click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Union County, Florida

Union County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida, the smallest in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,535; the county seat is Lake Butler. With a personal per capita income of $20,396, it is the fourth-poorest county in the United States. Union County was created in 1921 from part of Bradford County, it was named to honor the concept of unity. Union County is the location of the Reception and Medical Center. Union CI is home to part of Florida's Death Row; the death chamber is located at nearby Florida State Prison. Florida State Prison houses some death-row inmates. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 250 square miles, of which 244 square miles is land and 6.2 square miles is water. It is the smallest county by area in Florida. Bradford County, Florida – southeast Alachua County, Florida – south Columbia County, Florida – west Baker County, Florida – north At the 2000 census, there were 13,442 people, 3,367 households and 2,606 families residing in the county.

The population density was 56 per square mile. There were 3,736 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.62% White, 22.84% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.50% from two or more races. 3.55 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of the 3,367 households, 41.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.60% were non-families. 19.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.13. The age distribution was 21.80% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 39.80% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 183.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 215.20 males.

This skewed gender distribution is the result of the county's male prison population. The median household income was $34,563, the median family income was $37,516. Males had a median income of $28,571 versus $22,083 for females; the county's per capita income was $12,333. About 10.50% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 16.20% of those age 65 or over. The county suffers a death rate of about 1600 per the highest in the nation; the Florida Department of Corrections operates Region II Correctional Facility Office in an unincorporated area in Union County. FDOC maintains the Union Correctional Institution in an unincorporated area in the county. Union Correctional Institution houses one of two death rows for men in Florida. About a third of the county's population is imprisoned, compared to a statewide figure of one-half percent; the Union Juvenile Residential Facility of the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice is in an unincorporated area in Union County.

Union County School District serves the county. The Union County Public Library serves the county; the branch is at 250 SE 5th Avenue, Lake Butler, Florida 32054. Its director is Mary C. Brown; the branch is open Monday, Wednesday–Friday 9 am–6 pm, Tuesday 9 am–8 pm, Saturday 9 am–3 pm. National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Florida Union County Times newspaper that serves Union County, Florida available in full-text with images in Florida Digital Newspaper Library Union County Public Library - Website for Union County's library with links to government services and the tri-county area's library catalog. Lake Butler Community Page a non-official'Community Page' created by a local resident to help share information about events and more occurring in the Union County/Lake Butler area. Union County Board of County Commissioners Union County Supervisor of Elections Union County Property Appraiser Union County Sheriff's Office Union County Tax Collector Union County School Board Suwannee River Water Management District Union County Clerk of Courts Office of the State Attorney, 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Alachua, Bradford, Gilchrist and Union Counties Circuit and County Court for the 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida

Leiningen, Germany

Leiningen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Hunsrück-Mittelrhein; the municipality lies in the heights of the Vorderhunsrück 15 km from the Rhine and the Moselle, 30 km from Koblenz. The direct interchange onto the Autobahn A 61 affords a quick link to places to the south. From here run a great many hiking trails and a direct link to the Schinderhannes-Radweg. Leiningen’s Ortsteile besides the main centre called Leiningen, are Lamscheid and Schloß Reifenthal, which despite its name is a hamlet, not a castle or a palace; the Counts of Leyen at Gondorf were Leiningen’s lords in the Middle Ages. Beginning in 1794, Leiningen lay under French rule. In 1815 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. Since 1946, it has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the current municipality came into being on 7 June 1969 under the name Leiningen-Lamscheid and was a merger of two hitherto self-administering municipalities, dissolved, called Leiningen and Lamscheid.

On 1 January 1981, the name was shortened to Leiningen. This village’s history is bound with its namesake mineral spring – the name means “Sour Spring” or “Sour Well” – which had its first documentary mention in 1565. In 1780, this spring was set in stone as a token of thanks by Imperial Countess Marianne von der Leyen. About 1786, Sauerbrunnen was a spa centre and the water was sold abroad. By 1789, the well was falling into disrepair. In 1898, a housing was built to contain it, renovated in 1910, on 11 June of that year, the spring was recognized as the Lamscheider Stahlbrunnen; the council is made up of 12 council members, who were elected by majority vote at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman. Leiningen’s mayor is Frank Morschhäuser; the German blazon reads: Über erhöhtem blauem Schildfuß, darin ein silberner Pfahl, in Silber ein schwarzer Schalenbrunnen mit geteiltem schwarzen Wasserstrahl, begleitet rechts und links von einem roten Krug. The municipality’s arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Per fess abased argent a fountain basin on a short pedestal sable issuant from which four streams of the same, two each falling into each of two two-handled jugs gules standing on each side of the basin, azure a pale of the first aligned with the pedestal.

