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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia was a small operation in a century where Britain was at peace with the Great Powers. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia.

The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop. British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country—a direct continuation of what remained after Ireland's secession—not an new successor state.

A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France. The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries; this was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801. The Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops.

When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom. In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe.

France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength. Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure

Basilikon Doron

The Basilikon Doron is a treatise on government written by King James VI of Scotland, in 1599. Basilikon Doron means in Ancient Greek "royal gift", it was written in the form of a private letter to the King's eldest son, Duke of Rothesay. After Henry’s death in 1612, James gave it to his second son, born 1600 King Charles I. Seven copies of it were printed in Edinburgh in 1599, it was republished in London in 1603, when it sold in the thousands; this document is separated into three books, serving as general guidelines to follow to be an efficient monarch. The first describes a king’s duty towards God as a Christian; the second focuses on the roles and responsibilities in office, the third concerns proper behavior in daily life. As the first part is concerned with being a good Christian, James instructed his son to love and respect God as well as to fear Him. Furthermore, it is essential to study the Scripture and specific books in both the Old and New Testaments. Lastly, he must pray and always be thankful for what God has given him.

In the second book, James encouraged his son to be a good king, as opposed to a tyrant, by establishing and executing laws as well as governing with justice and equality. E.g. to boost the economy, it is important to invite foreign merchants into the country, to base the currency on gold and silver. According to James, A good monarch must be well acquainted with his subjects, therefore it would be wise to visit each of the kingdoms, in every three year period. During war, he should choose old but good captains to lead an army composed of young and agile soldiers. In the court and household, he should select loyal gentlemen and servants to surround him. However, she perform her domestic duties; as for the inheritance, to ensure stability the kingdom should be left to the eldest son, not divided among all the children. Lastly, it is most important to James that his son would know well his own craft, to properly govern over his subjects. To do this, he must study the laws of his kingdom and participate in the Council.

Furthermore, he must be acquainted with mathematics, for military purposes, world history, for foreign policy. The final portion of the Basilikon Doron focuses on the daily life of a monarch. For instance, James advised his son to eat meat to be strong for traveling, during wartime, he must beware not to drink and sleep excessively. Furthermore, his wardrobe should always be clean and proper, he must never allow his hair and nails to grow long. In his writing and speech, he should use plain language. All of these guidelines composed an underlying code of conduct to be followed by all monarchs and heads of state to rule and govern efficiently. James assembled these directions as a result of his own upbringing. He, offered the Basilikon Doron to his son with the hope of rendering him a capable ruler, to pass it down to future generations. Overall, it repeats the argument for the divine right of kings, as set out in The True Law of Free Monarchies, written by James, it warns against "Papists" and derides Puritans, in keeping with the king’s philosophy of following a "middle path", reflected in the preface to the 1611 King James Bible.

It advocates removing the Apocrypha from the Bible. The published Basilikon Doron may well have been intended to portray the king in a favorable light. James Sempill assisted James in composing it. Robert Waldegrave, bound to secrecy, printed seven copies at the king's behest. Richard Royston, William Dugard, printed further copies. Eikon Basilike Daemonologie The True Law of Free Monarchies Craigie, James, ed; the Basilikon Doron of King James VI, Edinburgh & London: William Blackwood & sons. Doelman, James, "'A king of thine own heart': the English Reception of King James VI and I's Basilikon Doron", Seventeenth Century, 9: 1–9. James VI/I, Daniel. Sommerville, John, "Basilikon Doron", Political Writings, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–61 Basilikon Doron full text at

Zuiderpark Stadion

Zuiderparkstadion was an 11,000-seat stadium in The Hague, Netherlands. It was the home of football club ADO Den Haag. For many years after the club's inauguration in 1905, they played football in many different temporary venues settling in the'Zuiderpark' in 1925; the stadium was temporarily abandoned on 21 February 1945, near the end of World War II. The War left the club lacking funds with. Horses were allowed to graze on the abandoned field; the cold winter conditions of 1946-47 left the stadium in a deplorable state, with the covered tribune the only stand left in a serviceable condition. Plans were afoot to renovate the stadium and to expand its capacity. In 1957, the capacity of the renovated stadium was expanded still further to 25,000 spectators. On 8 March 1973, the stadium entered its modern age with a new club building housing a restaurant, among several other modern amenities catering to the players and club members. On 7 November 1993, the North Tribune was renamed'Aad Mansveldtribune'.

In 1994, the municipality of The Hague decided to develop the'Zuiderpark' as a'football theatre' and the West Tribune'Jan Knijnenburg Gezinstribune' was inaugurated at around this time. It was renamed the'Hyundaitribune' in 2001. On 22 April 2007 ADO played their last home game in the Zuiderpark Stadium; the following season they moved to the Den Haag Stadion