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United Nations Commission on Human Rights

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006. It was a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council, was assisted in its work by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, it was the UN's principal mechanism and international forum concerned with the promotion and protection of human rights. On 15 March 2006, the UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly to replace UNCHR with the UN Human Rights Council; the UNCHR was established in 1946 by ECOSOC, was one of the first two "Functional Commissions" set up within the early UN structure. It was a body created under the terms of the United Nations Charter to which all UN member states are signatories, it met for the first time in January 1947 and established a drafting committee for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948.

The body went through two distinct phases. From 1947 to 1967, it concentrated on promoting human rights and helping states elaborate treaties, but not on investigating or condemning violators, it was a period of strict observance of the sovereignty principle. In 1967, the Commission adopted interventionism as its policy; the context of the decade was of Decolonization of Africa and Asia, many countries of the continent pressed for a more active UN policy on human rights issues in light of massive violations in apartheid South Africa. The new policy meant that the Commission would investigate and produce reports on violations. To allow better fulfillment of this new policy, other changes took place. In the 1970s, the possibility of geographically-oriented workgroups was created; these groups would specialize their activities on the investigation of violations on a given region or a single country, as was the case with Chile. With the 1980s came the creation of theme-oriented workgroups, which would specialize in specific types of abuses.

None of these measures, were able to make the Commission as effective as desired because of the presence of human rights violators and the politicization of the body. During the following years until its extinction, the UNCHR became discredited among activists and governments alike; the Commission held its final meeting in Geneva on March 27, 2006 and was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in the same year. The Commission on Human Rights was intended to examine and publicly report on human rights situations in specific countries or territories as well as on major phenomena of human rights violations worldwide; the Human Rights division of the U. N. is expected to uphold and protect the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. At the time it was extinguished, the Commission consisted of representatives drawn from 53 member states, elected by the members of ECOSOC. There were no permanent members. Seats on the Commission were apportioned by region, using the mechanism of the United Nations Regional Groups.

During its last year of service in 2005, the representation by region was as follows: 15 from the African Group: Burkina Faso, Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe 12 from the Asian Group: Bhutan, People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka 5 from the Eastern European Group: Armenia, Romania, Russian Federation, Ukraine 11 from the Latin American and Caribbean Group: Argentina, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru 10 from the Western European and Others Group: Australia, Finland, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, United StatesThe Commission would meet each year in regular session for six weeks during March and April in Geneva, Switzerland. In January 2004, Australia was elected as chair of the 60th Session. In January 2005, Indonesia was elected chair of the 61st Session. Peru was elected chair of the 62nd Session in January 2006; the Commission held its final meeting in Geneva on March 27, 2006.

In 1999 the Economic and Social Council changed its title from the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities to the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights". The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights was the main subsidiary body of the Commission on Human Rights, it was composed of twenty-six experts whose responsibility was to undertake studies in light of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, make recommendations to the Commission concerning the prevention of discrimination of any kind relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms and the protection of racial, national and linguistic minorities. Membership was selected with regard to equitable geographical distribution; the Sub-Commission established seven Working Groups that investigate specific human rights concerns, including: Minorities Transnational corporations Administration of justice Anti-terrorism Contemporary Forms of Slavery Indigenous Populations Communication Social ForumThe United Nations Human Rights Council assumed responsibility for the Sub-Commission when it replaced the Commission on Human Rights in 2006

William L. Brown (politician)

William Lee Brown was an American newspaper publisher and politician from Ohio and New York. The family removed to Mahoning County, soon after William was born, he taught school in Ohio, in Copiah County, until 1861. During the American Civil War he fought with the 125th Ohio Volunteers. After the war, he removed to Virginia City the capital of the Montana Territory, he was Chief Clerk of the Territorial Legislature, engaged in gold mining. A few years he returned to Youngstown, Ohio, he was a delegate from Ohio to the 1876 Democratic National Conventions. In 1874, he was aide-de-camp to Gov. William Allen, with the rank of colonel. In 1875, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate. From 1875 to 1880, he published The Vindicator in Youngstown. In 1880, he removed to New York City and became a partner of Benjamin Wood, co-publishing the New York Daily News. Brown was a delegate from New York to the 1888 Democratic National Conventions. After the death of Benjamin Wood in 1900, his widow Ida Wood ousted Brown from the management of the paper, Brown retired to an estate in Great Barrington, where he engaged in horse and cattle breeding.

