U.S. Route 19 in Georgia
U. S. Route 19 is a 349-mile-long U. S. Highway in the U. S. state of Georgia. It travels from the Florida state line south-southeast of Thomasville, through Albany and Atlanta, to the North Carolina state line at a point north of Lake Nottely. US 19 enters Georgia in a concurrency with SR 3 and SR 300 as the Georgia-Florida Parkway south-southeast of Thomasville. Within the vicinity of Thomasville, it has a concurrency with US 84 where it has intersections with Georgia State Route 122 and U. S. Route 319 before US 84 branches off to the west, it continues north, traveling through Meigs where it intersects SR 3 ALT and SR 111. It runs through Albany, where it becomes a limited-access highway, has a brief concurrency with US 82, the concurrency with SR 300 comes to an end. Further north, it runs through Americus, where it joins US 280 for one mile Ellaville, where it intersects SR 26. Between Taylor and Upson County, it has a concurrency with US 80 that ends south of Thomaston, runs through Zebulon where it runs in a one-way pair and intersects SR 18.
It joins proceeds north to Griffin. It proceeds through the western tip of Henry County, traveling through Hampton, home of the Atlanta Motor Speedway. US 19 continues north through Clayton County where it is known as Tara Boulevard, before entering Atlanta. Within Atlanta, US 19/US 41 runs along Northside Drive where it is joined by US 29/Georgia Connecting Route 3. From there, US 19/29/41/SR 3 runs north and curves northeast, passing by a group of condominiums called "The Villages of Castleberry Hill," before the road curves straight north between Nelson Street Southwest and Markham Street Southwest. Here the routes run along the west side of the Mercedes-Benz Stadium next door to the Georgia World Congress Center. US 29 leaves the concurrency with US 19/41 in the vicinity Georgia Tech, turns northwest onto US 78/US 278/SR 8, which leaves US 19/41 to go west; the highway curves northeast as it passes over some Norfolk Southern Railway lines turns north again at a partial interchange with Tech Parkway Northwest.
Leaving the vicinity of Georgia Tech, it splits from US 41/SR 3 after traveling through downtown Atlanta and turns right onto on 14th Street, the western beginning of SR 9. One block after the interchange with I-75/85 in Midtown, it has an intersection with a one-way pair with Spring Street before turning north on Peachtree Street The one-way pair ends at the vicinity of a complex interchange with Georgia State Route 13 and the Savannah College of Art and Design Atlanta Campus, just south of a crossing over I-85, which includes the historic Peachtree. After several miles, it intersects SR 141 in Buckhead, it follows Roswell Road north through the city of Sandy Springs. At its southern interchange with I-285, it splits from SR 9, overlaps I-285 between Exits 25 and 27, the latter of, for SR 400, which it overlaps north of there. Most of this section is a limited-access road with four lanes in each direction, becoming two lanes in each direction as the highway continues away from the northern suburbs of Atlanta.
It arrives in Dahlonega, where it is no longer concurrent with SR 400, before about 37 miles of curvy road, which includes a concurrency with US 129. From the north side of the state, the last major town it travels through is Blairsville. Northwest from there, US 19/129/SR 11 passes the southwest border of the Butternut Creek Golf Course before entering Youngstown; the road turns north again where it utilizes a short causeway over Wellborn Branch, a tributary of the Nottely River before intersecting the northern terminus of Pat Haralson Memorial Drive, across from this a local marina with a gas station/convenience store, small bait & tackle store and gift shop before the intersection with Pat Colwell Road. Random current and former boating and automotive-related businesses can be found along the way as the road enters Canal Lake where another short causeway that makes a pond leading to Stevens Branch Creek, is served by the Nottely Marina. Between an antique store and a furniture store, a power line right-of-way crosses from southeast to northwest as it heads over a mountain, the road runs along the east side of that power line.
