A newsreel is a form of short documentary film, containing news stories and items of topical interest, prevalent between the 1910s and the late 1960s. Presented in a cinema, newsreels were a source of current affairs and entertainment for millions of moviegoers. Newsreels were exhibited preceding a feature film, but there were dedicated newsreel theaters in many major cities in the 1930s and'40s, some large city cinemas included a smaller theaterette where newsreels were screened continuously throughout the day. By the end of the 1960s television news broadcasts had supplanted the format. Newsreels are considered significant historical documents, since they are the only audiovisual record of certain cultural events. Created in 1911 by Charles Pathé, this form of film was a staple of the typical North American and Commonwealth countries, throughout European cinema programming schedule from the silent era until the 1960s when television news broadcasting supplanted its role; the National Film and Sound Archive in Australia holds the Cinesound Movietone Australian Newsreel Collection, a comprehensive collection of 4,000 newsreel films and documentaries representing news stories covering all major events.
The first official British news cinema that only showed newsreels was the Daily Bioscope that opened in London on May 23, 1909. In 1929, William Fox purchased, he changed the format from a $2 show twice a day to a continuous 25-cent programme, establishing the first newsreel theater in the USA. The idea was such a success that Fox and his backers announced they would start a chain of newsreel theaters across the USA; the newsreels were accompanied by cartoons or short subjects. In some countries, newsreels used music as a background for silent on-site film footage. In some countries, the narrator used humorous remarks for non-tragic stories. In the U. S. newsreel series included The March of Time, Pathé News, Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Hearst Metrotone News, Universal Newsreel. Pathé News was distributed by RKO Radio Pictures from 1931 to 1947, by Warner Brothers from 1947 to 1956. An example of a newsreel story is in the film Citizen Kane, prepared by RKO's actual newsreel staff. Citizen Kane includes a fictional newsreel "News on the March" that summarizes the life of title character Charles Foster Kane while parodying The March of Time.
On August 12, 1949, 120 cinema technicians employed by Associated British Pathé in London went on strike to protest the dismissal of fifteen men on the grounds of redundancy while conciliation under trade union agreements was pending. Their strike lasted through to at least Tuesday August 16, the Tuesday being the last day for production on new newsreels shown on the Thursday. Events of the strike resulted in over three hundred cinemas across Britain having to go without newsreels that week. A 1978 Australian film, Newsfront, is a drama about the newsreel business. On February 16, 1948, NBC launched a ten-minute television program called Camel Newsreel Theatre with John Cameron Swayze that featured newsreels with Swayze doing voiceovers. In 1948, the DuMont Television Network launched two short-lived newsreel series, Camera Headlines and I. N. S. Telenews, the latter in cooperation with Hearst's International News Service. On August 15, 1948, CBS started their evening television news program the News.
The NBC, CBS, ABC news shows all produced their own news film. Newsreel cinemas either closed or went to showing continuous programmes of cartoons and short subjects, such as the London Victoria Station News Cinema Cartoon Cinema that opened in 1933 and closed in 1981. In New Zealand, the Weekly Review was "the principal film series produced in the 1940s"; the first television news broadcasts in the country, incorporating newsreel footage, began in 1960. Newsreels died out because technological advances such as electronic news-gathering for television news, introduced in the 1970s, rendered them obsolete. Nonetheless, some countries such as Cuba, Japan and Italy continued producing newsreels into the 1980s and 1990s. Newsreel-producing companies excluded television companies from their distribution, but the television companies countered by sending their own camera crews to film news events. List of newsreels by country The March of Time newsreel series produced by Time-Life from 1935 to 1951 Universal Newsreel newsreel series produced by Universal Studios from 1929 to 1967 Hearst Metrotone News newsreel series produced by Hearst Corporation from 1914 to 1967 Fox Movietone News produced by Fox 1928 to 1963 Paramount News newsreel series produced by Paramount Pictures from 1927 to 1957 Pathé News newsreel series produced by Pathé Film from 1910 to 1956 Baechlin and Maurice Muller-Strauss, Newsreels across the world, Paris: Unesco, 1952 Barnouw, Documentary: a history of the non-fiction film, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993 revised Clyde, Jane Mercer and Daniela Kirchner, "The story of the century!"
