Unit 731

Unit 731 referred to as Detachment 731, the 731 Regiment, Manshu Detachment 731, The Kamo Detachment, Ishii Unit, Ishii Detachment or the Ishii Company, was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, had active branch offices throughout China and Southeast Asia, its parent program was known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army. Set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirō Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army; the facility itself was built in 1935 as a replacement for the Zhongma Fortress, to expand the capabilities for Ishii and his team.

The program received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945. Unit 731 and the other Units of the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department" were biological weapon production, testing and storage facilities, they tested on human beings. Additionally, the biological weapons were tested in the field on towns in China. Estimates of those killed by Unit 731 and its related programs range up to half a million people; the researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U. S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949; the Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U. S. biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii, can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as'War Crimes' evidence".

Victim accounts were largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda. In 1932, Surgeon General Shirō Ishii, chief medical officer of the Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in a command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. Ishii organized a secret research group, the "Tōgō Unit", for various chemical and biological experimentation in Manchuria. Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs. One of Ishii's main supporters inside the army was Colonel Chikahiko Koizumi, who became Japan's Health Minister from 1941 to 1945. Koizumi had joined a secret poison gas research committee in 1915, during World War I, when he and other Imperial Japanese Army officers became impressed by the successful German use of chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres, in which the Allies suffered 5,000 deaths and 15,000 wounded as a result of the chemical attack.

Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km south of Harbin on the South Manchuria Railway. In autumn 1934, a jailbreak which jeopardized the facility's secrecy along with a explosion in 1935 led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress, he received the authorization to move to Pingfang 24 km south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility. In 1936, Emperor Hirohito authorized by decree the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department, it was divided at the same time into the "Ishii Unit" and "Wakamatsu Unit" with a base in Hsinking. From August 1940, the units were known collectively as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army" or "Unit 731" for short. In addition to the establishment of Unit 731, the decree called for the establishment of an additional biological warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop and a chemical warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department.

After the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, sister chemical and biological warfare units were founded in major Chinese cities, were referred to as Epidemic Prevention and Water Supply Units. Detachments included Unit 1855 in Beijing, Unit Ei 1644 in Nanjing, Unit 8604 in Guangzhou and Unit 9420 in Singapore; the compilation of all these units comprised Ishii's network, at its height in 1939, was composed of more than 10,000 personnel. Medical doctors and professors from Japan were attracted to join Unit 731 by the rare opportunity to conduct human experimentation and strong financial support from the Army. A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as "logs", used in such contexts as "How many logs fell?". This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the faci


Chasmosaurus is a genus of ceratopsid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period of North America. Its name means'opening lizard', referring to the large openings in its frill. With a length of 4.3–4.8 metres and a weight of 1.5–2 tonnes, Chasmosaurus was a ceratopsian of average size. Like all ceratopsians, it was purely herbivorous, it was to be called Protorosaurus, but this name had been published for another animal. All specimens of Chasmosaurus were collected from the Dinosaur Park Formation of the Dinosaur Provincial Park of Alberta, Canada. C. russelli comes from the lower beds of the formation while C. belli comes from middle and upper beds. Chasmosaurus was a medium-size ceratopsid. In 2010 G. S. Paul estimated the length of C. belli at its weight at two tonnes. The known differences between the two species pertain to the horn and frill shape, as the postcrania of C. russelli are poorly known. Like many ceratopsians, Chasmosaurus had three main facial horns - one on the nose and two on the brow.

In both species these horns are quite short, but with C. russelli they are somewhat longer the brow horns, more curved backwards. The frill of Chasmosaurus is elongated and broader at the rear than at the front, it is hardly elevated from the plane of the snout. With C. belli the rear of the frill is V-shaped and its sides are straight. With C. russelli the rear edge is shaped as a shallow U, the sides are more convex. The sides were adorned by six to nine smaller skin ossifications or osteoderms, which attached to the squamosal bone; the corner of the frill featured two larger osteoderms on the parietal bone. With C. russelli the outer one was the largest, with C. belli the inner one. The remainder of the rear edge lacked osteoderms; the parietal bones of the frill were pierced by large openings, after which the genus was named: the parietal fenestrae. These were not oval in shape, as with most relatives, but triangular, with one point orientated towards the frill corner; the postcranium of C. belli is best preserved in the specimen known as NHMUK 4948.

