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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Ding dong }} The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It entered into force on 21 March 1994, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified it; the UNFCCC objective is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". The framework sets non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. Instead, the framework outlines how specific international treaties may be negotiated to specify further action towards the objective of the UNFCCC. An Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention during its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992; the UNFCCC was adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature on 4 June 1992. The UNFCCC has 197 parties as of December 2015.

The convention enjoys broad legitimacy due to its nearly universal membership. The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties to assess progress in dealing with climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012; the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference produced an agreement stating that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C relative to the pre-industrial level. The Protocol was amended in 2012 to encompass the period 2013–2020 in the Doha Amendment, which as of December 2015 had not entered into force. In 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted, governing emission reductions from 2020 on through commitments of countries in Nationally Determined Contributions, with a view of lowering the target to 1.5 °C. The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016. One of the first tasks set by the UNFCCC was for signatory nations to establish national greenhouse gas inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and removals, which were used to create the 1990 benchmark levels for accession of Annex I countries to the Kyoto Protocol and for the commitment of those countries to GHG reductions.

Updated inventories must be submitted annually by Annex I countries. "UNFCCC" is the name of the United Nations Secretariat charged with supporting the operation of the Convention, with offices in Haus Carstanjen, the UN Campus in Bonn, Germany. From 2010 to 2016 the head of the secretariat was Christiana Figueres. In July 2016, Patricia Espinosa succeeded Figueres; the Secretariat, augmented through the parallel efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, aims to gain consensus through meetings and the discussion of various strategies. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was opened for signature at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. On 12 June 1992, 154 nations signed the UNFCCC, which upon ratification committed signatories' governments to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases with the goal of "preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with Earth's climate system"; this commitment would require substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions Article 3 of the Convention states that Parties should act to protect the climate system on the basis of "common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities", that developed country Parties should "take the lead" in addressing climate change.

Under Article 4, all Parties make general commitments to address climate change through, for example, climate change mitigation and adapting to the eventual impacts of climate change. Article 4 states: The extent to which developing country Parties will implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties; the Framework Convention specifies the aim of Annex I Parties stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels, by the year 2000. After the signing of the UNFCCC treaty, Parties to the UNFCCC have met at conferences to discuss how to achieve the treaty's aims. At the 1st Conference of the Parties, Parties decided that the aim of Annex I Parties stabilizing their emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 was "not adequate", further discussions at conferences led to the Kyoto Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol sets emissions targets for developed countries which are binding under international law. The Kyoto Protocol has had two commitment periods, the first of which lasted from 2008–2012; the second one runs from 2013-2020 and is based on the Doha Amendment to the Protocol, which has not entered into force. The US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, while Canada denounced it in 2012; the Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by all the other Annex I Parties. All Annex I Parties, excluding the US, have participated in the 1st Kyoto commitment period. 37 Annex I countries and the EU have agreed to second-round Kyoto targets. These countries are Australia, all members of the European Union

Tomáš Mičola

Tomáš Mičola is a Czech football player who plays for FC Baník Ostrava in the Czech First league. Mičola started to play football at SFC Opava. At the age of 16 he moved to FC Baník Ostrava, where he progressed and at the age of 18 started to appear in league matches. At the age of 21 he appeared in 100 league matches. Mičola played for Czech youth national teams since the under-16 level, he played at the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Czech Rupublic U-21FIFA U-20 World Cup runner-up 2007 Tomáš Mičola – Czech First League statistics at Fotbal DNES Tomáš Mičola at FAČR Template:FC Baník Ostrava squad

This Is the Way (album)

This Is the Way is the second and final studio album by The Rossington Collins Band. "Gotta Get It Straight" – 4:43 "Tashauna" – 4:57 "Gonna Miss It When It's Gone" – 3:51 "Pine Box" – 3:04 "Fancy Ideas" – 4:36 "Don't Stop Me Now" – 3:43 "Seems Like Every Day" – 4:30 "I'm Free Today" – 3:24 "Next Phone Call" – 3:33 "Means Nothing to You" – 5:00 Allen Collins - guitars Barry Lee Harwood - guitars, vocals Derek Hess - drums Dale Krantz-Rossington - vocals Billy Powell - piano Gary Rossington - guitars Leon Wilkeson - bass Steve Klein - Engineer, Mixing