The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world; the UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City. The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization's objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states.
The organization's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles. UN membership grew following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories, monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s, the UN's budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks; the UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work.
The UN's chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres, since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states; the UN, its officers, its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of its effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross were formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I; as more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world.
President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification. On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally came into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, took effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria.
It failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realized that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia; when war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees; the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U.
Walter Olkewicz is an American actor who played Marko in Wizards and Warriors and Coach Wordman in Making the Grade. He guest-starred in many TV shows including Barney Miller, Night Court, Seinfeld, ER, Who's the Boss?, was a semi-regular on Dolly Parton's 1987–88 variety show Dolly!. He played Jacques Renault on Twin Peaks. Par 6.... Walt Hegelman Emergency Room 2 You're Killing Me....... Embalmer Meeting Daddy.... Dink Branson Suicide, the Comedy... a.k.a. The Intervention Milo.... Jack Wyatt Tourist Trap In Dark Places.... Vendor Pronto.... Jimmy'the Cap' Capotorto Raven.... Bernie DeFrewd Big Packages.... Richie Last Days.... Warden Phillips Stuart Saves His Family.... Larry Skoog The Good Old Boys.... Fat Gervin The Client.... Romey Clifford Exquisite Tenderness.... Dr. Meade... a.k.a. Die Bestie im weißen Kittel... a.k.a. Exquisite Tenderness - Höllische Qualen... a.k.a. The Surgeon Grace Under Fire TV Series.... Dougie Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me.... Jacques Renault... a.k.a. Twin Peaks The Big Picture....
Babe Ruth Everybody's Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure Full Exposure: The Sex Tapes Scandal... a.k.a. The Sex Tapes Scandal Baja Oklahoma.... Private Eye Dolly TV Series.... Bubba Stillwatch.... Sid Sherman Many Happy Returns Heartbreakers.... Marvin Making the Grade.... Coach Wordman Partners in Crime TV Series.... Harmon Shain... a.k.a. 50/50 Calamity Jane.... Will Lull Jimmy the Kid.... Kelp Circle of Power.... Buddy Gordon... a.k.a. Mystique, Brainwash... a.k.a. The Naked Weekend Wizards and Warriors TV Series.... Marko The Blue and the Gray TV Series.... Private Grundy The Executioner's Song.... Pete Galovan Enola Gay: The Men, the Mission, the Atomic Bomb.... Sergeant Shug Crawford 1941.... Private Hinshaw The Last Resort TV Series.... Zach Comstock Can I Do It'Till I Need Glasses?.... Himself Twin Peaks playing Jean-Michel Renault in episode Return part 2 and part 7 6/18/2017 ER playing "Georgia's Man" in episode: "Surrender" 2/1/2001 G vs E playing "Gus Wine" in episode: "To Be or Not to be Evil" 8/29/1999 Dharma & Greg playing "Howie" in episode: "Bed, And Beyond" 5/12/1999 The Wayans Bros. playing "Ernie" in episode: "Saving Private Marlon" 1/28/1999 Chicago Hope playing "Harry Zakovitch" in episode: "Austin, We Have a Problem" 11/11/1998 Sliders playing "The Boss" in episode: "World Killer" 6/29/1998 Michael Hayes playing "Albert Parker" in episode: "Mob Mentality" 1/6/1998 Profiler in episode: "Shattered Silence" 1/11/1997 Grace Under Fire playing "Dougie Boudreau" in episode: "The Ghost and Mrs. Kelly" 10/30/1996 Seinfeld playing "Nick" in episode: "The Cadillac" 2/8/1996 Grace Under Fire playing "Dougie Boudreau" in episode: "The Holidays" 12/13/1994 Grace Under Fire playing "Dougie" in episode: "Up on the Roof" 10/6/1993 Grace Under Fire playing "Dougie" in episode: "Grace Under Fire" 9/29/1993 Batman: The Animated Series playing "Falcone" in episode: "Blind as a Bat" 2/22/1993 Batman: The Animated Series playing "Falcone" in episode: "The Mechanic" 1/24/1993 Night Court playing "Walter Plimp" in episode: "To Sir With...
Ah, What the Heck... Love" 1992 Who's the Boss? Playing "Tiny" in episode: "Who's the Boss?" 1/25/1992 Night Court" playing "Walter Plimp" in episode: "Shave and a Haircut" 1992 Night Court playing "Walter Plimp" in episode: "The System Works" 11/17/1991 Life Goes On playing "Nathan" in episode: "Arthur" 4/7/1991 Night Court playing "Mr. Doyle" in episode: "Mama Was a Rollin' Stone" 1991 Bagdad Cafe playing "Bobby" in episode: "City On A Hill" 10/26/1990 Matlock playing "Bartender" in episode: "No Where To Turn" 9/25/1990 Twin Peaks playing "Jacques Renault" in episode: "The Last Evening" 5/23/1990 Twin Peaks playing "Jacques Renault" in episode: "Realization Time" 5/17/1990 Twin Peaks playing "Jacques Renault" in episode: "Rest in Pain" 4/26/1990 Murder, She Wrote playing "Howard" in episode: "When the Fat Lady Sings" 11/19/1989 Wiseguy in episode: "Sins of the Father" 10/4/1989 Mr. Belvedere playing "Allan" in episode: "Really Full House" 3/17/1989 Who's the Boss? Playing "Tiny" in episode: "Boozin' Buddies" 3/7/1989 L.
A. Law playing "Mr. Hartvig" in episode: "Full Marital Jacket" 1/7/1988 Mr. Belvedere playing "Allan" in episode: "The Wedding" 12/4/1987 The Charmings playing "Henry Giant" in episode: "The Charmings and the Beanstalk" 11/26/1987 Who's the Boss? Playing "Tiny McGee" in episode: "Frankie and Tony are Lovers" 9/22/1987 Who's the Boss? Playing "Tiny McGee" in episode: "A Moving Episode" 5/19/1987 Married... with Children p
An A-list celebrity is one at the top of their field. It may be a bankable movie star, a major recording artist, international sports star, social media personality, film director, mogul, or an international TV broadcaster; the A-list is part of a larger guide called The Hot List that has become an industry-standard guide in Hollywood. James Ulmer, the creator of The Hot List, has developed a Hot List of Directors; the Ulmer scale categorizes the lists into A+, A, B+, B, C, D listings. In popular usage outside the film industry, an "A-list celebrity" is any person with an admired or desirable social status. Socialites with popular press coverage and elite associations have been termed as "A-list" celebrities. Less popular persons and current teen idols are referred to as "B-list" – and the ones with lesser fame "C-list". Entertainment Weekly interpreted C-list celebrity as "that guy, the easy-to-remember but hard-to-name character actor"."D-list" is for a person whose celebrity is so obscure that they are only known for appearances as so-called celebrities on panel game shows and reality television.
In the late 20th century, D-listers were ignored by the entertainment news industry. Kathy Griffin, a U. S. comedian who became known for her frequent appearances on such programs, used the term in a tongue-in-cheek manner for her 2005 TV special The D-List and her 2005 TV series Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List. It is the lowest rating used by U. S. journalist James Ulmer for his Ulmer Scale which ranks the bankability of 1,400 movie actors worldwide. Other successive letters of the alphabet beyond D, such as "E-list" or "Z-list", are sometimes used for exaggeration or comic effect but have the same meaning as D-list. Bankable star B movies Celebrity Famous for being famous Movie star Superstar