An international newsfilm conference, London: BUFVC, 1998 Fielding, Raymond. The American Newsreel: A Complete History, 1911-1967. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland. ISBN 0786466103. Fielding, The March of Time, 1935-1951, New York: Oxford University Press, 1978 Imesch, Kornelia.
Ewing Township, New Jersey
Ewing Township is a township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The township is within the New York metropolitan area, it directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is part of the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 35,790, reflecting an increase of 83 from the 35,707 counted in the 2000 Census, which had increased by 1,522 from the 34,185 counted in the 1990 Census; the earliest inhabitants of present-day Ewing Township in the historic era were Lenni Lenape Native Americans, who lived along the banks of the Delaware River. Their pre-colonial subsistence activities in the area included hunting, pottery-making, simple farming. Europeans from the British Isles, began to colonize the area in the 17th and 18th centuries. One of the earliest European settlers was William Green, his 1717 farmhouse still stands on the campus of The College of New Jersey; the area, now Ewing Township was part of Hopewell Township in what was a large Burlington County at the beginning of the 18th century.
In 1714 Hopewell was added to Hunterdon County. By 1719, the area, to become Ewing Township had been removed from Hopewell Township and added to the newly created Trenton Township. Portions of Trenton Township were incorporated as Ewing Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 22, 1834, posthumously honoring Charles Ewing for his work as Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court; the township became part of the newly created Mercer County on February 22, 1838. After incorporation, Ewing Township received additional territory taken from Lawrence Township and the city of Trenton in 1858. In 1894 the city of Trenton took back some of that territory, annexing more in 1900; when Ewing Township was incorporated in the 19th century, it was farmland with a handful of scattered hamlets, including Carleton, Cross Keys and Greensburg. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the township has developed as a suburb of Trenton; the sections near the city border are distinctly urban, but most of the township is suburban residential development.
The main commercial district extends along North Olden Avenue Extension constructed to connect north Trenton residences with the now-closed General Motors Inland Fisher Guide Plant. Ewing Township today is the location of The College of New Jersey, the Community Blood Council of New Jersey, New Jersey State Police headquarters, the Jones Farm State Correction Institute, the Trenton Psychiatric Hospital, the New Jersey Department of Transportation headquarters, the Katzenbach School for the Deaf and Trenton-Mercer Airport. From 1953 until 1997 Ewing was the home of Naval Air Warfare Center Trenton, encompassing 528 acres on Parkway Avenue, it was used as a jet engine test facility for the US Navy until its closure based on the recommendations of the 1993 Base Closure and Realignment Commission. Nearly 700 civilian positions were eliminated, most of which were relocated to other facilities in Maryland and Tennessee; the base's Marine operations were transferred to Fort Dix, which has since become Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst.
A charity to end homelessness acquired the base at no cost in October 2013 in a process involving the United States Department of Defense, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Mercer County and Ewing Township. The first location of an industrial robot used to replace human workers was at Ewing's Inland Fisher Guide Plant in 1961, a facility that operated in the township for 1938 to 1998, after which the plant was demolished and targeted for redevelopment. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 15.599 square miles, including 15.250 square miles of land and 0.349 square miles of water. The highest elevation in Ewing Township is 225 feet AMSL just east of Interstate 95 and just west of Trenton-Mercer Airport, while the lowest point is just below 20 feet AMSL along the Delaware River near the border with Trenton; the largest body of water within the township is Lake Sylva, a man-made lake, created in the 1920s when an earthen dam was constructed across the Shabakunk Creek.
The 11-acre lake is located on the campus of The College of New Jersey. Water courses in Ewing include the Delaware River along its western boundary and the Shabakunk Creek in the eastern and central portions of the township. Within the township are a number of distinct neighborhoods; these include Agasote, Arbor Walk, Braeburn Heights, Briarwood, Cambridge Hall, Churchill Green, Delaware Rise, Ewing Park, Fernwood, Ferry Road Manor, Fleetwood Village, Green Curve Heights, Hampton Hills, Heath Manor, Hickory Hill Estates, Hillwood Lakes, Hillwood Manor, Parkway Village, Prospect Heights, Prospect Park, Scudders Falls, Shabakunk Hills, Sherbrooke Manor, Spring Meadows, Spring Valley, Village on the Green, Weber Park, West Trenton, Whitewood Estates and Wynnewood Manor. Some of these existed before suburbanization, while others came into existence with the suburban development of the township in the 20th century; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,790 people, 13,171 households, 7,981.626 families residing in the township.