Moving further away from those power lines, the road passes by a Cott Beverages production facility. A third causeway that creates a pond for Ivylog Creek, whereas further north a small culvert over Conley Creek is not used as a dam. Flashing lights on the top and bottom of the two signal crossing signs are an indication the routes are about to enter Ivylog where the eastern terminus of Georgia State Route 325 can be found across from Ivy Log Road. North of the heart of Ivy Log, the Ivy Log Cemetery can be found hidden away in a driveway among more residential zoning; the rest of the surroundings are farm and ranch land as it runs under another power line right-of-way running from southwest to northeast south of T Chapel Road. The last two intersections in the State of Georgia are local roads, the first named Tate Road and a dead end street named B. King Lane which leads to an antique store. A gas station and strip mall can be found on the southwest corner of the North Carolina state line, where SR 11 meets its northern terminus, while US 19 continues towards Erie, Pennsylvania and US 129 continues towards Knoxville, Tennessee.
In 2006, business and government officials in Southwest Georgia began a campaign to have I-185 extended to Monticello and connect with I-10. The proposed route of the highway would have traveled parallel to SR 520 to Albany, parallel to US 19. Loca
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Towns County, Georgia
Towns County is a county located on the northern border of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,471, its county seat is Hiawassee. The county was created on March 6, 1856 and named for United States lawyer and politician George W. Towns. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 172 square miles, of which 167 square miles is land and 5.4 square miles is water. Towns is in the Hiwassee River sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin, with a part of the county in the Tugaloo River sub-basin in the larger Savannah River basin, as well as a small portion of the county's southwestern corner in the Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin, near the source of the Chattahoochee in neighboring Union County. Towns County is located amidst the Blue Ridge Mountains, some of which are protected by the Chattahoochee National Forest. Brasstown Bald, the highest mountain in Georgia, rises in southwest Towns County, straddling the Union County line.
The source of the Hiwassee River is located in eastern Towns County, from which it flows northward into North Carolina. Chatuge Lake, an artificial reservoir created by the completion of Chatuge Dam by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1940s, dominates the northeastern section of Towns County and extends into North Carolina. State Route 515 from north of Atlanta ends here at the North Carolina state line near Young Harris; the county was traversed by a road built upon a traditional Cherokee trading path, which ran north to south through the county, passing through Unicoi Gap. It served as a line between European-American settlers and the Cherokee until after the Indian cessions and Indian Removal in the 1830s, when it fell into the hands of the whites; when the Cherokee were expelled by US forces from their villages, they were forced temporarily into "removal forts." One had been constructed in, the county seat. They were forced to travel what is known as the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, a journey during which many Cherokee died.
Clay County, North Carolina Rabun County Habersham County White County Union County Appalachian Trail Chattahoochee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 9,319 people, 3,998 households, 2,826 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile. There were 6,282 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.80% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,998 households out of which 20.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.90% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.61.
In the county, the population was spread out with 16.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 20.50% from 25 to 44, 28.30% from 45 to 64, 25.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females there were 89.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,950, the median income for a family was $37,295. Males had a median income of $28,657 versus $21,813 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,221. About 8.80% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. Towns County is inside the Bible Belt; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,471 people, 4,510 households, 2,981 families residing in the county. The population density was 62.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,731 housing units at an average density of 46.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.3% were Irish, 15.4% were German, 13.8% were English, 11.7% were American, 8.3% were Scotch-Irish. Of the 4,510 households, 20.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.65. The median age was 51.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,540 and the median income for a family was $48,020. Males had a median income of $31,668 versus $27,127 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,527. About 5.6% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Towns County were: English - 15.2% German - 15.1% American - 14.7% Irish - 13.3% Scottish - 5.2% Scots-Irish - 3.6% Italian - 3.4% French - 3.4% Swedish - 1.8% Polish - 1.7% Welsh - 1.6% Dutch - 1.6% Towns County's Sole Commissioner is Cliff Bradshaw, who has served since 2017.
Towns County's Sheriff, Chris Clinton, was elected in a special election in 2007. Sheriff Clinton was re-elected in the
The Hiwassee River has its headwaters on the north slope of Rocky Mountain in Towns County in the northern State of Georgia and flows northward into North Carolina before turning westward into Tennessee, flowing into the Tennessee River a few miles west of State Route 58 in Meigs County, Tennessee. The river is about 147 miles long; the river is dammed by the Tennessee Valley Authority in four locations, all in western North Carolina. Chatuge Dam, Mission Dam, Hiwassee Dam, Apalachia Dam. Water is diverted from the stream bed at Apalachia Dam and sent through a pipeline, tunneled through the mountains for eight miles flows through the Apalachia Powerhouse to generate electricity; the stretch of the river that flows between Apalachia Dam and Apalachia Powerhouse features reduced flow and is followed by the John Muir Trail in Tennessee's Cherokee National Forest. The 23-mile stretch of river that flows from the North Carolina/Tennessee state line to U. S. Highway 411 near Delano is designated a State Scenic River and for recreational purposes is managed by the state Resource Management Division, in cooperation with TVA.
