United Methodist Church

The United Methodist Church is a worldwide mainline Protestant denomination based in the United States, a major part of Methodism. In the 19th century, its main predecessor, the Methodist Episcopal Church, was a leader in evangelicalism; the present denomination was founded in 1968 in Dallas, Texas, by union of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church. The UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley in England, as well as the Great Awakening in the United States; as such, the church's theological orientation is decidedly Wesleyan. It embraces liturgical and evangelical elements; the United Methodist Church has a connectional polity, a typical feature of a number of Methodist denominations. It is organized into conferences; the highest level is called the General Conference and is the only organization which may speak for the UMC. The church is a member of the World Council of Churches, the World Methodist Council, other religious associations.

With at least 12 million members as of 2014, the UMC is the largest denomination within the wider Methodist movement of 80 million people across the world. In the United States, the UMC ranks as the largest mainline Protestant denomination, the largest Protestant church after the Southern Baptist Convention, the third largest Christian denomination. In 2014, its worldwide membership was distributed as 7 million in the United States, 4.4 million in Africa and Europe. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 3.6 percent of the US population, or 9 million adult adherents, self-identify with the United Methodist Church, revealing a much larger number of adherents than registered membership. On January 3, 2020, the denomination's leadership announced a plan to split the church over what it described as "fundamental differences" over homosexuality same-sex marriage; the plans would create a "traditionalist Methodist" denomination, with the existing church moving to more acceptance of homosexuality. The church's General Conference is expected to vote on the plan in May 2020.

The movement, which would become the United Methodist Church, began in the mid-18th century within the Church of England. A small group of students, including John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield, met at Oxford University, they living a holy life. Other students mocked them, saying they were the "Holy Club" and "the Methodists", being methodical and exceptionally detailed in their Bible study and disciplined lifestyle; the so-called Methodists started individual societies or classes for members of the Church of England who wanted to live a more religious life. In 1735, John and Charles Wesley went to America, hoping to teach the gospel to the Native Americans in the colony of Georgia. Instead, John became vicar of the church in Savannah, his preaching was legalistic and full of harsh rules, the congregation rejected him. After two years in America, he returned to England dejected and confused. On his journey to America, he had been impressed with the faith of the German Moravians on board, when he returned to England he spent time with Peter Böhler, a German Moravian, passing through England and who believed that a person is saved through the grace of God and not by works.

John had many conversations with Böhler about this topic. On May 25, 1738, after listening to a reading of Martin Luther's preface to Romans, John came to the understanding that his good works could not save him and he could rest in God's grace for salvation. For the first time in his life, he felt the assurance of salvation. In less than two years, the "Holy Club" disbanded. John Wesley met with a group of clergy, he said "they appeared to be of one heart, as well as of one judgment, resolved to be Bible-Christians at all events. The ministers retained their membership in the Church of England. Though not always emphasized or appreciated in the Anglican churches of their day, their teaching emphasized salvation by God's grace, acquired through faith in Christ. Three teachings they saw as the foundation of Christian faith were: People are all by nature dead in sin and children of wrath, they are justified by faith alone. Faith produces outward holiness; these clergy became popular, attracting large congregations.

The nickname students had used against the Wesleys was revived. The English preacher Francis Asbury arrived in America in 1771, he became a "circuit rider", taking the gospel to the furthest reaches of the new frontier as he had done as a preacher in England. The first official organization in the United States occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1784, with the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church at the Christmas Conference with Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke as the leaders. Though John Wesley wanted the Methodists to stay within the Church of England, the American Revolution decisively separated the Methodists in the American colonies from the life and sacraments of the Anglican Church. In 1784, after unsuccessful attempts to have the Church of England send a bishop to start a new church in the colonies, Wesley decisively appointed fellow priest Thomas Coke as superintendent to organize a separate Methodist Society. Together with Coke, Wesley sent a revision of the Anglican prayer book and the Articles of Religion which were received and adopted by the Baltimore Christmas Conference of 1784 establishing the Methodist Episcopal Church.