The population density was 2,346.9 per square mile. There were 13,926 housing units at an average density of 913.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of t
An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated and capable of movement on three or more axis. Typical applications of robots include welding, assembly and place for printed circuit boards and labeling, product inspection, testing, they can assist in material handling. In the year 2015, an estimated 1.64 million industrial robots were in operation worldwide according to International Federation of Robotics. The most used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and cartesian coordinate robots. In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms. Robots exhibit varying degrees of autonomy: Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again without variation and with a high degree of accuracy; these actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, velocity and distance of a series of coordinated motions. Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which they are operating or the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot may need to identify.
For example, for more precise guidance, robots contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an important factor in the modern industrial robot; the earliest known industrial robot, conforming to the ISO definition was completed by "Bill" Griffith P. Taylor in 1937 and published in Meccano Magazine, March 1938; the crane-like device was built entirely using Meccano parts, powered by a single electric motor. Five axes of movement were possible, including grab rotation. Automation was achieved using punched paper tape to energise solenoids, which would facilitate the movement of the crane's control levers; the robot could stack wooden blocks in pre-programmed patterns. The number of motor revolutions required for each desired movement was first plotted on graph paper; this information was transferred to the paper tape, driven by the robot's single motor. Chris Shute built a complete replica of the robot in 1997.
George Devol applied for the first robotics patents in 1954. The first company to produce a robot was Unimation, founded by Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger in 1956. Unimation robots were called programmable transfer machines since their main use at first was to transfer objects from one point to another, less than a dozen feet or so apart, they used hydraulic actuators and were programmed in joint coordinates, i.e. the angles of the various joints were stored during a teaching phase and replayed in operation. They were accurate to within 1/10,000 of an inch. Unimation licensed their technology to Kawasaki Heavy Industries and GKN, manufacturing Unimates in Japan and England respectively. For some time Unimation's only competitor was Cincinnati Milacron Inc. of Ohio. This changed radically in the late 1970s when several big Japanese conglomerates began producing similar industrial robots. In 1969 Victor Scheinman at Stanford University invented the Stanford arm, an all-electric, 6-axis articulated robot designed to permit an arm solution.
This allowed it to follow arbitrary paths in space and widened the potential use of the robot to more sophisticated applications such as assembly and welding. Scheinman designed a second arm for the MIT AI Lab, called the "MIT arm." Scheinman, after receiving a fellowship from Unimation to develop his designs, sold those designs to Unimation who further developed them with support from General Motors and marketed it as the Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly. Industrial robotics took off quite in Europe, with both ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics bringing robots to the market in 1973. ABB Robotics introduced IRB 6, among the world's first commercially available all electric micro-processor controlled robot; the first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974. In 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS one of the first articulated robots to have six electromechanically driven axes.
Interest in robotics increased in the late 1970s and many US companies entered the field, including large firms like General Electric, General Motors. U. S. startup companies included Adept Technology, Inc.. At the height of the robot boom in 1984, Unimation was acquired by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for 107 million U. S. dollars. Westinghouse sold Unimation to Stäubli Faverges SCA of France in 1988, still making articulated robots for general industrial and cleanroom applications and bought the robotic division of Bosch in late 2004. Only a few non-Japanese companies managed to survive in this market, the major ones being: Adept Technology, Stäubli, the Swedish-Swiss company ABB Asea Brown Boveri, the German company KUKA Robotics and the Italian company Comau. Number of axes – two axes are required to reach any point in a plane. To control the orientation of the end of the arm three more axes (yaw, pit
The Tonight Show
The Tonight Show is an American late-night talk show broadcast from the NBC Studios in Rockefeller Center in New York City, the show's original location and airing on NBC since 1954. The series has been hosted by six comedians: Steve Allen, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, Jay Leno, Conan O'Brien, Jimmy Fallon, had several recurring guest hosts including Ernie Kovacs during the Steve Allen era and Joan Rivers, Garry Shandling and Jay Leno during Johnny Carson's stewardship, although the practice has been abandoned since Carson's departure, with hosts preferring reruns to showcasing potential rivals; the Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show, the longest-running scheduled entertainment program in the United States. It Meet the Press. Over the course of more than 60 years, The Tonight Show has undergone only minor title changes, it aired under the name Tonight for several of its early years, as well as Tonight Starring Jack Paar and The Jack Paar Show due to the runaway popularity of its host settling permanently on The Tonight Show after Carson began his tenure in 1962 albeit with the host's name always included in the title.
