Union City, New Jersey

Union City is a city in the northern part of Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. According to the 2010 United States Census the city had a total population of 66,455, reflecting a decline of 633 from the 67,088 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 9,076 from the 58,012 counted in the 1990 Census; as of the 2010 Census it was the second most densely populated city in the United States, with a density of 51,810.1 per square mile. Union City was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on June 1, 1925, with the merger of Union Hill and West Hoboken Township; the city's name marks the combination of the two municipalities. Two major waves of immigration, first of German speakers and of Spanish speakers influenced the development and character of Union City, its two nicknames, "Embroidery Capital of the United States" and "Little Havana on the Hudson", reflect important aspects of that history. Thousands visit Union City each year to see the nation's longest-running passion play and the annual Cuban Day Parade of New Jersey.

The city is notable for being the location where Mallomars were first sold and the site of the first lunch wagon built by Jerry and Daniel O'Mahoney and John Hanf, which helped spark New Jersey's golden age of diner manufacturing, made the state the diner capital of the world. The area of what is today Union City was inhabited by the Munsee-speaking branch of Lenape Native Americans, who wandered into the vast woodland area encountered by Henry Hudson during the voyages he conducted from 1609 to 1610 for the Dutch, who claimed the area and named it New Netherland; the portion of that land that included the future Hudson County was purchased from members of the Hackensack tribe of the Lenni-Lenape and became part of Pavonia, New Netherland. The relationship between the early Dutch settlers and Native Americans was marked by frequent armed conflict over land claims. In 1658 by New Netherland colony Director-General Peter Stuyvesant re-purchased the territory; the boundaries of the purchase are described in the deed preserved in the New York State Archives, as well as the medium of exchange: "80 fathoms of wampum, 20 fathoms of cloth, 12 brass kettles, 6 guns, one double brass kettle, 2 blankets, one half barrel of strong beer."

In 1660, he ordered the building of a fortified village at Bergen to protect the area. It was the first permanent European settlement in New Jersey, located in what is now the Journal Square area of Jersey City near Academy Street. In 1664, the British captured New Netherland from the Dutch, at which point the boundaries of Bergen Township encompassed what is now known as Hudson County. North of this was the unpopulated Bergen Woods, which would be claimed by settlers, after whom a number of Union City streets today are named, including Sipp Street, Brown Street, Golden Lane, Tournade Street and Kerrigan Avenue, named after J. Kerrigan, the owner of Kerrigan Farm, who donated the land for Saint Michael's Monastery; the area that would one day be Union City, remained sparsely populated until the early 19th century. The British granted Bergen a new town charter in 1668. In 1682 they created Bergen County, named to honor their Dutch predecessors; that county comprised all of present-day Hudson and Passaic counties.

Sparsely inhabited during the 17th and 18th centuries, the southeast section of Bergen County had grown by the early 19th century to the point where it was deemed necessary to designate it a separate county. The New Jersey legislature created Hudson County in 1840, in 1843, it was divided into two townships: Old Bergen Township and North Bergen Township, separated into Hudson County's present day municipalities: Hoboken in 1849, Weehawken and Guttenberg in 1859, West Hoboken and Union Township. West Hoboken was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 28, 1861, from portions of North Bergen Township; the township was reincorporated on April 6, 1871, again on March 27, 1874. Portions of the township were ceded to Weehawken in 1879. On June 28, 1884, West Hoboken was reincorporated as a town, based on an ordinance passed nine days earlier; the town was reincorporated on April 24, 1888, based on the results of a referendum passed 12 days earlier. Union Township, or Union, was formed through the merger of a number of villages, such as Dalleytown, Buck's Corners and Cox's Corners.

The largest of these villages, Union Hill, became the colloquial name for the merged town of Union itself. The northern section of Union Township was incorporated as West New York in 1898. Union City was incorporated on June 1, 1925, by merging the two towns of West Hoboken and Union Hill; the name of one of the city's schools, Union Hill Middle School, recalls the former town. In the 18th century and English merchants first settled the area. German immigrants immigrated from Manhattan. Irish, Armenians, Eastern European Jews and Italians followed. In 1851, Germans moved across the Hudson River from New York City in search of affordable land and open space. During the Civil War a military installation, Camp Yates, covered an area now bounded by Bergenline and Palisade Avenues from 22nd to 32nd Street. Germans began to settle what would become Union Hill in 1851, some descendants of the immigrants of this period live in the city today. Although the area's diversity was represented by the more than 19 nationalities that made their home in the Dardanelles from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, German Americans and Dutch dominated the area.

