Union Springs, Alabama

Union Springs is a city in and county seat of Bullock County, United States. The population was 3,980 at the 2010 census; the area that became Union Springs was first settled by white men after the Creek Indian removal of the 1830s. Twenty-seven springs watered the land; the city was incorporated on January 13, 1844. When Bullock County was formed in 1866, voters selected Union Springs as the county seat. Union Springs is located in southeastern Alabama near the center of Bullock County at 32°8'24.407" North, 85°42'46.094" West. The source of the Conecuh River is within the city limits; the city is located at the intersection of U. S. Route 82 and U. S. Route 29. Route 82 leads northwest 46 miles to Montgomery, the state capital. Route 29 leads southwest 40 miles to Troy. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Union Springs has a total area of 6.7 square miles, of which 6.6 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.93%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Union Springs has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,980 people, 1,461 households, 915 families residing in the city; the population density was 601 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,664 housing units at an average density of 248.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.8% Black or African American, 12.9% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% Pacific Islander, 12.8% from other races, and.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.0% of the population. There were 1,461 households out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.4% were married couples living together, 32.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 29.5% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,476, the median income for a family was $26,167. Males had a median income of $37,689 versus $21,372 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,485. About 39.0% of families and 44.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 73.9% of those under age 18 and 19.4% of those age 65 or over. Union Springs is served by the Bullock County School District. There are two highs schools in the city: Bullock County High School and Bullock County Career Technical Center. There is one middle school, South Highlands Middle School, one elementary school, Union Springs Elementary. Conecuh Springs Christian School is a private school for grades K through 12.

Union Springs Herald WQSI 93.9 FM The United States Postal Service operates the Union Springs Post Office. Alabama Department of Corrections operates the Bullock Correctional Facility in an Unincorporated community in Bullock County, east of Union Springs; the center of a cotton growing region, the arrival of the railroad spurred new economic growth after the Civil War. By the early 1900s, many of the old cotton plantations had become hunting preserves, attracting tourists; the city remains the economic hub of the surrounding agricultural counties. Union Springs hosts annual field trials for hunting dogs; these trials attract participants from around the country. Henry Babers, Christian evangelist, Bible teacher, scholar Winton M. Blount, United States Postmaster General John Warren Branscomb, bishop of the United Methodist Church Edith Burroughs, first African American to win a professional bowling tournament in the United States John Henrik Clarke, Pan-Africanist Fate Echols, NFL player Seal Harris, former heavyweight boxer Eddie Kendricks, co-founder of The Temptations Thom S. Rainer, President and CEO, LifeWay Christian Resources Tim Stowers, college football coach Helen Claire, Broadway actress Jimmy Hitchcock, first All-American football player at Auburn University Union Springs tourism website Bullock County School District


Salobreña is a town on the Costa Tropical in Granada, Spain. It claims a history stretching back 6,000 years. There are two main parts of Salobreña; the second part of Salobreña is new developments which spread from the bottom of the Old Town right to the beach. The whole town is surrounded by sugarcane fields on each side along the coast and further inland. Another tourist attraction in Salobreña is'El Peñón', which divides two of Salobreña's five beaches and juts out between Playa La Guardia and Playa de la Charca/Solamar and into the sea. At the close of the last glacial maximum, the Motril-Salobreña plain on which Salobreña now stands was not yet land: rather it was a large bay studded with a number of dolomite crags which were islands, most prominently the formation now known as Monte Hacho and the headland on which Salobreña now stands; the Guadalfeo river drained into the bay, running down the Tajo de los Vados gorge which separates the Sierra de Escalate to the north-east of Salobreña from the Sierra de Chaparral to the west.

The river filled the bay with silt comprising post-orogenic and quaternary material, producing a fertile alluvial plain, on which agriculture could begin by the Bronze Age. At this time, the outcrop on which the old town of Salobreña now stands had become a peninsula. Meanwhile, the rocky outcrop of the Peñon, which now juts from La Guardia beach into the sea, remained an island into the seventeenth century. A map of 1722 is the first evidence that the beach had reached making it a peninsula. Archaeological finds show human habitation around Salobreña at the rocky promontory known as the Peñon beginning in the neolithic period, when the Peñon was still an island, with strata beginning as early as the palaeolithic period and continuing into the bronze age at the Cueva del Capitán in the nearby hamlet of Lobres. Evidence of Bronze age settlement from around 1500 BCE has been found on the Salobreña headland and further inland again, Monte Hacho; such settlements would have been characteristic of the settlement of defensible rocky headlands in the region at the time.

Salobreña is thought to have experienced contact with the Phoenicians around the eighth century BCE and Greek and Punic culture around the sixth. At this time, its name is attested as Selambina. A major impact of Roman culture is, visible for the second century BCE, attested in widespread archaeological finds. In 713 CE, the region of Elvira came under the Arab rule of Mūsa bin Nusayr, by the tenth century, a castle at Salobreña is recorded in Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Musa al-Razi's Crónica del moro Rasis. Al-Razi noted the introduction of the cultivation of sugar cane at Salobreña; the main crop of medieval Salobreña was sugar-cane, though other attested crops include cumin and bananas. By the eleventh century, Ibn Hayyan could refer to Salobreña as a medina, a denomination that became usual by the fourteenth century, when Salobreña was the seat of government for surrounding hamlets like Vélez de Benaudalla and Lobres. In 1489, Granada came under Castilian rule, Francisco Ramirez de Madrid became governor of Salobreña's fortress and town.