The lower part of the escutcheon recalls the Counts of Leyen at Gondorf, to whom Leiningen once belonged. The charges above the line of partition refer to the sour spring – Sauerbrunnen –, well known as far back as the 16th century for its good mineral water; the jugs symbolize the former exportation of the springwater. The following are listed buildings or sites in Rhineland-Palatinate’s Directory of Cultural Monuments: Catholic Church of the Raising Aloft of Christ’s Cross, Kirchstraße – quire tower, late 13th or early 14th century, aisleless church from before 1400.

Diezmo

The diezmo was a compulsory ecclesiastical tithe collected in Spain and its empire from the Middle Ages until the reign of Isabella II in the mid-19th century. The obligatory tithe was introduced to the Iberian peninsula in Aragón and Catalonia when they were frontier regions of the Carolingian Empire, it spread to the rest of Spain in the course of the Reconquista and to the Spanish colonies. It was a compulsory payment to the Catholic Church of one tenth of the fruits of agriculture or animal husbandry. There were two categories of tithes, one category for general products such as cereals, oil, sheep, etc. and another category that included more specific assets such as poultry, honey. The taxes were paid to a "collector" and distributed among the parishes and bishops. To facilitate the process, neighbors could designate a dezmero who would physically transport the products from the households of the contributors. In theory, at least, the diezmo was divided into three equal portions: one for the construction of churches, one to cover the costs of the clergy, one to cover the needs of the abbeys and monasteries.

In practice, the diezmo did not always retain its original purpose of subsidizing the Church. Feudal lords who were patrons of a monastery or church would gain the benefit of the tithe, or they might outright buy the right to the tithe from the Church, becoming tax farmers. Despite the name, the diezmo was not always ten percent; the actual amount differed in different times. Nor was it extended to all products of agriculture and husbandry, which led to market distortions as farmers shifted to whatever was not taxed; the most efficacious measure against fraud was excommunication, which would remain in place until one's debt was paid. In the Middle Ages, monarchs managed to participate in the benefit of the diezmo. Ferdinand III of Castile proposed to Pope Innocent IV the possibility that the royal treasury would receive the third of the diezmo destined for the construction of churches, in order to pay the costs of the siege of Seville. A share of two ninths was granted in 1247. Once this first participation was agreed to, the royal share went for some years.

Beginning in 1340, a portion of the diezmo was assigned to the State, under the designation of tercias reales. This became permanent in 1494. Philip II of Spain gained a new concession, el excusado, that reserved for the monarch the portion of the diezmo obtained by the leading dezmero in each parish; the reason invoked was Spain's wars against "infidels and "heretics". The diezmo was reduced during the Trienio liberal of 1821–1823, but restored in full force by the absolutist government that followed. In 1837 the permanent Spanish diezmo was suppressed, although it was extended year by year in order to pay the costs of the First Carlist War. In 1841, the diezmo was abolished and a lesser tax to support religion and clergy was established. However, the entire tax system of Spain was soon overhauled in the Spanish tax reform of 1845. In the American portions of the Spanish Empire, the diezmo was collected directly by civil functionaries for the Crown, on the condition that they would erect and maintain churches.

This tax constituted ten percent of the Spanish Crown's income, was collected from owners of ranches and rural buildings. In general, the Indians who made up the vast majority of the population in colonial Spanish America were exempted from paying tithes on such native crops as maize and potatoes that they raised for their own subsistence. After some debate, Indians in colonial Spanish America were forced to pay tithes on their production of European agricultural products, including wheat, cows and sheep; when various Latin American countries gained their independence from Spain in the 19th century, their governments took over the tax, considered an abuse by the Creole landowners. The tithe was abolished in several countries, including Mexico, soon after independence, around the time of the presidency of Santa Anna. Unlike the English word tithe, the Spanish word diezmo can refer to the tenth part of anything; the term diezmo—usually diezmo del rey —was applied to various tariffs as well as to the Church's tithe.