Beginning with Carson's debut episode, network programmers and the show's announcers would refer to the show by including the name of the host. In 1957, the show tried a more news-style format, it has otherwise adhered to the talk show format honed further by Paar. Carson is the longest-serving host to date although not the host with the most episodes; the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson aired for 30 seasons between October 1962 and May 1992. Leno, has the record of having hosted the greatest number of total televised episodes. Leno's record accounts for the fact that unlike Carson, Leno never used guest hosts on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and produced new shows five days a week. Leaving out Leno's five years as permanent guest host, Leno hosted 119 more episodes as full-time host than Carson. During Carson's first four years, the show ran for 105 minutes was reduced to ninety minutes in early 1967 when Carson stopped appearing for the first 15 minutes because most affiliates were carrying their local news during that time slot as they expanded to half an hour.
During Carson's 1980 contract negotiations, the show was shortened to sixty minutes. NBC broadcast The Best of Carson which were repeats of some of Carson's popular older albeit recent shows. Prior to the debut of Saturday Night Live in October 1975, NBC aired The Best of Carson on Saturday nights at 11:30 pm. Outside of its brief run as a news show in 1957, Conan O'Brien is the shortest-serving host. O'Brien hosted 146 episodes over the course of less than eight months before, with ratings continuously plummeting, Leno was brought back as host, where he served for four additional years. Current host Fallon took the helm on February 17, 2014. Fallon had hosted Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, before Late Night he was a popular member of the cast of Saturday Night Live, co-hosting the "Weekend Update" with Tina Fey as well as performing sketches. From 1950 to 1951 NBC aired Broadway Open House, a nightly variety show hosted by comic Jerry Lester, it was not a success. A spinoff, Dagmar's Canteen, aired the following season on Saturday nights.
The format of The Tonight Show can be traced to a nightly 40-minute local program in New York, hosted by Allen and titled The Knickerbocker Beer Show. It was retitled The Steve Allen Show; this premiered in 1953 on the local station affiliate in New York City. Beginning in September 1954, it was renamed Tonight! and began its historic run on the full NBC network. Notes for hosting history The first Tonight announcer was Gene Rayburn. Allen's version of the show originated talk show staples such as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music including guest performers and a house band under Lyle "Skitch" Henderson; when the show became a success, Allen got a primetime Sunday comedy/variety show in June 1956, leading him to share Tonight hosting duties with Ernie Kovacs during the 1956–57 season. To give Allen time to work on his Sunday evening show, Kovacs hosted Tonight on Monday and Tuesday nights with his own announcer and bandleader.
During the Steve Allen years, regular audience member Lillian Miller became such an integral part that she was forced to join American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, the television/radio performers union. She would continue to perform the same service for most of the major talk shows for decades, including those hosted by Paar, Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, a
Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria. Drums were used in the 1950s and into the 1960s as computer memory. For many early computers, drum memory formed the main working memory of the computer, it was so common that these computers were referred to as drum machines. Some drum memories were used as secondary storage. Drums were displaced as primary computer memory by magnetic core memory, a better balance of size, cost and potential for further improvements. Drums were replaced by hard disk drives for secondary storage, which were less expensive and denser; the manufacture of drums ceased in the 1970s. A drum memory contained a large metal cylinder, coated on the outside surface with a ferromagnetic recording material, it could be considered the precursor to the hard disk drive, but in the form of a drum rather than a flat disk. In most designs, one or more rows of fixed read-write heads ran along the long axis of the drum, one for each track.
