click links in text for more info

Union for Reform Judaism

The Union for Reform Judaism, known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations until 2003, founded in 1873 by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, is the congregational arm of Reform Judaism in North America. The other two arms established by Rabbi Wise are the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion and the Central Conference of American Rabbis; the current president of the URJ is Rabbi Richard Jacobs. The URJ has an estimated constituency of some 880,000 registered adults in 873 congregations, it claims to represent 2.2 million, as over a third of adult U. S. Jews, including many who are not synagogue members, state affinity with Reform, making it the largest Jewish denomination; the UAHC was a founding member of the World Union for Progressive Judaism, of which the URJ is the largest constituent by far. Reform Judaism known as Liberal or Progressive Judaism, embraces several basic tenets, including a belief in a theistic, personal God; the Reform movement upholds the autonomy of the individual to form their own Jewish beliefs, to be the final arbiter of their own spiritual practices.

At the same time, Reform Judaism stresses Jewish learning in order to gain insights into the tradition and make informed choices. The Reform movement encourages its members to participate in synagogue and communal Jewish life. Reform Judaism draws a distinction between the moral and ethical imperatives of Judaism and traditional ritual requirements and practices, which, it believes may be altered or renewed to better fulfill Judaism's higher function. Another central tenet of Reform Judaism is the belief that it is the universal mission of Jews to spread God's message, to be a light unto the nations. Reform Judaism foresees a future Messianic Age of peace, but without the coming of an individual Messiah or the restoration of the Third Temple and sacrificial cult in Jerusalem. Reform Judaism rejects the notion of bodily resurrection of the dead at the end of days, while affirming, at most, immortality of the soul. During its "Classical" era between the Civil War and the 1930s, American Reform rejected many ceremonial aspects of Judaism and the authority of traditional jurisprudence, favoring a more rationalistic, universalist view of religious life.

"New Reform", from the 1937 Columbus Declaration of Principles and onwards, sought to reincorporate such elements and emphasize Jewish particularism, though still subject to personal autonomy. Concurrently, the denomination prioritized inclusiveness and diversification; this became pronounced after the adoption of "Big Tent Judaism" policy in the 1970s. Old ritual items became fashionable again; the liturgy, once abridged and containing much English, had more Hebrew and traditional formulae restored, though not due to theological concerns. In contrast with "Classical", "New Reform" abandoned the drive to equate religious expression with one's actual belief. Confirmation ceremonies in which the young were examined to prove knowledge in the faith, once ubiquitous, were replaced by Bar and Bat Mitzvah, yet many adolescents still undergo Confirmation between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. A unique aspect of Reform was its interpretation to the old rabbinic concept of Tikkun Olam. Another key aspect of American Reform, which it shares with sister movements in the WUPJ, is its approach to Jewish identity.

Interfaith marriage, once a taboo – the CCAR penalized any involvement by its clergy in such ceremonies by ordinances passed in 1909, 1947 and 1962 – were becoming more prevalent toward the end of the 20th Century. In 1979, the URJ adopted a policy of embracing the intermarried and their spouses, in the hope the latter would convert. In 1983 it recognized Judaism based on patrilineal descent, affirming that offspring of a single Jewish parent would be accepted as inheriting his status if they would demonstrate affinity to the faith. Children of a Jewish mother who will not commit to Judaism were not to be considered Jewish; these measures made Reform the most hospitable to non-Jewish family members among major American denominations: in 2006, 17% of synagogue-member households had a converted spouse, 26% and unconverted one. These policies raised great tensions with the more traditional movements. Orthodox and Conservatives rejected the validity of Reform conversions before that, though among the latter, the greater proclivity of CCAR rabbis to perform the process under halachic standards allowed for many such to be approved.

Patrilineal descent caused a growing percentage of Reform constituency to be regarded as non-Jewish by the two other denominations. The URJ, named the "Union of American Hebrew Congregations" until 7 November 2003, incorporates 846 congregations in the United States and 27 in Canada; the Union consists of four administrative districts, East and Central, which in turn are divided into a total of 35 regional communities, comprising groups of local congregations. The URJ is led by a board of trustees; this board is overseen by the 5,000-member General Assembly. It was first assembled in Cleveland on 14 July 1874, the most recent biennial was held in Boston on 5–10 December 2017; the board directs the Senior Leadership Team, headed by the URJ President. Spiritual guidance is pro