The diezmo y media or diezmo de lo morisco applied to trade with the Emirate of Granada. The diezmos de la mar applied to maritime trade between northern Europe; the term was applied at times to other taxes such as the diezmo de aceite. Schwaller, John Frederick, The History of the Catholic Church in Latin America: From Conquest to Revolution and Beyond, NYU Press, ISBN 0-8147-4003-0

Appuhamy

Appuhamy or Appuhami from Appoe and Hamie is a Sinhala surname or a given name used in Sri Lanka. It is a term used for Dugaganna Rala of Kandyan era kings. In the beginning, Appuhamy's belongs from the members of the three families referred to as Chamberlains, they rendered their services to the Royalty as watchmen or guardsmen of the Barrier of Royal Bed Chamber, the Royal Time Keepers Point and the Royal Gold Weaponry or Armory. The title of Appuhamy was given as a mark of appreciation. Alternative titles were Dugaganna Nilame. Hathapenage The Hathapanage Appuhamy's served under officers named Muhandiram Nilame of the Maha Hathapenage, the secretary, Kankanama. Of them, 12 guards used to hold a stabbing equipment, named Illukkole, it was their custom to wear a mouth guard. This was a white cloth ribbon about one inch in breadth. Earlier, this mouth guard was two inches in breadth. In this garment, the piece covering the mouth was a red piece of cloth called Paccawadam, while the rest of the cloth was white.

Atapattu Murapola The Royal Time Keepers Point was known as The Water Clock Gate. Earlier they were 50 to 60 in number but the last Sinhala King brought it down to 48. Putting the water clock plates in position and accompany the King while touring was one of their duties; the Atapattu Maduwa was a building place close to the Royal Palace. Those serving here placed four water clock plates in the pond and to inform the time, they rang a bell, they had divided the daytime into the night into four Jamas or Phases in such a manner. The night was thus divided into 8-7-7-8 hourly four phases. According to this, the bell was rung once, thrice, 4-8, 6, 5-1, times. Auspicious times for each function was declared via this medium. During daytime, more than three Appuhamy's did serve rarely. Half of from those who came for the night shift slept. Ran Avudu Mandapa While the King toured, it was their duty to carry various weapons to serve the King; the Lacquer-craftsmen Archers living in Matale Hapuvida Village supplied lacquer-worked decorated handles for carrying the items.

The Appuhamy officers belonged to families with proven sacrificial devotion to the King. They commanded high honour from the countrymen; the post of becoming an Appuhamy was competitive and contested as they were the starting points of other vital position within the King's kingdom. When King Veera Parakrama Narendra Singha presented the opinion that it would suffice if Appuhamy's served the King every alternate month, in shifts, like other officers within the kingdom, the Appuhamy's collectively declined the proposition with the reason that they would fall into the same despicable level of lethargy and inefficiency as other officers; the Appuhamy's appealed to the King to grant them permission to render continued services and when they would want a release from services for personal reasons, they would send the request for prior approval from the Throne. During the time of King Rajadhi Raja Singha in his Hathapenage Murapola, there were 112 Appuhamy's in service; the number reduced to 48 by the time.

They could go past the Queens. They were not under the charge of the High Officers like Dissawe. Appuhamy's enjoyed various rights and incomes generated from their lands and services to the King, they were bound to bring the Pingo of rice as the Duty to the Royals. At given times, they were exempted from this duty. Yet, in case it was not stated down in the Lekampotha, the exemption was only temporary. For each of the Duggannarala, a village and a man was allocated; the villagers did the cultivation work for free in his fields. They repaired his Walauwa, the stately mansion; the villagers supplied the monthly requirement of rice. A month's requirement was termed as Barak, namely 60 Hundus. A Hundu contained 8, at times 10 palm fulls. A designated man called Agubalana Nilame, the Royal Tester, tested the prepared Royal Victuals supplied to the King for consumption; this tasting was effected as a pre-testing as to whether the victuals were contaminated with any poison. Agubalana Nilame was considered as a Duggannarala.

The term, were used in various other contexts: An honorary titled received by royal appointment. Members of high case families, such as Yapa Appuhamilage, Epa Appuhamilage and Wijayasundra Appuhamilage used Appuhamy as a surname. In the words of Baldius, the Govi Vamsa had two divisions, known as Appuhamy and Saparamadu Appuhamy. Muhuppu is a title derived from the same root word'Appu' and'Maha', conferred on the chief lay custodian by the Catholic Church of Sri Lanka. Prince Don John, who became Don John Appuhamy prior to winning the Kandyan throne under the name of King Wimaladharmasuriya was renowned as Appuhamy, according to Baldius. Govigama Radala Sinhalese people

Francization of Brussels

The Francization of Brussels refers to the evolution, over the past two centuries, of this Dutch-speaking city into one where French has become the majority language and lingua franca. The main cause of this transition was the rapid, yet compulsory assimilation of the Flemish population, amplified by immigration from France and Wallonia; the rise of French in public life began by the end of the 18th century accelerating as the new capital saw a major increase in population following Belgian independence. Dutch — of which standardization in Belgium was still weak — could not compete with French, the exclusive language of the judiciary, the administration, the army, high culture and the media; the value and prestige of the French language was so universally acknowledged that after 1880, more after the turn of the century, proficiency in French among Dutch-speakers increased spectacularly. Although the majority of the population remained bilingual until the second half of the 20th century, the original Brabantian dialect was no longer passed on from one generation to another, leading to an increase of monolingual French-speakers from 1910 onwards.

