestock Exchange Building Commercial Website