He died there on December 13, 1906. The New York Red Book compiled by Edgar L. Murlin New York State Legislative Souvenir for 1893 with Portraits of the Members of Both Houses by Henry P. Phelps Biographical sketches of the members of the Legislature in The Evening Journal Almanac COL. BROWN AND HIS PAPER PASS AWAY TOGETHER in NYT on December 14, 1906 History of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley, Ohio by Joseph Green Butler, Jr

1970 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team

The 1970 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team represented the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in the 1970 NCAA University Division football season. The team played their home games in Memorial Stadium in Lincoln; the Huskers went 11–0–1 to win the first of two consecutive national championships. The Huskers started the season at #9 and tied #3 USC in Los Angeles in the second game of the season. After winning their next nine games, including all seven in the Big 8, Nebraska was ranked third in the nation entering the 1971 Orange Bowl against #5 LSU of the SEC. Top-ranked Texas and #2 Ohio State both lost their bowl games earlier in the day and a 17-12 Nebraska victory that night in Miami gave the Huskers their first national title. Through the 1973 season, the final UPI coaches poll was released in early December, before the bowl games. In 1970 it picked Texas as national champion on December 8, before the Longhorns' 24-11 loss to Notre Dame in the 1971 Cotton Bowl in Dallas on New Year's Day. Notre Dame finished second to Nebraska in the final AP writers poll, released after the bowls in early January.

The 1970 Cornhuskers championship season was notable for Devaney's rotation of two quarterbacks - Van Brownson and Jerry Tagge - in every game throughout the season. Wake Forest hit first with a field goal thanks to a Nebraska fumble, but by the half it was the Cornhuskers 28-5; the Demon Deacons would go on to win the ACC title. Nebraska entered the game as a two-touchdown underdog to a USC squad fresh off a 42-21 whipping of Alabama in Birmingham, but never trailed the Trojans during the course of the game; each team traded touchdowns, each team missed opportunities for the win, right up to USC's incomplete 50-yard pass on the last play of the game. Nebraska owned the day. Bob Devaney's record against the Big 10 was extended to 9-0 as the Cornhuskers had little trouble with Minnesota after running ahead 28-10 before the half. Nebraska scored only 7 points in the first half, Missouri matched it before the half; the subsequent defensive battle continued through into the 4th quarter before the Cornhuskers broke away with an additional 14 points, one from a 48-yard punt return touchdown.

Nebraska was surprised to find themselves behind 10-20 with 10 minutes left in the 1st half, but battled back to take the lead with two more touchdowns before the break, never let Kansas score again as they cruised to a 41-20 final. Nebraska piled up 65 points, its highest total since 1922, held Oklahoma State to just 64 ground yards as the Cornhuskers made short work of the Cowboys. Nebraska pulled out in front right away with a 12-0 1st quarter lead, but stubborn Colorado fought back and trailed the Cornhuskers by only 13-15 in the 4th quarter - after missing a 2-point conversion that would have tied the game - before Nebraska decided to stop the uprising with two touchdowns in the last 10 minutes to pull away; the game was not as close as the score indicates, as Iowa State put up two late touchdowns against Nebraska reserves in the 4th quarter after the Cornhuskers had run up a 54-17 lead with 5 minutes remaining to play. Kansas State came to Lincoln with hopes of a Big 8 title opportunity, but they were not prepared for the domination that Nebraska would show them in a convincing defeat.

The Wildcats managed only two touchdowns, one of which came with 5 minutes remaining in the 4th against the Nebraska reserves. At one point in the game, the Cornhuskers exploded for 27 points in less than 4 minutes, pushing their lead out to 51-7. Nebraska locked up their first unbeaten regular season since 1965 by coming from behind twice to get the win over stubborn Oklahoma, it wasn't until 7:42 remained in the 4th quarter that Nebraska pulled ahead by a touchdown to settle the final score. Third-ranked Nebraska jumped to a 10-0 lead in the first quarter and lead 10-3 at halftime, but #5 LSU fought back to make a game of it, pulling ahead on a field goal at the end of the 3rd quarter to get to 12-10. With over eight minutes remaining, Jerry Tagge jumped over the pile from the 1-yard line for the game's final points, the Blackshirts held on the rest of the way to preserve the win. Top-ranked Texas and #2 Ohio State both lost their bowl games earlier in the day, which allowed the Huskers to claim their first national championship.

The 1970 Nebraska Cornhuskers seniors selected in the 1971 NFL Draft: The 1970 Nebraska Cornhuskers juniors selected in the following year's 1972 NFL Draft: The 1970 Nebraska Cornhuskers sophomores selected in the 1973 NFL Draft: The following 1970 Nebraska players joined a professional team as draftees or free agents