The next year, the inhabitants of the town supported the resistance of Muhammad XII of Granada to Castilian rule, which speeded the increase of Castilian migration into the settlement. In 1568-69, the Moriscos of Salobreña participated in revolts. Sugar-cane remained key to the town's economy through the sixteenth century, returning to prominence in the nineteenth. In between, cotton became the dominant crop; the early-modern history of Salobreña is not well understood. In the nineteenth century, Salobreña was strategically important in the Spanish War of Independence, adopted new steam-technologies for sugar production pioneered in Cuba; the expansion of the town in the second half of the nineteenth century, driven by a boom in sugar-cane production led to the demolition of the last remains of its medieval walls. By the 1970s, settlement was expanding from the outcrop on which the old town sits onto the alluvial plain below. Today, the economy of the coastal plain around Salobreña is based on tourism and sugarcane agriculture, while the mountains are characterised by terraced agriculture with almond and sub-tropical fruit trees.

The last remaining cane sugar factory in Europe was located along the coast just west of the village of La Caleta de Salobreña. It closed in 2006. Salobreña's climate is a Mediterranean, semi-arid climate, with annual rainfall of 500mm per year, whose microclimate is sub-tropical. In the hotter months, average temperatures are around 24 °C, peaking in August around the mid 30 °C's during the day and mid 20 °C's at night and around 12 °C in the colder months; the annual average temperature is 17 °C. Everything you need to know about Salobreña, Spain - with beautiful photos


Passarim was a studio album by Antônio Carlos Jobim, released by Verve Records in 1987. Jobim recorded Passarim around the same time as Inédito and used the same musicians, his touring and recording group called A Banda Nova. Members included Jobim's wife Ana, his son Paulo, his daughter Elizabeth, as well as close friends Jaques and Paula Morelenbaum, Danilo Caymmi and his wife Simone. On the back cover and some center labels, Passarim is credited to "Antonio Carlos Jobim and The New Band." Passarim has received positive reviews. When the album came out, Leonard Feather gave it his highest recommendation in a Los Angeles Times review, saying, "The godfather of the bossa nova has not lost his touch.... Jobim is still the best interpreter of his own compositions. Charming is the wittily auto-biographical'Chansong,' describing his return to the United States.... Here, in short, is the bossa nova in its pristine, unspoiled state."In another contemporaneous review, Musician magazine offered mixed criticism of the album: "Passarim is first solo effort in years, you'd think he might have picked up some wisdom in this interlude, but here he is again, still trying to get by on songwriting gifts alone.

Not that he doesn't pull it off.... I guarantee; the dipping and soaring title cut, the self-parodic'Chansong' and the vintage'Luiza' all testify to Jobim's winning way with a melody. Too bad Passarim showcases Jobim's penchant for the sprawling and forgettable." More Richard S. Ginell at AllMusic praised the album, calling it, "Jobim's major statement of the'80s.... The title song is one of Jobim's most haunting creations, a cry of pain about the destruction of the Brazilian rain forest that resonates in the memory for hours.... His music repays repeated listening -- the extended suite from Jobim's score for the film Gabriela."Music critic Ben Ratliff, in a listening session with jazz guitarist Pat Metheny for The New York Times praised the title song, calling it "a three-and-a-half minute condensed masterpiece." Metheny responded, "It's so much more than a tune. This is like composition.... So advanced; the beauty of the harmony-major triads moving down throughout this whole thing, with different kinds of voices.

Plus, all that glue, melodic glue. Where are we now? We're two minutes into the track, where nothing has repeated yet. I mean, that's advanced the way. There's a connection there."In Musicians & Composers of the 20th Century, Matthew Nicholl hailed the album as a "masterpiece" and said that while Passarim was "not well-known in the United States, contains some of Jobim's greatest songs and themes." Thirteen songs were recorded for Passarim, including English and Portuguese-language versions of the title track and "Looks Like December/Anos Dourados." The original U. S. CD version contained all 13 tracks, with the two Portuguese versions listed as Bonus Tracks. Most new versions of the album follow this track listing. All songs written except where noted. "Passarim" - 3:36 "Bebel" - 3:11 "Borzeguim"– 4:23 "Looks Like December" - 3:45 "Isabella" – 3:22 "Fascinatin' Rhythm" - 2:10 "Chansong" – 3:18 "Samba do Soho" - 2:59 "Luiza" – 2:32 "Brazil Nativo" – 3:51 "Gabriela" – 7:56Bonus Tracks "Anos Dourados" – 3:46 "Passarim" – 3:36 The original vinyl album was released in two different versions that contained only 11 tracks.

Track order was the same on both versions but included either the English or Portuguese-language renditions of "Passarim" and "Looks Like December/Anos Dourados." Side A "Passarim" "Bebel" "Borzeguim" "Looks Like December" or "Anos Dourados" "Isabella" "Fascinatin' Rhythm"Side B "Chansong" "Samba do Soho" "Luiza" "Brazil Nativo" "Gabriela" Musicians Antônio Carlos Jobim – piano and vocals, lead vocals, arrangement Paulo Jobimguitar and vocals, lead vocal, arrangements Danilo Caymmi – flute and vocals, lead vocal Jaques Morelenbaumcello, arrangements Sebastião Netobass Paulo Bragadrums Ana Lontra Jobim – vocals Elizabeth Jobim – vocals Maúcha Adnet – vocals Paula Morelenbaum – vocals Simone Caymmi – vocals Chico Buarque – lead vocal Rubens Ohana de Miranda - percussion Production Paulo Jobim – Musical producer Jaques Morelenbaum – Musical producer Elizabeth Jobim – Cover painting