2011 Bahraini parliamentary by-election

A parliamentary by-election was held in Bahrain on 24 September 2011 following the withdrawal of 18 members of the largest political party in parliament, al Wefaq, in protest at governmental actions during the Bahraini uprising. Security forces attacked protestors in the village of Sanabis; the second round of elections were held on 1 October 2011. The lower house of parliament has the authority to pass legislation proposed by the sovereign or the governing cabinet, as well as monitoring authority; the upper, unelected Consultative Council has the power to block legislation from the lower house. The minority Sunni Al-Khalifa dynasty has ruled the majority Shia country since 1783; the Bahraini uprising started in early 2011, with massive protests, occupation of the Pearl Roundabout and other responses by police, destruction of the Pearl Roundabout, entry of the Peninsula Shield Force to Bahrain. MPs from Al Wefaq, the largest party in parliament, resigned their seats in protest against the government's responses.

On Friday 23 September, dozens of people were arrested and some were badly beaten. Nabeel Rajab of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights reported that 38 women were detained for a 45-day period. On election day, 24 September, hundreds to thousands of protestors gathered in the village of Sanabis with the intention of marching to the Pearl Roundabout, physically occupied by protestors during the Bahraini uprising and whose monument had been destroyed by the authorities in response. Security forces used tear stun grenades and rubber bullets against the protestors. Graffiti near a voting station stated "Down with Hamad" and "The people want to bring down the regime". Turnout was 17.4% for the 14 contested districts due to a boycott by Al Wefaq and the rest of the opposition. The government however claimed a turnout of 51%, calculated over all 40 electoral districts, including districts where there was no contest in 2011. For the 22 uncontested districts whose MP did not withdraw from parliament, the government used turnout figures from the 2010 election.

For districts among these 22 that were uncontested in 2010, the government assumed 100% turnout. For the four uncontested districts whose MP withdrew from parliament, the government assumed 100% turnout. All of the new winners were independent candidates, unofficially regarded as being pro-Al Khalifa, as they did not heed to the Opposition boycott of the polls. Three women were among the new winners. Four seats were won uncontested, five seats were won after voting in the first round of the elections, while the remaining nine were decided by a second round of voting

Life and a Day

Life and a Day is a 2016 Iranian social drama film written and directed by Saeed Roustayi. Somaieh, the youngest daughter of an indigent family, is getting married and fear is overwhelming each and every member of the family regarding how to overcome their difficulties after she's gone. Payman Maadi as Morteza Navid Mohammadzadeh as Mohsen Parinaz Izadyar as Somaieh Rima Raminfar as Shahnaz Shirin Yazdanbakhsh as Mother Masomeh Rahmani as Leila Mehdi Ghorbani as Navid Best Screenplay Award at the Dhaka International Film Festival NETPEC Award and Best Prize at the Australian International Persian Film Festival Golden Reflection Award at the Geneva International Film Festival Special Appreciation Award from Gijón International Film Festival Award for Best Director from American Directors' Viewpoint Award for Best Actor in American Cinema to Maadi Moody Crystal Simorgh Award from Italian Cinema Award for Best Screenplay by French Cinema Winner Crystal Simorgh Best Actor in a Supporting RoleNavid Mohammadzadeh Best Actress in a Leading RoleParinaz Izadyar Best DirectorSaeed Roustayi Best First FilmSaeid Malekan First Film Competition - Best DirectingSaeed Roustayi Best ScreenplaySaeed Roustayi Audience Award Best FilmSaeid Malekan Best EditingBahram Dehghan Best MakeupSaeid Malekan For Emkane MinaNominee Crystal Simorg Best Actor in a Leading RolePayman Maadi Best Actress in a Supporting RoleShirin Yazdanbakhsh Best FilmSaeid Malekan Best Sound MixAmin Mirshekari and Alireza Alavian Iran Cinema Celebration 2016Nominee Jury Prize Best sound designAlireza Alavian Iran's Film Critics and Writers Association 2016Winner Jury Prize Best Motion Picture of the YearSaeed Roustayi Best Original ScreenplaySaeed Roustayi Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading RolePayman Maadi Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting RoleNavid Mohammadzadeh Winner Special Prize Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading RoleParinaz Izadyar Nominee Jury Prize Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting RoleShirin Yazdanbakhsh Best Achievement in CinematographyAli Ghazi Best Achievement in Music Written for FilmOmid Raiesdana Best Achievement in Film EditingBahram Dehghan Best Achievement in Costume DesignMohsen Nasrollahi and Ghazale Motamed Best Achievement in Sound MixingAmin Mirshekari and Alireza Alavian Award for Creativity and Talent /Saeed Roustayi Saeed Malekan's best technical achievement winnerDiploma of Honor for Best Actress at the 10th Celebration of Critics and Cinema Writers Awarded to Parinaz Izadyar.