The drum's controller selected the proper head and waited for the data to appear under it as the drum turned. Not all drum units were designed with each track having its own head. Some, such as the English Electric DEUCE drum and the Univac FASTRAND had multiple heads moving a short distance on the drum in contrast to modern HDDs, which have one head per platter surface; the performance of a drum with one head per track is determined entirely by the rotational latency, whereas in an HDD its performance includes a rotational latency delay plus the time to position the head over the desired track. In the era when drums were used as main working memory, programmers did optimum programming—the programmer positioned code on the drum in such a way as to reduce the amount of time needed for the next instruction to rotate into place under the head, they did this by timing how long it would take after loading an instruction for the computer to be ready to read the next one placing that instruction on the drum so that it would arrive under a head just in time.
This method of timing-compensation, called the "skip factor" or "interleaving", was used for many years in storage memory controllers. Tauschek's original drum memory had a capacity of about 500,000 bits. One of the earliest functioning computers to employ drum memory was the Atanasoff–Berry computer, it stored 3000 bits. The outer surface of the drum was lined with electrical contacts leading to capacitors contained within. Magnetic drums were developed for the US Navy during WW II with the work continuing at Engineering Research Associates in 1946 and 1947. An experimental study was completed at ERA and reported to the Navy on June 19, 1947. Other early drum storage device development occurred at Birkbeck College, Harvard University, IBM and the University of Manchester. An ERA drum was the internal memory for the Atlas 1 computer delivered to the US Navy in October 1950. Through mergers ERA became a division of UNIVAC shipping the Series 1100 drum as a part of the UNIVAC File Computer in 1956.
The first mass-produced computer, the IBM 650, had about 8.5 kilobytes of drum memory. As late as 1980, PDP-11/45 machines using magnetic core main memory and drums for swapping were still in use at many of the original UNIX sites. In BSD Unix and its descendants, /dev/drum was the name of the default virtual memory device, deriving from the use of drum secondary-storage devices as backup storage for pages in virtual memory. Drum memory is referenced in The Story of Mel, in which the skilled programmer Mel optimizes programs written for a drum memory computer by taking advantage of the time to process an instruction and the time for the drum to rotate so that the next instruction or data can be read, or optimizing in the opposite direction when the program should wait before proceeding. Magnetic drum memory units were used in the Minuteman ICBM launch control centers from the beginning in the early 1960s until the REACT upgrades in the mid-90's. CAB500 Karlqvist gap Manchester Mark 1 Random-access memory Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer Carousel memory The Story of Mel: the classic story about one programmer's drum machine hand-coding antics: Mel Kaye.
Librascope LGP-30: The drum memory computer referenced in the above story referenced on Librascope LGP-30. Librascope RPC-4000: Another drum memory computer referenced in the above story Oral history interview with Dean Babcock
Unimation was the world's first robotics company. It was founded in 1962 by Joseph F. Engelberger and George Devol and was located in Danbury, Connecticut. Devol had applied for a patent an industrial robotic arm in 1954. S. Patent 2,988,237 was issued in 1961. Devol collaborated with Engelberger, who served as president of the company, to engineer and produce an industrial robot under the brand name Unimate, they introduced their new robot in 1961 at a trade show at Chicago's Cow Palace. The first Unimate prototypes were controlled by vacuum tubes used as digital switches though versions used transistors. Further, parts available off-the-shelf in the late 1950s, such as digital encoders, were not adequate for the Unimate, so with Devol's guidance and a team of skilled engineers, Unimation designed and machined every part in the first Unimates, they invented a variety of new technologies, including a unique rotating drum memory system with data parity controls. In 1960, Devol sold the first Unimate robot, shipped in 1961 to General Motors.
GM first used the machine for die casting spot welding of car bodies. The first Unimate robot was installed at GM's Inland Fisher Guide Plant in Ewing Township, New Jersey in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die-casting machine and stack them. Soon companies such as Chrysler and Fiat saw the necessity for large Unimate purchases; the introduction of robotics to the manufacturing process transformed the automotive industry, with Chrysler and the Ford Motor Company soon following General Motors' lead and installing Unimates in their manufacturing facilities. The rapid adoption of the technology provided Unimation with a working business model: after selling the first Unimate at a $35,000 loss, as demand increased, the company was able to begin building the robotic arms for less and thus began to turn a substantial profit; the PUMA was developed by Victor Scheinman at Unimation in 1978. Developed for General Motors, the PUMA was based on the earlier Vicarm design Scheinman invented while at Stanford University.