The river features Class I depending on water levels. After exiting the mountains through a gorge, the Hiwassee flows under US-411 and broadens, meandering through rural Polk and Bradley counties; the river crosses under U. S. Route 11 at Calhoun and Charleston, where local industries such as Bowater Newsprint Mill and Arch/Olin Chemical use river water in their operations. At this point the river interfaces with the impoundment of Chickamauga Dam, many marshes and wetlands surround the main channel, providing areas for hunting and fishing; the Hiwassee passes under Interstate 75 on the border of Bradley counties. The Hiwassee continues westward to pass under TN-58's historic, narrow, bridge on its way to the confluence with the Tennessee River; this area of the river is enjoyed by boaters and water skiers. Major tributaries include Valley River, Nottely River, Coker Creek, Big Lost Creek, Spring Creek, Conasauga Creek, Toccoa/Ocoee River; the Hiwassee River has been known by many variant spellings.
The best-known of these is Hiawassee, the name of the Georgia town through which the river flows. Other alternate spellings include Heia Wassea and Highwassee, some less obvious related names include Eufasee, Eufassee and Quannessee; some Cherokee say the name came from the Cherokee word Ayuhwasi, which means a savanna. The Muskogee say the river's name is the Koasati and Hitchiti, Creek language words for the copperhead snake; the river is known for its many copperheads today. Various Muskogean-speaking ethnic groups occupied the region for many centuries before the arrival of the Cherokee. Tribes related to them include the Creek, Choctaw and Seminole; some historians thought that because the Europeans had encountered the Cherokee in the Hiwassee Valley in the 18th century, the latter people had occupied the territory for a much longer period, but this is not the case. Their language is Iroquoian and they are believed to have migrated at an earlier time from south of the Great Lakes region, where several other Iroquoian tribes have been based, including the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee.
Spanish explorers visited the region in the 16th century. Hernando de Soto crossed the Hiwassee River near its confluence with the Tennessee River at Hiwassee Island, in the spring of 1541 AD. Juan Pardo followed a trail that paralleled the river in 1567 AD. All town names and indigenous words that were recorded by de Soto's chroniclers in present-day Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee, can be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. Most of the words are of the Koasati and Hitchiti languages, but a few are Muskogean and Alabama words. None of the words are Cherokee; the earliest European maps from the 17th century vaguely show the Hiwassee River Basin occupied by a mountain branch of the Apalachee and the Kusa. The Kusa were one of the ancestral branches of the "Upper Creek"; the Tama-tli of the Altamaha River Basin in southeastern Georgia are known to have had a colony in the valley between Andrews, North Carolina and the Hiwassee River at Murphy, North Carolina. The initial contacts by English explorers and traders in the 1690s found most of the river valley occupied by Muskogean and Yuchi towns.
Cherokee villages were north of the river at this time. In 1714, two traders in South Carolina supplied the Cherokee with firearms and directed them to attack the Yuchi villages on the Hiwassee River. Most of the men in one Yuchi town were gone. Not having firearms, the remaining Yuchi were massacred. In 1715, the Cherokee invited the leaders of the many Muskogean provinces that would comprise the Creek Confederacy to a diplomatic conference at Tugaloo at the headwaters of the Savannah River, they murdered the Muskogean leaders in their sleep. This precipitated a 40-year-long war between the Cherokee. Due to disunity among the Creek, the Cherokee were able to occupy the northeastern tip of what is now Georgia, but was part of South Carolina, they drove the Yuchi from most of North Carolina west and south of the Hiwassee. Most of the branches of the Creek lost interest in this war after a few years; the Hiwassee River and its tributaries were part of Cherokee territory in the early 18th century. A town known as "Hiwassee" was located near the mou
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website