This language shift weakened after the 1960s, as the language border was fixed, the status of Dutch as an official language was confirmed, the economic center of gravity shifted northward to Flanders. However, with the continuing arrival of immigrants and the post-war emergence of Brussels as a center of international politics, the relative position of Dutch continued to decline; as Brussels' urban area expanded, a further number of Dutch-speaking municipalities in the Brussels periphery became predominantly French-speaking. This cultural imperialism phenomenon of expanding Francization imbued with a condescending attitude of some unilingual French-speaking communities towards Dutch — dubbed "oil slick" by its opponents — is, together with the future of Brussels, one of the most controversial topics in Belgian politics. Around the year 1000, the County of Brussels became a part of the Duchy of Brabant with Brussels as one of the four capitals of the Duchy, along with Leuven, and's-Hertogenbosch.

Dutch was the sole language of Brussels. Not all of Brabant, was Dutch-speaking; the area south of Brussels, around the town of Nivelles, was a French-speaking area corresponding to the modern province of Walloon Brabant. In Brussels as well as other parts of Europe, Latin was used as an official language. From the late 13th century, people began to shift usage to the vernacular; this occurrence took place in Brussels and in other Brabantian cities, which had all transformed by the 16th century. Official city orders and proclamations were thenceforth written in Middle Dutch; until the late 18th century, Dutch remained the administrative language of the Brussels area of the Duchy of Brabant. As part of the Holy Roman Empire, Brabantian cities enjoyed many freedoms, including choice of language. Before 1500, there were no French documents in the Brussels city archives. By comparison the cities in the neighboring County of Flanders such as Bruges, Ghent and Ypres the percentage of French documents in city archives fluctuated between 30% and 60%.

Such high level of French influence had not yet developed in the Dutch-speaking areas of the Duchy of Brabant, including Brussels. After the death of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant, in 1406, the Duchy of Brabant became a part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the use of the French language increased in the region. In 1477, Burgundian duke Charles the Bold perished in the Battle of Nancy. Through the marriage of his daughter Mary of Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Low Countries fell under Habsburg sovereignty. Brussels became the capital of the Burgundian Netherlands known as the Seventeen Provinces. After the death of Mary in 1482 her son Philip the Handsome succeeded as the Duke of Brabant. In 1506 he became the king of Castile, hence the period of the Spanish Netherlands began. After 1531, Brussels was known as the Princely Capital of the Netherlands. After the division of the Netherlands resulting from the Eighty Years' War and in particular from the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish forces, the economic and cultural centers of the Netherlands migrated to the northern Dutch Republic.

About 150,000 people stemming from the intellectual and economic elites, fled to the north. Brabant and Flanders were engulfed in the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic priests continued to perform the liturgy in Latin. Dutch was thus considered to be anti-Catholic. In the context of the Counter-Reformation, many clerics of the Low Countries had to be educated at the French-speaking University of Douai. However, Dutch was not utterly excluded in the religious domain. For instance, Ferdinand Brunot reported that, 1638 in Brussels, the Jesuits "preached three times a week in Flemish and twice in French". While Dutch became standardized by the Dutch Republic, dialects continued to be spoken in the south; as in other places in Europe during the 17th century, French grew as a language of the nobility and upper class of society. The languages used in the central administration during this time were both French and, to a lesser extent, Spanish; some French-speaking nobility established themselves in the hills of Brussels, bringing with them French-speaking Walloon personnel.