Life and a Day on IMDb moviemeter Gijón Film Festival celebration-of-iranian-cinema-2017


Edlingham is a small village and civil parish in Northumberland in the north of England. At the 2001 census it had a population of 196, which had reduced to 191 at the 2011 Census; the road to Alnwick passes close by the village and the town of Rothbury is about 6 miles away. The name Edlingham means The home of Eadwulf in Anglo-Saxon, its recorded history goes back as far as 737 when King Coelwulf gave Edlingham and three other royal Northumbrian villages to Cuthbert. St. John the Baptist's Church dates from the 11th and 12th centuries, with a remarkable fortified tower added c.1300. Situated close to the church, Edlingham Castle has its origins in a house built by John de Edlingham in the 12th century, subsequently strengthened and fortified over the next three centuries. In the 15th century the castle had gate tower and strong palisade. However, agricultural requirements overtook the need for defence over the following 200 years, after 1514 the buildings were let to local tenant farmers for housing animals and crops, fell into disrepair.

By 1650 the castle was abandoned and over the next 300 years the theft of stonework left the building in ruins. Excavations were started in 1978 by English Heritage to make the remaining masonry safe for visitors; the Devil's Causeway passes the western edge of the village. The causeway is a Roman road which starts at Port Gate on Hadrian's Wall, north of Corbridge, extends 55 miles northwards across Northumberland to the mouth of the River Tweed at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Sir Henry Manisty, a barrister and judge, was born at vicarage house HMS Edlingham, a Ham class minesweeper, named after the village. Alnwick District Electronic Information Team. "Towns and Villages - Edlingham". Alnwick District Council. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2006. GENUKI Lumbylaw Farm: Edlingham

James Chapman (media historian)

James Chapman is Professor of Film Studies at the University of Leicester. He has written several books on the history of British popular culture, including work on cinema and comics. James Chapman was born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, attended Wales High School during the 1980s, he took his BA and MA at the University of East Anglia and undertook his doctoral research at Lancaster University, completing his thesis on the role of official film propaganda in Britain during the Second World War. In 1996 he joined The Open University, where he taught a broad range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses and was principal contributing author to the university’s first dedicated course on Film and Television History, he joined the University of Leicester as its founding Professor of Film Studies in 2005. Chapman’s research focuses on British popular culture cinema and television in their historical contexts, he has written or edited ten books, including two which he has co-authored with Professor Nicholas J. Cull.

His books include studies of the science fiction television series Doctor Who and the James Bond films. SFX magazine described his book Licence To Thrill as "thoughtful, ludicrous and a bit snobby - bit like Bond really", he is a Council member of the International Association for Media and History and is editor of the Historical Journal of Film and Television. Chapman has published articles in the following journals: Screen, Historical Journal of Film and Television, Journal of Popular British Cinema, Visual Culture in Britain, Journal of Contemporary History, Contemporary British History, Media History and European Journal of Cultural Studies; the British at War: Cinema and Propaganda, 1939–1945, London: I. B. Tauris, 1998. ISBN 1-86064-158-X Licence To Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films, London: I. B. Tauris, 1999. ISBN 1-86064-387-6. 2nd edn 2007. ISBN 978-1-84511-515-9 Windows on the Sixties: Exploring Key Texts of Media and Culture, co-edited with Anthony Aldgate and Arthur Marwick, London: I.

B. Tauris, 2000. Saints and Avengers: British Adventure Series of the 1960s, London: I. B. Tauris, 2002. ISBN 1-86064-754-5 Cinemas of the World: Film and Society from 1895 to the Present, London: Reaktion Books, 2003. ISBN 1-86189-162-8 Past and Present: National Identity and the British Historical Film, London: I. B. Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1-85043-808-0 Chapman, James. Inside the Tardis: the worlds of Doctor Who: a cultural history. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-163-2. Chapman, James; the New Film History: Sources, Approaches. London: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-59448-7. Chapman, James. War and Film. London: Reaktion. ISBN 978-1-86189-347-5. Chapman, James. Projecting Empire: Imperialism and Popular Cinema. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781441638472. Chapman, James. British Comics: A Cultural History. London: Reaktion. P. 320. ISBN 978-1-86189-855-5. Chapman, James. Projecting Tomorrow: Science Fiction and Popular Cinema. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-410-8. Official website