The first three cervical vertebrae are fused into a unit known as a syncervical, as in other neoceratopsians. There are five other cervicals preserved in this specimen, for a total of eight, which represents a complete neck. Cervicals four to eight are amphiplatian, wider than long, equal in length; the dorsal vertebrae are amphiplatian. C. belli possessed a synsacrum, a compound unit composed of sacral and sometimes caudal vertebrae, depending on the specimen. The Chasmosaurus specimen NMC 2245 recovered by C. M. Sternberg was accompanied by skin impressions; the area conserved, from the right hip region, measured about one by 0.5 metres. The skin appears to have had large scales in evenly spaced horizontal rows among smaller scales; the larger scales had a diameter of up to fifty-five millimetres and were distanced from each other by five to ten centimetres. They were pentagonal, thus with five or six sides; each of these sides touched somewhat smaller scales. Small, non-overlapping convex scales of about one centimetre in diameter surrounded the whole.

The larger scales were wrinkled due to straight grooves orientated perpendicular to their edges. From top to bottom, the large scale rows declined in size. Nothing can as yet be learned about the coloration of Chasmosaurus from the known fossil skin impression samples. In 1898, Lawrence Morris Lambe of the Geological Survey of Canada made at the Berry Creek the first discovery of Chasmosaurus remains, holotype NMC 491, a parietal bone, part of a neck frill. Although recognizing that his find represented a new species, Lambe thought this could be placed in a previously-known short-frilled ceratopsian genus: Monoclonius, he erected the new species Monoclonius belli to describe his findings. The specific name honoured collector Walter Bell. However, in 1913, Charles Hazelius Sternberg and his sons found several complete "M. belli" skulls in the middle Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada. Based on these finds, Lambe erected Protorosaurus, but that name was preoccupied by the Permian reptile Protorosaurus, so he subsequently created the replacement name Chasmosaurus in February 1914.

The name Chasmosaurus is derived from Greek χάσμα, khasma, "opening" or "divide" and refers to the large parietal fenestrae in the skull frill. Lambe now assigned a paratype, specimen NMC 2245 found by the Sternbergs in 1913 and consisting of a complete skeleton, including skin impressions. Since that date, more remains, including skulls, have been found that have been referred to Chasmosaurus, several additional species have been named within the genus. Today some of these are considered to only reflect a morphological variation among the known sample of Chasmosaurus belli skulls. In 1933 Barnum Brown named Chasmosaurus kaiseni, honouring Peter Kaisen and based on skull AMNH 5401, differing from C. belli in having long brow horns. This form is related to Chasmosaurus canadensis named by Thomas M. Lehman in 1990; the latter species Monoclonius canadensis Lambe 1902, had been described as Eoceratops canadensis by Lambe in 1915. Eoceratops and the long-horned Chasmosaurus kaiseni were thought to be exemplars of Mojoceratops by Nicholas Longrich, although different teams of researchers have found Mojoceratops to be a synonym of Chasmosaurus r


Eramam is a village in Kannur district in Indian state of Kerala. As of 2001 India census, Eramam had a population of 9676 with 5005 females. Like any other north malabar villages in Kerala,Eramam is very popular for its rich diversity in nature and culture. There are around 15 temples situated at Eramam, it is the part of Eramam Kuttur gramapanchayath. It is a beautiful place with streams and small hills. Most of the people living lives by agriculture; the national highway passes through Perumba junction. Goa and Mumbai can be accessed on the northern side and Cochin and Thiruvananthapuram can be accessed on the southern side; the road to the east of Iritty connects to Bangalore. The nearest railway station is Payyanur on Mangalore-Palakkad line. Trains are available to all parts of India subject to advance booking over the internet. There are airports at Mattanur and Calicut. All of them are international airports but direct flights are available only to Middle Eastern countries. Mathamangalam Kadannappally Vellora Olayampadi Pilathara Pariyaram