This attracted a considerable number of other Walloons to Brussels who came either in search of work. This Walloon presence led to the adoption of Walloon words in the Brussels flav

Burst Ball Barrage!! Super B-Daman

Burst Ball Barrage!! Super B-Daman is a Japanese manga series serialized in Coro Coro Comics, based on Takara's B-Daman toy, it was first released in 1995. An anime series produced by Xebec was shown in TV Tokyo between January 4, 1999 to October 1, 1999. Team Guts consists of only three members in their first JBA tournament, but on in the story, in order to compete in the competition with other teams from different JBA department, other two members are decided for their new team; the original members of Team Guts are as follow: Tosaka Tamago Tamago is a young, energetic innocent boy who loves everything about B-daman and B-da Battles. He always recalls crash B-daman as his best friend, believe in the spirit of B-ders. Tamago always play his game and he has his own unique style of playing, without logic, he respects the other B-ders the same way he respects everything about B-daman, he'll never let a single one humiliate the B-da spirit of all B-ders. Tamago has a total of eight B-damans in the history of Super B-daman series, including his first B-daman, White B-daman.

All of his B-damans are Power-Type. These are Tamago's B-daman, listed order of B-daman. White B-daman Fighting Phoenix Battle Phoenix Combat Phoenix Guardian Phoenix Speed Phoenix Vanguard Phoenix Smash Phoenix Although, Tamago can by clumsy and too innocent at time being, while sighting the world at the bright side. He's not the smartest one after all. Nishibe Gunma / Sniper Gunma of the West Tamago's best friend, his long-time rival. Gunma is the most famous B-ders from Kanzai, known as "Sniper Gunma" or "Sniper from the West", from his unique accuracy and rapid fire skills. Gunma is a strategic and intelligent person, his plan always work as as he planned, he may think of some craziest tactics to overcome the enemies. He's the main man of Team Guts, the leader of the team. Although, unlike Tamago, Gunma is more mature and reasoning, he look at both side of the world, to observe the bad of the situation. However, after being friend with Tamago, Gunma's mind sometimes becomes out-of-reason, resulting himself trying out many mission-impossible tactics when Tamago is around.

Gunma believes that Tamago's spirit and power are beyond normal, he admitted that when Tamago is around, anything can be possible. In the history of Super B-daman series, Gunma has a total of 6 main b-daman. All of his B-damans support his accuracy in B-da Battles. Magnet Bomber Wild Wyvern Valiant Wyvern Spread Wyvern Flash Wyvern Although, Gunma is short-tempered, can be as clumsy as Tamago is. Gunma hates to be humiliated by some B-ders, for being in an infamous unknown team like Team Guts, for being weak without power. Gunma's only weak point is. Sarah / Magician Sarah Golden B-daman Stagg Sphinx Stagg Cerberus Power Sphinx The two new members are as follow: Kazama Yoshinori / Billy the Wild Wind of the East 2 Bomber System B-daman Blast Eagle and Blast Lion >>> Blast Griffon Phantom Eagle and Phantom Lion >>> Phantom Griffon Mirage Eagle and Mirage Lion >>> Mirage GriffonNegota Nekomaru Bomber System B-daman Hunting Lynx The assistance of this team is Dr. Tamano, one of the JBA staff that create and research about B-Daman.

Dr. Tamano is known to be one of the intelligent scientist in the JBA departments, who develop new system for new generation of B-Daman. Although, with Team Guts themselves, he sometimes act childishly to get some attention from the team. Atsumasa Ijuin: Kung Cerberos, konigh Kelbros, Konig Ceberus / OS System Motoo Saotome: Iron Cyclops Akari Hozomaki: Jungker Unicorn 51 White B-Daman 52 Black B-Daman 53 Blue B-Daman 54 Red B-Daman 55 Gold B-Daman 58 Green B-Daman 60 Yellow B-Daman 64 Angle Shot Special 65??? 68 Return Special 69??? 70??? 74 Master Koryuokou Special 78 Grey B-Daman 79 Fighting Phoenix 80??? 81??? 84 Sniper Special 85 Dark Blue B-Daman 90 Wild Wyvern 94 Stagg Sphinx 102 Master Koryoukou Special II 109 Junker Unicorn 112 Kong Cerberous 113 Dr. Tamano Special 114 Battle Phoenix 115 Iron Cyclops 116 JBA Proto 01 117 Blast Griffon 118 Valiant Wyvern 120 Natalius Posideidon 122 Hunting Lynx 123 Stag Cerberous 124 OS White B-Daman 125 OS Black B-Daman 126 OS Blue B-Daman 127 Master Koryoukou Special III 128 Burning Atlas 129 Combat Phoenix 130 JBA EX 01 132 Giga Salamander 133 EX Shadow Bomb Set 134 Cool Helios 135 Spread Wyvern 136 Shooting Basket Set 137 Crimson Gigant 138 Phantom Eagle 139 Phantom Lion 140 Blade Orochi 141 Guardian Phoenix 142 Striker Gemini 143 Guardian Phoenix