Elvis González Valencia

Elvis González Valencia referred to by his alias El Elvis, is a Mexican suspected drug lord and high-ranking leader of the Jalisco New Generation Cartel and Los Cuinis, two allied criminal groups based in Jalisco. He was responsible for managing international drug trafficking operations and money laundering schemes under his brother Abigael González Valencia and brother-in-law Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes. On 2 January 2016, González Valencia registered at a hospital in Zapopan, using fake identification after suffering several gunshot wounds, he was arrested there and imprisoned at the Federal Social Readaptation Center No. 1, Mexico's maximum-security prison. He was released in December 2016 after a judge concluded that the evidence against him was insufficient. Elvis González Valencia was born on 12 October 1980, in Michoacán, Mexico, his parents were Estela Valencia Farías. According to the United States Department of the Treasury, he has an alternative date of birth, 18 March 1979, an alternative legal alias, Alejandro Tapia Castro.

He is referred to by his alias "El Elvis". González Valencia had two Unique Population Registry Codes, a unique identifier of Mexican citizens and residents. According to the Mexican government, the González Valencia clan was made up of 18 siblings; the males are Abigael, José María, Ulises Jovani, Elvis, Édgar Edén, Gerardo, José and Luis Ángel. The females are Rosalinda, Noemí, Marisa Ivette, María Elena, Érika and Abigaíl. People in their hometown nicknamed the clan "Cuinis" in reference to a ground squirrel known as "Cuinique". González Valencia was suspected by Mexican security forces to be a high-ranking leader and top financial operator of the Jalisco New Generation Cartel and Los Cuinis, two criminal groups based in Jalisco. In 2015, González Valencia's rank within the organizations grew after several of his family members were arrested by Mexican security forces. In 2014–2015, his nephew Rubén Oseguera González was arrested, his brother Abigael González Valencia in February 2015. Along with his siblings Gerardo, José María, Ulises Jovani, Édgar Edén, Rosalinda, he began to make major decisions on the financial operations of the two criminal groups.

They reported to Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes, the top leader of the CJNG and one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords. Oseguera Cervantes is González Valencia's brother-in-law because he is married to his sister Rosalinda. According to Jalisco authorities, he was investigated for three charges: two extortion cases and a property damage charge. At a federal level, the Mexican government was investigating him for his alleged involvement in drug trafficking and money laundering, they believe that he was responsible for directing negotiations with criminal groups in the United States and South America to facilitate his criminal operations internationally. In the United States, he was sanctioned by the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act on 27 October 2016, for his alleged involvement in money laundering and/or international drug trafficking; this sanction was a result of an investigation by the Treasury Department and the Drug Enforcement Administration office in Los Angeles in an attempt to disrupt the inner circle of the CJNG and affect their finances in Mexico's domestic economy.

This sanction was extended to eight more individuals: Antonio, Julio Alberto Castillo Rodríguez, businessman Fabián Felipe Vera López, attorney María Teresa Quintana Navarro, four of González Valencia's siblings: Arnulfo, Édgar Edén, Marisa Ivette, Noemí. They were accused of providing material assistance to Nemesio and Abigael for their criminal operations; as a result, all of González Valencia's U. S.-based assets were frozen. The act prohibited U. S. citizens from conducting business transactions with him. Early in the morning on 2 January 2016, González Valencia and his companions left San Miguel el Alto, after a meeting and stopped on the side road of a highway to go to the restroom. After they exited their vehicle, a group of gunmen shot them from a moving vehicle. González Valencia had one bullet graze, he first visited a rural hospital near San Miguel el Alto to treat his gunshot wounds, but because the wounds were serious, he was taken to a private hospital in Zapopan, Jalisco. At the hospital, he registered using fake identification.

In this case, authorities suspected. The first officers to arrive were from the Federal Police and the Fuerza Única Jalisco, a branch of the state police, they kept González Valencia under custody to identify him, safeguarded the premises to prevent his attackers from injuring him again or his comrades from orchestrating his escape. The Mexican Army arrived to help safeguard the area. On 3 January, Mexico's anti-organized crime investigatory agency, confirmed his identity, his arrest was confirmed by Jalisco state authorities, who told the press that González Valencia was under custody in the hospital and that he was a high-ranking member of the CJNG and Los Cuinis. They stated that once González Valencia was healed, he would be transferred to the SEIDO headquarters in Mexico City