Along with Swis

Max Stern Art Restitution Project

The Max Stern Art Restitution Project was initiated as an effort to locate artworks lost by Dr. Max Stern during World War II. Max Stern was a world-renowned art collector and gallery owner who died in 1987. During World War II, Stern was relocate to Canada. While escaping, he lost his private collection of valued artworks through forced sale and confiscation. After the war, Stern sought restitution of these works, he had limited success and only managed to recover several pieces. The majority of his property was never returned; the Max Stern Art Restitution Project was established by the executors and university beneficiaries of the Max Stern Estate. An official announcement outlining the initiation of the project and its goals was made on April 28, 2005; this announcement occurred in Quebec, was given by Dr. Clarence Epstein of Concordia University; the project is seeking the restitution of art pieces owned by the late Max Stern. These pieces were either sold under duress in the 1930s. While project members realize that locating missing artwork is a great challenge, they decided that the moral and financial imperatives surrounding the cause make it worth the effort.

Concordia University has been a leader in the restitution movement, is working with the Art Loss Register in London, the Commission of Looted Art in Europe, the New York State Holocaust Claims Processing Office. Since Concordia launched its efforts, 250 artworks owned by Stern have been identified; these include pieces by Brueghel, Bosch and Winterhalter. Five works have been located in the United States, the Netherlands or Germany; as artworks are reclaimed and possession is acquired, estate executors plan to loan the pieces to museums and galleries. This decision was made based on Max Stern's ideals, as he was always encouraging art education and passion in Canada and around the world. Executors and beneficiaries have expressed their wish to avoid using the courts, instead wish to utilize moral persuasion in convincing institutions and individuals to return works to the appropriate beneficiaries; the Max Stern Art Restitution Project was not initiated only to find missing works. Rather, it was created as an incentive to motivate governments, museums and the art trade towards resolving injustices caused by Nazi cultural policies.

In order to commence this movement, the restitution project chose to spearhead the Auktion 392 exhibit. Launched in fall of 2006, Auktion 392 is a traveling exhibit surrounding the forced sale of Stern paintings in the Lempertz auction house during 1937; this exhibit was created by designer Andrew Elvish. It accompanies the seminal research of Professor Catherine MacKenzie and MA students from Concordia's Department of Art History; the exhibition outlines the unique story of Max Stern, the legal issues of art restitution stemming from anti-Semitic policies during World War II. There is historical meaning behind the name of this exhibit. In 1935, after Stern had his art trading license withdrawn, he was forced to sell his artworks under extreme duress; the sale was arranged by Lempertz auctioneers in Cologne, the auction was titled Auktion 392. This exhibit is valuable to the Max Stern Art Restitution Project, as it raises public awareness of art restitution matters. Recovering the missing artwork has been no simple task.

There have been several instances where pieces have been located, but a lack of cooperation keeps the works from being acquired. Take, for example, the issue surrounding two artworks sold under duress by Stern; the two paintings, Market Scene in the Piazza Navona and Market Scene in the Piazza del Quirinale, were created by a Dutch Baroque painter named Mathijs Naiveu. These paintings were discovered while being auctioned in the Van Ham auction house, located in Cologne. On November 8, 2006, it was requested; the Stern Estate had been pursuing the paintings for several years since the possessor tried to sell them in Amsterdam. The German possessor refused to acknowledge the forced sale that took place during the Nazi era; the Van Ham sale was scheduled to proceed despite the tainted history. In order to be reclaimed, each discovered artwork has to run through a legal process which varies depending on its located country; some pieces present extreme challenges, like the Neufchatel portrait of Jan van Eversdijck.

Upon discovery, this portrait was deemed part of the patrimony of the Illes Beleares province in Spain. This patrimony made difficult for project members to claim their right of ownership; the painting has since been restituted and is one of the 11 paintings reclaimed by the Max Stern Art Restitution Project. This particular portrait was easy to locate because it was posted on a museum website up until 2006. Other paintings are much more difficult to find; this difficulty stems from the fact that a large number of Stern's stock was not illustrated, few of the given titles were to have remained over the years. Art galleries and auction houses are not required to provide background information on works of art in their possession. Dealers will be in possession of the full story behind a specific painting, but choose to suppress this information for business reasons. Research conducted has learned that upwards of forty paintings owned by Stern have since been re-offered on the market in the last two decades through major auction houses in Germany.

The Stern Estate continues to plead with German auction houses, hoping to make them recognize the validity of the estate's ownership rega

Rhinella amabilis

Rhinella amabilis is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae, endemic to Ecuador, only occurring in a fragmented area less than 100 square kilometres. Males measure 49–97 mm and females 50–85 mm in snout–vent length; this species is known only from elevations of 2,050 to 2,200 metres above sea level in the Loja Basin, an inter-Andean valley in Loja Province, Ecuador. It has a restricted distribution, it is listed as Critically Endangered, in view of its small and fragmentary extent of occurrence and the fact that there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. The apparent declines of this species might in part be due to the modification of much of the Loja basin area for agriculture and other regional development, it appears that populations of this toad in the area surrounding Provincia Loja have been affected by human activities. Disease might be a factor but there is no evidence to confirm this. Past collections indicate that the species was common at areas nearby creeks near plantations.

It appears that it has not been collected since 1968, a serious decrease might have taken place. The species has been collected in small pools and irrigation canals. Little is known of its habitat requirements or ecology, but breeding is presumed to take place in freshwater by larval development, it is active by night