United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending that the General Assembly accept new members to the United Nations, approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states; the council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the Security Council was paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis and West New Guinea.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased in scale, the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Cambodia, Rwanda, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Security Council consists of fifteen members; the great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the former Republic of China, the United States – serve as the body's five permanent members. These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General. In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years; the body's presidency rotates monthly among its members. Resolutions of the Security Council are enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget; as of 2016, 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.

In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate conflicts between nations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations; this organization resolved some territorial disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal mail and opium control, some of which would be absorbed into the UN. However, the League lacked representation for colonial peoples and significant participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR, Japan; the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. US President Roosevelt first coined the term. "On New Year's Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which came to be known as the United Nations Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures."

The term United Nations was first used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 March 1945, 21 additional states had signed. "Four Policemen" was coined to refer to the four major Allied countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China. And became the foundation of an executive branch of the United Nations, the Security Council. In mid-1944, the delegations from the Allied "Big Four", the Soviet Union, the UK, the US and China, met for the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D. C. to negotiate the UN's structure, the composition of the UN Security Council became the dominant issue. France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK, US were selected as permanent members of the Security Council; the most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. The Soviet delegation argued that each nation should have an absolute veto that could block matters from being discussed, while the British argued that nations should not be able to veto resolutions on disputes to which they were a party.

At the Yalta Conference of February 1945, the American and Russian delegations agreed that each of the "Big Five" could veto any action by the council, but not procedural resolutions, meaning that the permanent members could not prevent debate on a resolution. On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the veto power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten; the UN came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the

Will Vinton

William Gale Vinton was an American animator and filmmaker. He won an Oscar for his work alongside several Emmy Clio Awards for his studio's work. Vinton was born on November 17, 1947, to a car dealer father and a bookkeeper mother in McMinnville, Oregon. During the 1960s, Vinton studied physics and filmmaking at the University of California, where he was influenced by the work of Antoni Gaudí. During this time, Vinton made a black-and-white feature-length documentary film about the California counter-culture movement titled Gone for a Better Deal, which toured college campuses in various film festivals of the time. Two more films about student protest followed, Berkeley Games and First Ten Days, as well a narrative short Reply, his first animation, Culture Shock. Vinton received his bachelor's degree in architecture from UC Berkeley in 1970. Meeting clay animator Bob Gardiner in the Berkeley, California area in the early 1970s, Vinton brought him to Portland and they commandeered Vinton's home basement to make a quick 1½-minute test film of clay animation called Wobbly Wino, completed in early 1973.

Gardiner refined his sculpting and animation techniques while Vinton built a system for animating his Bolex Rex-5 16mm camera and they began work in mid-1973 on an 8-minute 16mm short film about a drunk wino who stumbles into a closed art museum and interacts with the paintings and sculptures. Completed in late 1974 after 14 months of production, the film combined Gardiner's sculpting skills and comedy writing talent with Vinton's camera skills. Closed Mondays won an Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film in the spring of 1975, the first film produced in Portland to do so. Vinton and Gardiner parted ways during the production of their second short film, Mountain Music completed by Vinton in 1976. Gardiner focused on producing PSA spots for local political issues while Vinton established Will Vinton Productions in Portland to capitalize on the animation technology Gardiner had developed for their animated short Closed Mondays. Expanding his studio by hiring new animators, Vinton produced dozens of commercials for regional and national companies.

Still with only a handful of animators, Vinton produced a trilogy of 27-minute fairy tales in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Martin the Cobbler, the Oscar-nominated Rip Van Winkle, The Little Prince. These films were released theatrically under the umbrella title Trilogy, to video as The Little Prince and Friends. In 1978, Vinton produced the documentary Claymation: Three Dimensional Clay Animation a 17-minute film featuring the behind-the-scenes technical processes used; the term "claymation" was trademarked by Vinton, has become synonymous with clay animation in general. Graduating to 35mm film, other short films were produced during this time: Legacy, The Creation, The Great Cognito, early music videos: a longform "video" called A Christmas Gift for Paul Stookey of Peter and Mary, Vanz Kant Danz for Creedence Clearwater Revival's John Fogerty. VHS video compilations of these films were released in the 1980s as Festival of Claymation and Son of Combo II. Vinton, no longer performing animation himself produced special effects scenes for TV shows and movies, including a sequence for Bette Midler's Divine Madness! movie, an Emmy-winning sequence for the Moonlighting TV series, the opening and closing title sequences for the feature comedy film Brain Donors, his own feature-length movie, The Adventures of Mark Twain.

His studio's animation effects for Disney's Return to Oz were nominated for a special effects Oscar. Following his work on Return to Oz, Vinton was hired by the Disney studio to produce animation effects for their Michael Jackson Disneyland-Disney World film, Captain EO in 1986 and the Speed Demon music video for Michael Jackson's musical anthology feature-length film, Moonwalker. Prominent among his hundreds of now international commercial creations were the California Raisins, the Domino's Pizza Noid, the M&M's Red, Blue and Crispy characters; the California Raisins' first big hit was the song "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" in the first of their series of TV spots for the California Raisin Advisory Board. They became such a media phenomenon that they went on to star in their own pair of primetime specials for CBS television, Meet the Raisins and The Raisins Sold Out. A couple music albums of songs from the specials, produced by Nu Shooz pop rock band leader John Smith were released. CBS commissioned three more prime-time specials, A Claymation Christmas Celebration, The Claymation Comedy of Horrors, a 1991 Halloween special, A Claymation Easter.

All were released to video and DVD. During the 1990s, the Vinton Studios produced the animated series The PJs for the FOX TV network; the series was executive-produced by Eddie Murphy. Another animated series was produced for the UPN TV network by the Vinton studio and Mike, now a cult favorite. Both series used a refinement in Vinton's style of dimensional animation. Most of the clay figures were replaced by models of moulded foam rubber, eliminating many of the limitations, maintenance issues, that are inherent with clay, developed by Vinton and his technical teams as far as it could go. Vinton soon coined a new term for Foamation. In the 1990s, a variety of V

R (Frack Free Balcombe Residents Association) v West Sussex CC

R v West Sussex CC EWHC 4108 is a UK enterprise law case, concerning oil and gas. It held that advice to a council, granting permission to explore an existing hydrocarbon lateral borehole, was not wrong; the ‘Frack Free Balcombe Residents Association’ applied for judicial review of West Sussex County Council’s decision to give planning permission to Cuadrilla to explore and appraise an existing hydrocarbon lateral borehole for shale gas. The Environment Agency, DECC and HSE had given their authorisations; the FFBRA claimed the council’s planning officer wrongly advised its committee that it should leave pollution control, air emissions and ‘well integrity’ to the EA, HSE, etc. Public Health England and HSE had said a well would be sound Cuadrilla’s past breaches of planning conditions, residents objections and costs of protests were all irrelevant when they were. Gilbart J refused the application; the council was in fact entitled to leave regulatory control to the EA and HSE, in any case there was no evidence that regulatory controls would not be properly applied.

There was no evidence that the planning officer had misled the council committee about PHE’s views on sulphur dioxide emissions into the air, produced by the flare. 81-83. Ample controls existed. 100-104. The FFBRA was attempting to challenge the decision’s merits, not its lawfulness. 109-11. Evidence of past breaches by Cuadrilla were put on noise and traffic routing. 116. The committee was well aware of opposition, there was nothing wrong with the advice of looking at the issues, rather than the number of people raising them. United Kingdom enterprise law Frack Free Balcombe Residents Association