Unimation produced PUMAs for years until being purchased by Westinghouse, by Swiss company Stäubli
Inland Fisher Guide Plant (New Jersey)
The Inland Fisher Guide Plant was a General Motors facility located in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey, that opened in 1938 as one of its most modern plants and was operated by the firm for 60 years. The facility was part of the Ternstedt division of GM's Fisher Body unit and was used to construct auto parts such as body moldings, door handles and other interior components. During World War II, the facility was converted to build torpedo bombers for the United States Navy as part of GM's Eastern Aircraft. In 1961, the plant was the site of the first industrial robot used in the United States. At the time of its closure in 1998, the plant made auto components for Delphi Automotive; the buildings on the site were demolished. By 2011 funding had been received by Ewing Township from the federal government to remediate contamination on the site in anticipation of plans to redevelop the area for commercial purposes; the plant was constructed at a cost of $2 million and had its groundbreaking ceremonies in August 1937 that were attended by Governor of New Jersey Harold G. Hoffman.
The plant was dedicated in November 1938 at ceremonies attended by GM Chairman Alfred P. Sloan and company president William S. Knudsen; the facility employed a crew of 1,500 when it opened in September 1938, though plans were made to double the number of employees to accommodate expectations that production would be doubled as the condition of the American economy improved in the wake of the strong Republican gains in the 1938 congressional elections, which Sloan described as being an "indication of returning common sense." Car part production at the plant ended on December 12, 1941, one month the factory became a unit of Eastern Aircraft, one of five former General Motors plants in the area, shifted to the war effort and used to construct the TBM variants of the Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bomber for the United States Navy during World War II. Subassemblies from other factories were shipped to Ewing Township via the Reading Railroad and were combined with other components built at Ewing, with the completed planes brought to Skillman Airport for delivery to the military after test flights were completed.
The first Avenger built at the plant was test flown in November 1942, less than eight months after the facility had started being converted to military purposes. A total of 7,800 Avengers were constructed at the plant in Ewing, including the plane George H. W. Bush was flying on September 2, 1944, when he was shot down over the Pacific Ocean by Japanese anti-aircraft fire. In September 1945, the Navy turned all of the plants it had acquired during the war over to the Surplus Property Administration. After the war ended, the plant was converted to return to production of auto components. In 1961, the facility became the first commercial user in the United States to use a programmable industrial robot to replace human workers, installing the 4,000 pounds Unimate automated hydraulic arm developed by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, it carried units of aluminum door handles and other automotive components weighing as much as 40 pounds into cooling pools. A task performed by three shifts of employees was converted to be done by the robot.
The first production Unimate was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1971 after being used for 100,000 hours during its 10 years of continuous operation at the Ewing plant. In December 1992, General Motors announced that what was known as the Delphi Interior & Lighting Systems plant would be closed in 1993, which would mean that the 2,200 people working there would be out of work. In September 1993, William D. Hurley of Independent Component Systems announced that a deal had been reached to acquire the plant from General Motors, as part of an agreement, reached with the assistance of the State of New Jersey, though the transaction never was completed. After reaching concessions with Local 731 of the United Auto Workers, General Motors announced in May 1994 that the plant would be kept open as the result of an agreement with the UAW under which the plant's workforce would be reduced by 25% as an effort to reduce costs. In 1998, as the plant was no longer economically competitive with other manufacturing facilities, it was permanently closed, resulting in the loss of jobs for the 900 people, producing seat adjusters and painted exterior components.
The last day of operation was on June 12, 1998, the 350 workers still on the payroll, who were promised job opportunities elsewhere, were given commemorative books as they punched out for their last time. The plant was demolished and General Motors paid annual property taxes of $75,000 as of 2010 for the 80 acres of land occupied by the plant, the minimum that would be due for unimproved property. While the building had been assessed for $7 million while it was operating, the value of the property for taxation purposes had declined to $940,000 by 2010 for the vacant land; the site has been targeted for cleanup and commercial redevelopment by Ewing Township, with a $10.4 million grant received in 2011 to cover the costs of remediation of the site. The funds would come from the Revitalizing Auto Communities Environmental Response Trust established following the 2009 bankruptcy filing by General Motors, to be used for the cleanup of 89 properties, owned by GM, it will be distributed to Ewing Township as the remediation project progresses under the supervision of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection