The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cape Lutke (Alaska)
Cape Lutke is a headland on Unimak Island, the largest island in the Aleutian Islands chain of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is located on the southern central coast of the island; this headland was named Mys Litke, after Russian explorer Count Fyodor Petrovich Litke, by the Imperial Russian Hydrographic Service in 1847. "Litke" is the Russian form of the German "Lütke", Anglicized as "Lutke". This same point was called Mys Sivuchiy by Capt. Tebenkov in 1852, Cape Promontory by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries in 1888
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Agattu is an island in the Near Islands in the western end of the Aleutian Islands. With a land area of 85.558 square miles Agattu is one of the largest uninhabited islands in the Aleutians. It is the second largest of the Near Islands, after Attu Island, it is volcanic and mountainous. The treeless island has a tundra-like terrain, its length is 12.2 miles and width is 19 miles. Agattu has seven large seabird colonies, an estimated population of 66,000 birds. About 1% of the global population of red-faced cormorants and tufted puffins nest on the island. Other inhabitants include rock sandpiper, red-necked phalarope, gray-crowned rosy finch and snow bunting. Aleutian cackling geese were reintroduced to the island after foxes were eliminated from the island in the 1970s; the elimination of the foxes on the island made it possible for conservationists to reintroduce the Evermann's rock ptarmigan. In 2006 there were reports of at least 25 breeding pairs of the ptarmigan on the island. Archeological excavations have discovered evidence and remains of Aleuts living on Agattu Island as early as 760 BCE.
Based on the number of inhabited archeological sites on the island, experts have estimated that the pre-contact population may have reached 500-1000 individuals. After Russian contact with the Aleutians in 1751, the population on Agattu declined precipitously. Russian traders would stay multiple years at a time in the Near islands hunting sea otter. Interactions with the Aleuts were sometimes violent. A veteran Russian navigator was killed by the locals on Agattu in 1761. By the 1760s, all Near Islanders had moved into a single village on Attu Island. During World War II, the villagers of Attu were interned in Japan and at war's end the survivors were resettled on Atka Island. Agattu is unique among the volcanic Aleutian Islands in being composed entirely of well-bedded sedimentary rocks; these rocks were deposited in water and are composed chiefly of amorphous silica and fine detritus derived from a volcanic terrain. Igneous rocks are sparsely represented by intrusions of porphyry and trap; the entire island has been glaciated.
Agattu Island: Block 1149, Census Tract 1, Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau Agattu Island Nautical Chart NOAA Nautical Chart 16434 Agattu Island, 6th Edition, May 2004 U. S. Coast Pilot 9, Chapter 7, Aleutian Islands Archaeological Investigations on Agattu, Aleutian Islands, By A. C. Spaulding, 1962, Cushing-Malloy, Inc. Agattu Island Photos Photos from Agattu Island, July 2008
The Aleutian Range is a major mountain range located in southwest Alaska. It extends from Chakachamna Lake to Unimak Island, at the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, it includes all of the mountains of the Peninsula. The Aleutian Range is special because of its large number of active volcanoes, which are part of the larger Aleutian Arc; the mainland part of the range is about 600 miles long. The Aleutian Islands are a submerged western extension of the range that stretches for another 1,600 km; however the official designation "Aleutian Range" includes only the mainland peaks and the peaks on Unimak Island. The range is entirely roadless wilderness. Katmai National Park and Preserve, a large national park within the range, must be reached by boat or plane; the core Aleutian Range can be divided into three mountain groups. Listed from southwest to northeast, they are: Mountains of the Alaska Peninsula and Unimak Island Chigmit Mountains Neacola MountainsSee Aleutian Islands for the continuation of the range to the west of Unimak Island.
Just to the north of the Aleutian Range are the Tordrillo Mountains, the southeasternmost extent of the Alaska Range. Selected mountains: Mount Redoubt, Chigmit Mountains Iliamna Volcano, Chigmit Mountains Mount Neacola, Neacola Mountains Mount Shishaldin, Unimak Island Mount Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula Mount Veniaminof, Alaska Peninsula Isanotski Peaks, Unimak Island Mount Denison, Alaska Peninsula Mount Griggs, Alaska Peninsula Mount Douglas, Alaska Peninsula Mount Chiginagak, Alaska Peninsula Double Peak, Chigmit Mountains Mount Katmai, Alaska Peninsula Pogromni Volcano, Unimak Island Mount Okmok, Fox Islands Two volcanoes erupted during the summer of 2008 on the eastern Aleutian Islands. On July 12, 2008, Mount Okmok erupted, it continued to erupt for a month. A giant moving ash and gas cloud shot up to a height of 15,240 m as a result of this eruption. Mount Kasatochi was home to the other eruption, which occurred on August 7 and 8; this eruption sent up a gas cloud about 15,000 high. Together, these two power volcanic eruptions deposited emissions of trace gases an aerosols into the atmosphere.
These emissions formed a sulfate aerosol layer that totaled a transfer of 1.6 Tg of SO2 into the stratosphere and disturbed flights over this area for a short period following the eruptions. The 7.9 Mw Aleutian Islands earthquake occurred in June 2014 at an intermediate depth of 107 km. The quake was caused by oblique normal faulting along the Aleutian Trench, a convergent boundary where the Pacific plate is subducting underneath the North American plate at around 59 mm/year. List of earthquakes in Alaska U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Aleutian Range
The Aleutian Islands called the Aleut Islands or Aleutic Islands and known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U. S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai. They form part of the Aleutian Arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi and extending about 1,200 mi westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, mark a dividing line between the Bering Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Crossing longitude 180°, at which point east and west longitude end, the archipelago contains both the westernmost part of the United States by longitude and the easternmost by longitude; the westernmost U. S. island in real terms, however, is Attu Island. While nearly all the archipelago is part of Alaska and is considered as being in the "Alaskan Bush", at the extreme western end, the small, geologically related Commander Islands belong to Russia.
The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, form the northernmost part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Physiographically, they are a distinct section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; these Islands are most known for the battles and skirmishes that occurred there during the Aleutian Islands Campaign of World War II. It was one of only two attacks on the United States during that war. Motion between the Kula Plate and the North American Plate along the margin of the Bering Shelf ended in the early Eocene; the Aleutian Basin, the ocean floor north of the Aleutian arc, is the remainder of the Kula Plate that got trapped when volcanism and subduction jumped south to its current location at c. 56 Ma. The Aleutian island arc formed in the Early Eocene when the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the North American Plate began; the arc is made of separate blocks. The basement underlying the islands is made of three stratigraphic units: an Eocene layer of volcanic rock, an Oligocene—Miocene layer of marine sedimentary rock, a Pliocene—Quaternary layer of sedimentary and igneous rock.
The islands, known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, comprise five groups the Fox Islands Islands of Four Mountains Andreanof Islands Rat Islands, Near IslandsAll five are located between 51° and 55° N latitude and 172° E and 163° W longitude. The largest islands in the Aleutians are Attu, Unalaska and Unimak in the Fox Islands; the largest of those is Unimak Island, with an area of 1,571.41 mi2, followed by Unalaska Island, the only other Aleutian Island with an area over 1,000 square miles. The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a southwest trend, but at Tanaga Island its direction changes to the northwest; this change of direction corresponds to a curve in the line of volcanic fissures that have contributed their products to the building of the islands. Such curved chains are repeated about the Pacific Ocean in the Kuril Islands, the Japanese chain, in the Philippines. All these island arcs are at the edge of the Pacific Plate and experience much seismic activity, but are still habitable.
The general elevation is least in the western. The island chain is a western continuation of the Aleutian Range on the mainland; the great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active. The coasts are rocky and surf-worn, the approaches are exceedingly dangerous, the land rising from the coasts to steep, bold mountains; these volcanic islands reach heights of 6,200 feet. Makushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, is not quite visible from within the town of Unalaska, though the steam rising from its cone is visible on a clear day. Residents of Unalaska need only to climb one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mt. Newhall, to get a good look at the snow-covered cone; the volcanic Bogoslof and Fire Islands, which rose from the sea in 1796 and 1883 lie about 30 miles west of Unalaska Bay. In 1906, a new volcanic cone rose between the islets of Bogoslof and Grewingk, near Unalaska, followed by another in 1907.
These cones were nearly demolished by an explosive eruption on September 1, 1907. Newly found information in 2017, the volcanic cone erupted sending ash and ice particles 30,000 feet in the air; the Aleutians seen from space The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall. Fogs are constant. Summer weather is much cooler than Southeast Alaska, but the winter temperature of the islands and of the Alaska Panhandle is nearly the same. According to the Köppen climate classification system, the area southwest of 53.5°N 167.0°W / 53.5.
False Pass, Alaska
False Pass is a city on Unimak Island, in the Aleutians East Borough of southwestern Alaska, United States. The population was 35 at the 2010 census, down from 64 in 2000; the 2016 estimate is 42. False Pass is an early English name for Isanotski Strait; the strait was called "False Pass" by early American sailing ship captains because it was thought to be impassable for their deep draft vessels at the northern end. A salmon cannery was built on the Unimak Island side of the strait in 1919 which provided the nucleus for the modern settlement. A U. S. post office with the name of False Pass was established in 1921 which gave official status to the community. Commercial fishing for salmon, cod and crab continues to be the core of the community's lifestyle and economy. False Pass is at 54°49′40″N 163°23′57″W, it is in the Aleutian Islands chain. Part of the city is on the mainland's westernmost tip Alaska Peninsula, across the Isanotski Strait, although that section is nearly unpopulated; the city boundaries include the abandoned villages of Ikatan.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 68.3 square miles, of which, 26.9 square miles of it is land and 41.4 square miles of it is water. Boats and aircraft are the only transportation to and from False Pass. Aircraft use False Pass Airport. False Pass first appeared on the 1930 U. S. Census as the unincorporated area of "Unimak." This included the populations of Ikatan. It in 1950, was returned separately as False Pass, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 64 people, 22 households, 13 families residing in the city; the population density was 2.4 people per square mile. There were 40 housing units at an average density of 1.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 62.50% Native American, 26.56% White, 1.56% from other races, 9.38% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.7% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families.
31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.79. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 35.9% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 18.8% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $49,375, the median income for a family was $70,625. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $37,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,465. There were 11.1% of families and 8.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 50.0% of those over 64. Occupation categories for the 2000 census are shown in the accompanying pie chart; the community has traditionally depended upon commercial fishing, but it now employs only 24% of the workforce or 10 individuals.
These individuals are crewmen. As in many modern American communities, white collar sales/office and management positions now employ 51% of the employment positions or 21 people. Aleutians East Borough School District operates the False Pass School. Circa 1978 the school a part of the Aleutian Region School District, had a single teacher, 8 students. Media related to False Pass at Wikimedia Commons