The conference was held at the Lovely Lane Methodist Church, considered the mother church of American Methodi

José Campaña

José Ángel Gómez Campaña is a Spanish footballer who plays for Levante UD as a midfielder. Born in Seville, Campaña reached Sevilla FC's youth system at the age of seven, made his senior debut at only 16, going on to play in two Segunda División B seasons with the reserve team, he was promoted to the main squad by newly appointed coach Marcelino García Toral, for the 2011 pre-season. On 25 August 2011, Campaña made his debut for the Andalusians' first team, playing ten minutes in a 1–1 home draw against Hannover 96 in that season's UEFA Europa League, in the place of Piotr Trochowski, he made his first La Liga appearance three days replacing Manu del Moral in a 2–1 home win against Málaga CF. In his first year, Campaña appeared in 18 official games to help Sevilla to the ninth place. In March 2013, after undergoing surgery to a fracture in his left foot, he was sidelined for the rest of the campaign. On 13 July 2013, Premier League club Crystal Palace had a €2 million bid accepted by Sevilla.

Four days after passing his medical, he signed for four years. He made his debut on 24 August, in a 1–2 defeat at Stoke City. On 31 January 2014, Campaña joined Bundesliga's 1. FC Nürnberg, on loan for the remainder of the season with a view to a permanent move, he made his debut in the competition on 16 February, playing the entire second half in a 1–0 away win over FC Augsburg. Campaña scored his first goal for the German side on 23 March 2014, but in a 2–5 home loss against Eintracht Frankfurt, he finished the campaign with his team being relegated. On 22 July 2014, Campaña joined Serie A side U. C. Sampdoria for an undisclosed fee. However, on 1 September, he was loaned to Portuguese club FC Porto in a season-long deal, becoming the seventh Spaniard brought in by manager Julen Lopetegui in three months. On 17 July 2015, Campaña signed for AD Alcorcón on loan for one year. On 11 August 2016, Campaña agreed to a four-year contract with Levante UD relegated to the second tier. Campaña represented Spain in two UEFA European Under-19 Championship tournaments.

In the 2011 edition, hosted in Romania, he played three games, including the final against the Czech Republic. In 2012, Campaña helped the national side renew their continental supremacy in Estonia by appearing in all five matches and starting in four, three as captain, he missed, his penalty shootout attempt in the semi-finals against France. As of match played on 19 May 2018 Levante Segunda División: 2016–17 Spain U17 UEFA European Under-17 Championship runner-up:2010Spain U19 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2011, 2012 José Campaña at BDFutbol José Campaña at Futbolme


Khamudi was the last Hyksos ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Khamudi came to power in 1534 BC or 1541 BC, ruling the northern portion of Egypt from his capital Avaris, his ultimate defeat at the hands of Ahmose I, after a short reign, marks the end of the Second Intermediate Period. Khamudi is listed on column 10, line 28 as the last Hyksos king. Beyond this, only two scarab seals are attributed to him, both from Jericho. Additionally, a cylinder seal of unknown provenance but from Byblos is inscribed with a cartouche which may read "Khamudi"; this reading is contested by the egyptologist Kim Ryholt who proposed that the cartouche reads "Kandy" instead and refers to an hitherto unknown king. In any case if the cartouche bears Khamudi's name, it is believed to have been inscribed on the seal to fill up space rather than as an explicit reference to Khamudi; the seal is housed in the Petrie Museum, catalog number UC 11616. Based on the scarcity of material dating to Khamudi's reign, Ryholt has proposed that his reign must have been short, amounting to no more than a year.

In this situation, Khamudi would have inherited little more than the Hyksos throne, being already besieged in Sharuhen, the last Hyksos stronghold in the Negev Desert. This is contested by other scholars, such as Manfred Bietak, who points to a year 11 of an unknown king on the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Bietak and many egyptologists believe that this year 11 belongs to Khamudi since the text of the papyrus refers to Ahmose I, founder of the Egyptian New Kingdom as "He of the South." As Thomas Schneider writes: "Another reign length can be inferred from the note on the verso of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus whereby in the 11th regnal year of the ruling king, Heliopolis has been conquered, "he of the South" has attacked and taken Sile. Since "he of the South" must denote the Theban ruler Ahmose, the regnal year 11 can only be assigned to the successor of the Hyksos king Apepi: Khamudi; the Hyksos capital Avaris will have fallen to Ahmose not much later". Another date on the papyrus is explicitly dated to Year 33 of Khamudi's predecessor Apepi.

It is believed that Ahmose I defeated the Hyksos king by his 18th or 19th regnal year. This is suggested by "a graffito in the quarry at Tura whereby'oxen from Canaan' were used at the opening of the quarry in Ahmose's regnal year 22." Since the cattle could only have been brought after Ahmose's 3 to 6 years long siege of the South Canaanite town of Sharuhen which followed after the fall of Avaris, this means the reign of Khamudi must have terminated by Year 18 or 19 of Ahmose's 25-year reign at the latest