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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme is a programme of the United Nations that coordinates the organization's environmental activities and assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded by Maurice Strong, its first director, as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and has overall responsibility for environmental problems among United Nations agencies. UNEP's activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, environmental governance and green economy, it has played a significant role in developing international environmental conventions, promoting environmental science and information and illustrating the way those can be implemented in conjunction with policy, working on the development and implementation of policy with national governments, regional institutions in conjunction with environmental non-governmental organizations. UNEP has been active in funding and implementing environment related development projects.

UN Environment has aided in the formulation of guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international trade in harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution, contamination of international waterways. Relevant documents, including scientific papers, are available via the UNEP Document Repository; the World Meteorological Organization and UN Environment established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1988. UN Environment is one of several Implementing Agencies for the Global Environment Facility and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, it is a member of the United Nations Development Group; the International Cyanide Management Code, a programme of best practice for the chemical's use at gold mining operations, was developed under UN Environment's aegis. The need of the developing laws such as the International Labor Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization, led to the 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment to tackle the pollution caused by the industrial revolution during the 1960s and 1970s.

In this conference, various topics including marine life, protection of resources, environment change, disasters related to nature, biological change were discussed. This conference resulted in a Declaration on the Human Environment and the establishment of an environmental management body, named United Nations Environment Program. UNEP was established by General Assembly Resolution 2997. Headquarters were established in Nairobi and Kenya with a staff of 300, including 100 professionals in a variety of fields, with a five-year fund of more than US$100 million. At the time, US$40 million were pledged by the remainder by 50 other nations; the Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contribution established in 2002 has the role to increase the supporters of the UNEP. The finances related to all programs of UNEP is voluntarily contributed by U. N. member states. The Environmental Fund, which all nations of UNEP invest in, is the core source of UNEP’ s programs. Between 1974 and 1986 UNEP produced more than 200 technical guidelines or manuals on environment including forest and water management, pest control, pollution monitoring, the relationship between chemical use and health, management of industry.

UNEP's former acting Executive Director Joyce Msuya took office in November 2018, following the resignation of Erik Solheim. Prior to that appointment, she was UNEP's Deputy Executive Director. In December 1972, the UN General Assembly unanimously elected Maurice Strong to be the first head of UN Environment. Secretary General of both the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which launched the world environment movement, the 1992 Earth Summit, Strong has played a critical role in globalizing the environmental movement; the position was held for 17 years by Dr. Mostafa Kamal Tolba, instrumental in bringing environmental considerations to the forefront of global thinking and action. Under his leadership, UN Environment's most acclaimed success—the historic 1987 agreement to protect the ozone layer—the Montreal Protocol was negotiated, he was succeeded by Elizabeth Dowdeswell, Klaus Töpfer, Achim Steiner, Erik Solheim. The United Nations Environment Assembly is UNEP's governing body.

Created in June 2012 to replace the Governing Council, it has 193 members and meets every two years. UNEP's structure includes eight substantive Divisions: Science Division:- It provides timely, scientifically credible, policy-relevant environmental assessments and information for decision-making and action planning for sustainable development, it monitors and reports on the state of the global environment, assessing policies and trends and providing early warning of emerging environmental threats. It spearheads UN-wide monitoring and reporting on the environmental dimension of the 2030 Agenda and SDGs. Policy and Programme Division:- It consolidates the policy, monitoring and social safeguards functions of UNEP as well as its engagement with the United Nations system and key global processes such as the 2030 Agenda; the Division ensures coherence and coordination at the strategi

Voodoo (film)

Voodoo is a 1995 American horror film directed by Rene Eram and written by Brian DiMuccio and Dino Vindeni. Corey Feldman stars as a youth. Filmed in the United States in the spring of 1995, Voodoo was released on VHS by A-Pix Entertainment in November 1995, was first released in the United States on DVD format through Simitar Entertainment in 1997. Unable and unwilling to live apart from his girlfriend, Andy has decided to move from the UK to the United States, so that he can be near Rebecca while she studies medicine at university, he meets Cassian Marsh, who persuades him to approach the Omega fraternity where Marsh is the leader. Following a typical fraternity initiation, Andy is offered a place in the Omega house and accepts, he notices a suspicious looking old man hanging around the campus and the stranger warns him that the brotherhood are hiding a dark secret: Marsh is part of a Voodoo cult and that remaining at the fraternity could be dangerous. Andy decides. Corey Feldman as Andy Chadway Jack Nance as Lewis Joel J. Edwards as Cassian Marsh Diane Nadeau as Rebecca Ron Melendez as Eric Sarah Douglas as Prof. Conner Amy Raasch as Wendy Brian Michael McGuire as Ken Christopher Kriesa as Baird Clark Tufts as Loomis Maury Ginsberg as Deitz Darren Eichhorn as David Brendan Hogan as Stan Peter Dendle wrote in The Zombie Movie Encyclopedia, "This run-of-the-mill campus thriller crosses Angel Heart with Revenge of the Nerds, as if that were a niche that needed filling."

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Avigdor Arikha

Avigdor Arikha was a Romanian-born French–Israeli painter, draughtsman and art historian. Avigdor Arikha was born to German-speaking Jewish parents in Rădăuţi, but grew up in Czernowitz in Bukovina, Romania, his family faced forced deportation in 1941 to the Romanian-run concentration camps of Transnistria, where his father died. He survived thanks to the drawings he made of deportation scenes, which were shown to delegates of the International Red Cross. Arikha immigrated to Palestine in 1944, together with his sister; until 1948, he lived in Kibbutz Ma'ale HaHamisha. In 1948 he was wounded in Israel's War of Independence. From 1946 to 1949, he attended the Bezalel School of Art in Jerusalem. In 1949 he won a scholarship to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, where he learned the fresco technique. From 1954, Arikha resided in Paris. Arikha was married from 1961 until his death to the American poet and writer Anne Atik, with whom he had two daughters. Arikha died in Paris on April 2010, the day after his 81st birthday.

In the late 1950s, Arikha established himself as an abstract painter, but he came to think of abstraction as a dead end. In 1965 he stopped painting and began drawing, only from life, treating all subjects in a single sitting, he engaged in printmaking only for the next eight years. In 1973, he resumed painting and became "perhaps the best painter from life in the last decades of the 20th century", as he was hailed in an obituary in Economist magazine. Arikha painted directly from the subject in natural light only, using no preliminary drawing, finishing a painting, print, ink, or drawing in one session, his profound knowledge of art techniques and masterly draughtsmanship enabled him to abide by this principle of immediacy inspired by Chinese brush painting. It was a principle he shared with his close friend Henri Cartier-Bresson, to whose "instant décisif" it was analogous, he never drew from memory or photographs, aiming to depict the truth of what lay before his eyes at that moment. He is noted for his portraits, still lifes, landscapes, rendered realistically and spontaneously.

In their radical spatial composition, his work harks back to abstraction, in particular Mondrian. Arikha painted a number of commissioned portraits, including that of H. M. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, Lord Home of the Hirsel, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, both in the collection of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. Other portraits include those of Catherine Deneuve for the French State, or that of the former Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy for the city of Lille. Arikha illustrated texts by Samuel Beckett, with whom he maintained a close friendship until the writer's death. Art critic Marco Livingstone wrote that Arikha "bridged the modernist avant-garde of pure abstraction with traditions of observational drawing and painting stretching back to the Renaissance and beyond, he was truculently insistent that he was not part of any "return to figuration", but rather had found his own way as "a post-abstract representational artist"." As an art historian, Arikha wrote catalogues for exhibitions on Poussin and Ingres for which he was curator at the Musée du Louvre, the Frick Collection of New York, the Museum of Fine Arts and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

His writings include Fifty Life Drawings. He was invited to speak at Princeton University, Yale University, the Frick Collection in New York, the Prado Museum in Madrid. In 2006, he was invited by the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid to select a number of works from its collection and write entries for the exhibit catalogue. Arikha showed at the gallery that represented him from 1972, over the decades he had over two dozen solo shows. In 1998 Arikha had a major retrospective at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem and at the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, which travelled to Edinburgh's Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in 1999. From July 2006 – January 2007 there was an exhibition at the British Museum of Arikha's bequest to it of one hundred prints and drawings. There was a retrospective of his prints at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris in 2008. From June to September 2008 the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid hosted another retrospective exhibition of the artist; the Estate of Avigdor Arikha has been represented by Blain Southern since 2018, with the first exhibition of landscapes in Berlin.

In June 2019, 50 of Arikha’s works were exhibited in a retrospective of his work at the Benaki Museum in Athens. 1954 Gold Medal, Triennial for Applied Art, Italy 1959 Prize and Sculptors Exhibition, Graduates of Youth Aliyah 1978 Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres, France 1987 Grand Prix des Arts de la Ville Paris, France 1989 Prix des Arts des Lettres et des Sciences, Fondation du Judaïsme Français, France 1995 Honorary Professor, National Academy of Fine Arts of China, China 1997 Doctor Honoris Causa of Philosophy, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 2005 Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, France Arikha, by Samuel Beckett, Robert Hughes, André Fermigier Arikha, by Duncan Thomson Avigdor Arikha, by Monica Ferrando and Arturo Schwarz (Bergamo: More